Linda Kalof

Linda Kalof
Michigan State University | MSU · Department of Sociology

PhD

About

47
Publications
38,075
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8,358
Citations
Citations since 2016
4 Research Items
4466 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (47)
Article
Nonhuman animals play significant roles in children’s lives. While research into children’s relationships with animals is thriving, an overlooked area is children’s vicarious experience of animals through realistic representations in nonfiction books, magazines, and other media. We used content analysis to examine how animals were represented on 10...
Article
With growing concern for biodiversity loss, conservationists are faced with increased pressure to depict animals in ways that evoke empathy and lead to conservation. In recent years, conservation photographers have called on scientists to assist them in identifying the best ways to depict animals to elicit an emotional response. Collaborating with...
Article
Since the 1980s, much has been written about the importance of including women in environmental decision making. However, when and how women are included remains an issue. The goal of this article was to explore how the historical exclusion of women from the production of conservation visual narratives continues to have an influence on conservation...
Article
Visual depictions of animals can alter human perceptions of, emotional responses to, and attitudes toward animals. Our study addressed the potential of a slideshow designed to activate emotional responses to animals to foster feelings of kinship with them. The personal meaning map measured changes in perceptions of animals. The participants were 51...
Article
Blood sport-the practice of pitting animals against each other (or against humans) in bloody combat to the death-is a tragic form of human entertainment that has been resilient since antiquity. While animal blood sport is a form of human driven sport related violence that involves the abuse and suffering of other animals (Young 2012), it also provi...
Article
Full-text available
Small, everyday changes in people’s behavior can have significant positive environmental impacts. To this end, the research reported here focused on the role of an asymmetric intervention (a “nudge”) in motivating choices with positive environmental outcomes. The context of this research was motivating proenvironmental food choice in campus dining...
Article
Science has long been recognized as having an important role in generating popular discourses on animals and the natural world, and the paucity of information on how animals are represented in popular science narratives of environmental degradation is striking. Our study begins to fill that gap. We examine representations of animals in articles on...
Article
An elucidating collection of ten original essays, Making Animal Meaning reconceptualizes methods for researching animal histories and rethinks the contingency of the human-animal relationship. The vibrant and diverse field of animal studies is detailed in these interdisciplinary discussions, which include voices from a broad range of scholars and h...
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Full-text available
The attributes of egg production that elicit values-based responses include the price and availability of eggs, environmental impacts, food safety or health concerns, and animal welfare. Different social groups have distinct interests regarding the sustainability of egg production that reflect these diverse values. Current scientifically based know...
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The authors document the changes in visitors' perceptions of animals after viewing an animal portraiture exhibit at the National Museum of Natural History in Paris, France. The exhibit consisted of 29 photographic prints, the participants were 50 visitors, and the instrument used was the Personal Meaning Map. Sixty-six percent of visitors changed,...
Chapter
Full-text available
Among the countless animals throughout history who have been tamed to serve humans, there is only one who serves by choice – the dog (Wilcox & Walkowicz, 1995). Dogs display “an inexhaustible willingness to form and sustain partnerships with humans” (Hart, 1995, p. 167), and they are the only species that assist humans in various social needs as po...
Article
Linda Kalof and Ramona Fruja Amthor, Cultural Representations of Problem Animals in National Geographic The cultural representations of animals and nature are important sources of meaning-making, and nowhere are those representations more pervasive than in National Geographic magazine. We examine the representation of animals as dangerous and threa...
Article
The American diet has changed substantially over the last few decades. These changes provide a test for social theory and have substantial effects on the demand for various food products, thus impacting U.S. agriculture. In this paper a rapidly growing dietary choice—vegetarianism—is explored. Prevalence of various forms of vegetarianism is estimat...
Article
Abstract Kassab (1990) makes an important methodological contribution by urging the use of robust regression methods in the study of community economic impacts and by indicating the utility of the bootstrap in assessing standard errors in robust regression. By introducing the notion of a contaminating distribution, we reconcile differences between...
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More than 100 years after Upton Sinclair denounced the massive slaughterhouse complex in Chicago as a "jungle," qualitative case study research has documented numerous negative effects of slaughterhouses on workers and communities. Of the social problems observed in these communities, the increases in crime have been particularly dramatic. These in...
Article
From the first cave paintings to Britta Jaschinski's provocative animal photography, it seems we have been describing and portraying animals, in some form or another, for as long as we have been human. This book provides a broad historical overview of our representations of animals, from prehistory to postmodernity, and how those representations ha...
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Full-text available
In this essay, we discuss dog fighting as a blood sport with a history embedded in the status-driven display of masculinity, power and violence. Based on published reports and interviews with those living and working in dog fighting neighborhoods, we show that the contemporary cultural knowledge of dog fighting is a discourse with multiple meanings...
Article
The furor and public outrage surrounding the release of a fic-tionalized video in which naked women are hunted down and shot with paintball guns ("Hunting for Bambi") inspired this paper. Arguing that distressing representations of hunting as a sexually charged activity are resilient popular culture images, this paper examines the theoretical frame...
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Photographs of trophy animals in 14 popular hunting magazines were analysed to explore the visual representations of dead animal bodies. We found multifaceted messages about the relationships between humans and other animals grounded in narratives of gender, race and embodiment. The visual representations of dead animal bodies are embedded in the t...
Article
