• Home
  • Linda Malcolmson
Linda Malcolmson

Linda Malcolmson
LM FoodTech Solutions

PhD

About

96
Publications
49,318
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
2,420
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 1998 - June 2013
Canadian International Grains Institute
Canadian International Grains Institute
Position
  • Research Director
September 1982 - June 1998
University of Manitoba
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (96)
Article
Full-text available
A controlled fermentation process using straight-grade wheat flour, commercially milled from a grist of Canada Western Red Spring (CWRS) wheat and English wheat, and fresh yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was found to be effective for developing a naturally derived product (ferment) that could be used for processing bread with the minimum use of do...
Article
Understanding the influence of genotype (G) and environment (E) on the compositional, functional and baking properties of pulse flours is important for expanding their use as alternative plant‐based ingredients. The objective of this research was to examine the effects of G, E, and their interaction (GxE) on flour and bread properties of peas (yell...
Article
Yellow pea (Pisumsativum L.) is an economically rich source of nutrients with health-promoting effects. However, the consumption of pea ingredients is minimal due to their off-flavor characteristics. The present study investigated the effect of Revtech heat treatment on the chemical profile and volatile compounds in split yellow pea flour. Revtech...
Article
The need to produce wheat with low asparagine concentration is of great importance as a measure to mitigate acrylamide concentration in wheat-based products. The association of asparagine concentration in Canadian bread wheat with cultivar, growing location, fertilizer and their interaction were investigated. Wheat cultivars (8) were grown in 2 loc...
Article
Background and objectives Pulse flours can impart off‐flavors limiting their use in foods. The objective of this study was to examine the flour and bread making properties of whole and split yellow peas treated with dry and steam heat used as a premilling treatment. Findings Particle size distributions and pasting properties of flours milled from...
Chapter
Sensory evaluation is a scientific discipline that uses humans to measure the acceptability and sensory properties of food and other materials. Sensory properties important in food products include attributes of appearance, odor, flavor, texture, and mouthfeel. The use of humans as measuring devices is necessary because only humans can define what...
Article
Background and objectives Germination of pulse seeds can effectively improve the functional and nutritional properties of resultant flours for broader food applications to deliver multiple health benefits. However, there is a lack of understanding on the performance of germinated pulse flours in bakery goods, particularly in bread. This study aimed...
Article
The effect of storage on flour and baking properties of pulse flours was investigated. Commercially milled whole (yellow pea, navy bean, and chickpea) and dehulled/decorticated (yellow pea, red lentil) flours were stored in a warehouse, heated in the winter months. Flours were evaluated at 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24 months for water absorption capac...
Article
There is global interest in partially replacing wheat flour with pulse flours in foods, including bread, is increasing. However, undesirable flavours associated with pulse flours, especially yellow pea flour, has limited their use in foods. Pre‐treating pulses prior to milling offers a possible solution for improving the flavour of pulse flours. Th...
Article
Although there is growing interest in partially replacing wheat flour with pulse flours in bread, the flavour of pulse flours can limit their use. Heat treating pulse flours, with and without the addition of steam, was examined to determine if the flavour of split yellow pea flour (SYPF) and whole navy bean flour (WNBF) could be improved without al...
Article
There is interest in partially replacing wheat flour with pulse flours in bread. However, flavour of pulse flours may be detrimental to the final product. Processing pulses prior to milling, using micronization and pre‐germination (early seed germination without radicle emergence) was investigated as a way to improve the flavour of yellow pea flour...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of adding fermented split yellow pea flour (SYPF) as a partial replacement for wheat flour in bread was examined. Three sourdough culture levels (3%, 6.5%, and 10%) and two fermentation times (1 and 4 hr) were evaluated. Total titratable acidity of ferment was measured to determine acid development. Bread was baked using three ferment in...
Article
Background and objectives Pulse flours are produced by dry grinding pulses. Currently, no standards exist for the particle size of pulse flours. The objective of this study was to investigate how particle size affected the flour and bread baking properties of commercially milled pulse flours and those produced using a Ferkar mill. Findings Finer p...
Chapter
Pulses are a good source of protein and dietary fiber and are rich in vitamins and minerals. Inclusion of pulses in the diet has been shown to be an effective dietary strategy for reducing risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Although cooked pulses are consumed in many regions of the world, factors including their long cooking time...
Article
In the present study, yellow pea (CDC Amarillo) and faba bean (CDC Snowdrop) seeds were soaked overnight and then germinated in the dark at ambient temperature for 24, 48 and 72 h. During the short-term germination, germination percentages higher than 96.6% were achieved and progressive growth of radicles was observed for both varieties. The soaked...
Article
Full-text available
A study to determine the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score and protein efficiency ratio of nine different cooked Canadian pulse classes was conducted in support of the establishment of protein quality claims in Canada and the United States. Split green and yellow pea, whole green lentil, split red lentil, Kabuli chickpea, navy bean,...
Article
Dietary supplementation with milled flaxseed has provided significant health-related benefits to patients with cardiovascular disease (the FlaxPAD Trial). The purpose of this study was to examine which foods that contained flaxseed were best accepted over the one year duration of daily supplementation. Milled flaxseed (30 g) or a placebo (30 g of m...
Article
Quality characteristics of five different Canadian whole and split yellow pea flours produced using four different grinding systems were analyzed. Batches (250 kg) of whole and split pea flours were ground from a 1 tonne lot of whole or split peas, respectively, using hammer milling, stone milling, pin milling, and roller milling. Pea flour analysi...
Article
Salad dressings supplemented with pulse flours are novel products. A three-factor face-centered central composite design (CCD) was used to determine the effect of pulse flour concentration (3.5%, 7%, 10.5% w/w), egg yolk concentration (3%, 5%, 7% w/w) and oil concentration (20%, 35%, 50% w/w) on the rheological and color characteristics of salad dr...
Article
Barley is an ancient cereal grain with high nutritional value and very specific health benefits. It is a good source of protein, insoluble fiber, vitamins, and minerals and an excellent source of the soluble fiber β-glucan. β-Glucan has been shown to reduce cholesterol, a risk factor for heart disease, and Canada, the United States, and the Europea...
Article
Full-text available
The aroma and flavour properties of cooked field peas (Pisum sativum L.) were evaluated by a trained sensory panel. Two to four cultivars within four market classes of pea (yellow, green, marrowfat and dun) grown in two locations in Saskatchewan over 2 crop years were evaluated. Panelists found the greatest differences in aroma and flavour properti...
Article
Pulse flours and outer pea hull fiber offer nutritional advantages over traditional flours and starches used in extruded products. Pulse flours are high in protein and micronutrients and, depending on whether they are made from whole or split seeds, contain high levels of fiber. The levels of starch present in pulse flours, although lower than thos...
Article
With growing interest in formulating more nutritious ready-to-eat foods, the food industry is looking for alternative ingredients that can deliver enhanced nutrition and functionality. Pulses are high in protein, dietary fiber, minerals, and vitamins and low in fat, making them ideal ingredients for use in baked goods. Partial substitution of pulse...
Article
Full-text available
A method based on compression through a Kramer shear cell was developed for determining the firmness of cooked pulses. Ten laboratories analyzed twenty-six blind duplicates of thirteen different samples in a collaborative study to evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of the method. Statistical analysis of the collaborative data indicated...
Article
To increase pulse consumption, pita bread was fortified with pulse flours milled from green lentils, navy beans and pinto beans, which were ground to produce fine and coarse flours. Pita breads were prepared using composite flours containing pulse flours (25, 50, 75%) and wheat flour or 100% pulse flours and adjusting the amount of water required f...
Article
Red and white wheat comparisons have not always shown consistent flavor differences. The objective was to compare flavor properties of whole wheat pan and pita breads made from white and red Canadian hard spring wheats. Flavor attributes were defined by trained panelists who marked intensities using 15-cm line scales. Pan bread made from BW275 and...
Article
In this study, the volatile flavour profile of 24 pea cultivars were identified using head space solid phase microextraction gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Cultivars from several breeding programs were utilized with the purpose of understanding the genetic diversity of the cultivars in relation to differences in their flavour co...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this chapter is to describe the pulse milling technologies. Milling is the process by which materials are reduced from a larger size to a smaller size. In the case of pulses dehulling or decortication, splitting, and flour milling or grinding, there are several processes that are used for the pulse milling. Milling is the most import...
Article
The impact of storage conditions on volatile flavour profile of field pea cultivars was evaluated. Seeds were kept at 4 °C, room temperature (approximately 22 °C) and 37 °C for 12 months. Headspace solid‐phase microextraction gas chromatography–mass spectrometry was used for extraction and identification of volatile flavour compounds (VFCs). Signif...