Objective. The social psychological values altruism, self-interest, traditionalism, and openness to change are key correlates of environmental concern and proenvironmental behavior. We investigate the relationship between gender and these values to better understand gender differences in environmentalism. We consider both gender differences in valu...
Article
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Article
A survey of 525 undergraduates found that 40 percent of the women and 28.7 percent of the men had been sexually harassed by a college professor or instructor. Most incidents were gender harassment. While women reported significantly more gender harassment than did men, there were no gender differences in the frequency of unwanted sexual attention o...
Article
This study examined the link between ethnicity, early sexual victimization experiences and college sesual assault in a sample of 383 undergraduate women. One third of the sample (32.9%) had experienced some form of sexual assault during college (22% of whom reported that they had been raped), and 52 percent had experienced unwanted sexual activity...
Article
Two-year panel data on a random sample of 54 college women were used to assess the link between rape supportive attitudes, prior experiences with sexual coercion, and vulnerability to sexual coercion while in college. Analysis showed that (1) rape supportive attitudes had no effect on vulnerability to physical coercion, rape, or alcohol/drug-relate...
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Full-text available
Abstract  This study examines the link between social structural variables (gender, race, education, age, rural childhood), individual social psychology (altruism, self-interest, traditionality, and openness to change), and beliefs about the benefits of vegetarianism (for health, the environment, animals, and world hunger) and self-reported vegetar...
Article
We studied the dominant messages about animals in television commercials and the ways these messages might be subject to alternative readings. Six primary themes captured the portrayal of animals in the advertisements: animals as loved ones (e.g., a member of a family), as symbols (representation of logos or ideas), as tools (using animals for huma...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the influence of gender and exposure to gender-stereo-typed music video imagery on sexual attitudes (adversarial sexual beliefs, acceptance of rape myths, acceptance of interpersonal violence, and gender role stereotyping). A group of 44 U.S. college students were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups that viewed either a video por...
Article
This article explores individuals’judgments about the personality and relationships of “attractive” women. Front facial photographs of models from Cosmopolitan and Playboy were shown to eighty young women and men. Respondents did not know the source of the photographs of the women's faces. After each viewing, respondents were asked to write down th...
Article
We present a theory of the basis of support for a social movement. Three types of support (citizenship actions, policy support and acceptance, and personal-sphere behaviors that accord with movement principles) are empirically distinct from each other and from committed activism. Drawing on theoretical work on values and norm-activation processes,...
Article
Discoveries in environmental science become the raw material for constructing social attitude objects, individual attitudes, and broad public concerns. We explored a model in which individuals construct attitudes to new or emergent attitude objects by referencing personal values and beliefs about the consequences of the objects for their values. We...
Article
This work explores the influence of gender and race on sexual attitudes and on experiences with sexual victimization. Using data on undergraduate college students, the effects of gender and race on five factor scales related to rapesupportive attitudes and sexual victimization are examined. Analysis of variance shows that the influence of gender on...
Article
This study examines the social psychological determinants of adolescent sexual activity. Drawing on power-dependency theory within a social exchange framework, a conceptual model of adolescent sexuality is developed and tested using survey data on 288 teenagers. It is hypothesized that attributes of power (confidence with members of the opposite se...
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Full-text available
This study explored the link between sorority membership and rape-supportive attitudes and sexual victimization experiences. Data from a random sample of primarily white college women indicated that there were statistically significant differences between sorority women and nonsorority women on two of four rape-supportive attitudes (the acceptance...
Article
This work builds on an interactive, interpretive approach to the study of cultural texts in an investigation of how images of gender and sexuality in music television (MTV) are read by the audience. After viewing a music video by Michael Jackson, 80 respondents described the video's portrayal of feminine and masculine images. A content analysis of...
Article
A social-psychological model is developed to examine the proposition that environmentalism represents a new way of thinking. It presumes that action in support of environmental quality may derive from any of three value orientations: egoistic, social-altruistic, or biospheric, and that gender may be implicated in the relation between these orientat...
Article
William Gamson's Strategy of Social Protest is considered to be a major contribution to the social-movement literature, but it has been criticized on methodological and theoretical grounds. The seriousness of the existing criticisms makes it useful to reassess Gamson's Strategy. This article first reviews the critical literature on Strategy and dis...
Article
This article attempts to offer a better understanding of international environmental cooperation by measuring state environmentalism. We examine whether there is a structural response by nation-states to various international agreements on the environment. Using alpha and theta reliability scaling, we create an environmental scale that measures the...
Article
This is a study of attitudes about interpersonal dominance, comparing responses from members of Greek organizations with those of independent college students. Using an interpersonal dominance factor scale developed from nine attitude items, the findings show a substantial difference in dominance attitudes among Greek and non-Greek students. For bo...
Article
This study reconsiders a model of school district effectiveness proposed by Bidwell and Kasarda (1975), including certain criticisms of their design, in an assessment of the determinants of academic achievement Multiple regression and path analysis are used to analyze a 10 variable path model constructed to determine if the Bidwell-Kasarda findings...
Article
Researchers often use ordinary least squares regression (OLS) to analyze cross-national and other macrosocial indicator data. Although OLS is a flexible tool, its value depends on a number of assumptions that may be violated when applied to such data. One of the assumptions, the normality of the distribution of population residuals, is essential to...
Article
Typescript (photocopy). Thesis (M.A.)--George Mason University, 1983. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 98-102).

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