Article
Pulses are rich in nutrients. The existence of anti-nutritional components and the length of time required for preparation have, however, limited their frequency of use compared to recommended intake levels. Anti-nutritional components in pulses can be largely removed by heat treatment. Additionally pre-treatment of pulses with heat and processing...
Article
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of cultivar, crop year and processing (dry milling, cooking and dehulling) on volatile flavour compounds of field peas using an optimised headspace-solid phase microextraction gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method. Significant differences in area counts of volatile compounds were observ...
Chapter
Introduction Classification of Noodles Quality Characteristics of Major Noodle Types Sensory Evaluation of Noodle Quality Summary References
Article
Study objectives were to formulate a nutritious acceptable snack bar partially replacing oats with micronized flaked lentils (MFL), and to identify the sensory attributes that contribute to consumer acceptability. Six MFL snack bar formulations exhibiting a wide range of flavor and textural characteristics were developed from a mixture designed exp...
Article
To determine the effects of dietary consumption of milled flaxseed or flaxseed oil on glycemic control, n-3 fatty acid status, anthropometrics, and adipokines in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Thirty-four participants were randomized into a parallel, controlled trial. The participants were adults with type 2 diabetes (age 52.4 +/- 1.5 years, bod...
Article
Milling is an important process in the post-harvest handling of red lentils. The effect of milling moisture content, milling speed and milling time on the dehulling characteristics of two varieties of red lentils, CDC Impact and CDC Redberry, was investigated. Response surface methodology with a central composite design was used to determine optimu...
Article
Full-text available
Dietary flaxseed may have beneficial cardiovascular effects. An aged population has a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease, but they may react differently to flaxseed in the diet. To investigate the response, over a period of 4 weeks, of subjects aged 18-29 or 45-69 years to a diet containing the same amount of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (6 g...
Article
The effect of cooking time on the textural properties of red lentils was determined using an Instron universal testing machine equipped with an Ottawa texture cell. A sigmoid-shaped force–deformation curve was observed for all samples. As cooking time increased, texture changes, in terms of undercooked and optimally cooked, were identified by chang...
Article
Full-text available
Dietary flaxseed may have significant health-related benefits due to its high content of the omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). However, before extensive work can be undertaken in clinical populations to determine its efficacy, basic information on ALA bioavailability from flaxseed and the physiological effects of its ingestion need to...
Article
Laird No. 1 lentils micronized (high-intensity infrared heat) to give internal temperatures of 138 and 170 °C were compared to unprocessed lentils stored at room temperature. Micronized lentils, which had been tempered to 33% moisture for 16 h, required less force to compress after cooking and contained increased levels of gelatinized starch and pe...
Article
Quality characteristics of five pilot-scale milled Canadian hard white spring wheats were compared to a No.1 grade commercial composite Canada Western Red Spring (1CWRS) wheat. One metric ton of samples was milled on the Canadian International Grains Institute pilot Buhler mill (Buhler AG, Uzwil, Switzerland) into straight-grade (SG), 85% and whole...
Chapter
Sensory evaluation is a scientific discipline that uses humans to measure the acceptability and sensory properties of food and other materials. Sensory properties important in food products include attributes of appearance, odor, taste, and texture. The use of humans as measuring devices is necessary because only humans can define what is “acceptab...
Article
Five Canadian oat genotypes were grown at six environments in Manitoba to assess the effects of genotype, environment, and genotype-by-environment interaction on oat starch properties and end-product quality. Genotypic variation was significant for total starch, amylose content, starch swelling volume (SSV), Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA) pasting visco...
Article
A wide range of flours varying in protein content, strength and baking quality were used to investigate the relationship between early-generation screening tests at the Cereal Research Centre, advanced generation testing at the Grain Research Laboratory (GRL) and pilot-scale commercial testing at the Canadian International Grains Institute (CIGI) a...
Article
The relationship between the physicochemical and cooking properties of yellow peas was examined in this study. A positive correlation was found between seed weight and water hydration capacity. The Peleg model, which was modified, could be used to describe the water absorption characteristics of peas and could be used to predict the rate of water a...
Article
Two experiments were run concurrently to determine the effect of fresh forage consumption on the production and proportions of plasma and milk fat vaccenic acid (VA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), and linolenic acid in diary cattle. In experiment 1, the cows consumed 50, 65, and 80% of their feed intake as pasture with the remainder of intake as...
Article
Three advanced hard white spring wheat lines milled on a pilot scale were evaluated for physical, rheological, and end product (pan bread, noodle, and tortilla) quality compared with a Canada western red spring (CWRS) wheat cultivar, AC Barrie. The physical characteristics of the hard white spring wheat lines met the specifications for grade No. 1...
Article
Sensory and instrumental analyses were used to evaluate the texture of regular (10%), light (5%), low fat (2.5%) and fat free vanilla (0.4%) ice creams. The light, low fat and fat free ice cream were prepared using a modified pea starch as the fat replacement ingredient. Two processing trials with continuous commercial-like process conditions were...
Article
The variability in texture for lentils of different size, from different locations and cooked for varying lengths of time was examined in relation to the sample size and the extent to which the sample was compressed during testing. The force to compress the lentils was found to be dependent on all variables examined and also demonstrated significan...
Article
Full-text available
The storage stability of potato chips fried in regular (RCO), hydrogenated (HYCO), low-linolenic (LLCO), and high-oleic (HOCO) canola oils was compared. Potato chips were fried in each oil over a 5-d period for a total of 40 h of frying. Chips from frying day 1 and 5 were packaged and stored at 60°C for 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 d. Lipids were extracte...
Article
ABSTRACT The composition of volatile components in freshly-milled buckwheat flour produced from seed stored under controlled atmospheres (97% N2 1.5% O2 and 1.5% CO2) for 1 year was studied using capillary gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, sniffing port analysis, and sensory evaluation. Twenty-five volatiles were identified from over 100 compo...
Article
Full-text available
The frying performance of low linolenic and high oleic canola oils was compared to regular and hydrogenated canola oils. The antifoaming agent dimethylpolysiloxane (2 ppm) was added to all frying oils. Potato chips were fried in the four oils over a 5-d period for a total of 40 h of frying. Oil samples were collected each day and analyzed for conju...
Book
Full-text available
Two samples of flaxseed, Linott and a mixture of several varieties, were milled and stored at 23±2°C for 128 d in paper bags with plastic liners. Samples were evaluated at 0, 33, 66, 96, and 128 d for chemical, sensory, and volatile indicators of quality. Neither the mixed variety nor Linott samples showed a significant increase in peroxide values...
Article
For many grain and grain legume crops, a pretreatment step is often employed prior to processing to improve the quality of the final product. The pretreatment may be tempering, where a uniform specified moisture content in the grain is desired, or soaking, where moisture content is high and unevenly distributed. This study evaluated the effect of m...
Article
The use of micronization (infrared treatment) on grain legumes tempered with water has potential for reducing cooking times. Using Laird lentils, the effects of tempering conditions and moisture content following micronization were evaluated in terms of color, chemical properties and texture after 15 min cooking. The texture of cooked lentils softe...
Article
A ten-member trained sensory panel evaluated regular (RCO) and low-linolenic (LLCO) canola oils that had been stored at 60°C to four levels of consumer acceptance identified in a prior study. These levels were 70, 60, 50, and 40% acceptance for RCO and 80, 70, 60, and 50% acceptance LLCO. Painty odor intensity increased as consumer acceptance decre...
Article
Ninety-two consumers judged the odour acceptability (yes or no) of regular (12·5% 18:3) and low linolenic acid (2·5% 18:3) canola oils which had been stored at 60°C for 21 and 42 days, respectively. For each storage day an average proportion of acceptance (APA) was calculated. Logistic regression analyses of storage days vs. APA yielded valid relat...
Article
Sensory studies on autoxidation of canola oil, stored under several variations of Schaal Oven test conditions, suggest an induction period of 2–4 d at 60–65°C. Similar induction periods have been observed between canola and sunflower oils, whereas a longer induction period has been found for soybean oil. Canola oil seems to be more stable to storag...
Article
A crude commercial canola oil (Westar) and an oil obtained from a genetically reduced linolenic acid cultivar, were laboratory processed under commercial conditions to finished, deodorized oils. Fatty acid analysis indicated that the linolenic acid content of the low linolenic canola oil (LLCO) was 3.1%, compared to 11.5% for Westar. The LLCO exhib...
Article
Full-text available
Cereal Chem. 70(l): 1-7 Response surface methodology was used to analyze the effects of peak wavelength did not meet all of the criteria of good fit but nevertheless drying temperature and blending of hard red spring farina with durum provided useful information for an initial screening study. Models for semolina on the quality characteristics of s...
Article
Profiles of canned tuna volatiles were obtained using a simple and effective isolation system and high resolution gas chromatography. A high correlation between the volatile profile, chemical groups of components identified and sensory panel scores was obtained. Two models based on chemical groups of components were developed to predict decompositi...