Linda S. Heath

Linda S. Heath
US Forest Service | FS · Washington Office R&D

PhD

About

123
Publications
27,035
Reads
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8,898
Citations
Citations since 2017
2 Research Items
2606 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
Additional affiliations
January 2016 - present
US Forest Service
Position
  • Managing Director
July 2012 - present
USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station
Position
  • Estimating multiple environmental benefits for forests
January 1989 - present

Publications

Publications (123)
Article
Full-text available
United States forestland is an important ecosystem type, land cover, land use, and economic resource that is facing several drivers of change including climatic. Because of its significance, forestland was identified through the National Climate Assessment (NCA) as a key sector and system of concern to be included in a system of climate indicators...
Article
Large‐scale terrestrial carbon estimating studies using methods such as atmospheric inversion, biogeochemical modeling, and field inventories have produced different results. The goal of this study was to integrate fine‐scale processes including land use and land cover change into a large‐scale ecosystem framework. We analyzed the terrestrial carbo...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Human activities have diverse and profound impacts on ecosystem carbon cycles. The Piedmont ecoregion in the eastern United States has undergone significant land use and land cover change in the past few decades. The purpose of this study was to use newly available land use and land cover change data to quantify carbon changes within t...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Third National Climate Assessment (NCA) process for the United States focused in part on developing a system of indicators to communicate key aspects of the physical climate, climate impacts, vulnerabilities, and preparedness to inform decisionmakers and the public. Initially, 13 active teams were formed to recommend indicators in a range of ca...
Article
Full-text available
The Silences of the Archives, the Reknown of the Story. The Martin Guerre affair has been told many times since Jean de Coras and Guillaume Lesueur published their stories in 1561. It is in many ways a perfect intrigue with uncanny resemblance, persuasive deception and a surprizing end when the two Martin stood face to face, memory to memory, befor...
Article
Canada contains 10% of global forests and has been one of the world's largest harvested wood products (HWP) producers. Therefore, Canada's managed forest sector, the managed forest area and HWP, has the potential to significantly increase or reduce atmospheric greenhouse gases. Using the most comprehensive carbon balance analysis to date, this stud...
Article
Forestry practitioners contacted us with their concerns about a recent review article by Buchholz T, Friedland AJ, Hornig CE, Keeton WS, Zanchi G, Nunery J (2013) GCB Bioenergy who questioned the way soil carbon is treated in many models and protocols, and indicated that an increasing number of research studies showed meaningful soil organic carbon...
Article
Historically, tree biomass at large scales has been estimated by applying dimensional analysis techniques and field measurements such as diameter at breast height (dbh) in allometric regression equations. Equations often have been developed using differing methods and applied only to certain species or isolated areas. We previously had compiled and...
Article
Urban and community forests play an important role in the overall carbon budget of the USA. Accurately quantifying carbon sequestration by these forests can provide insight for strategic planning to mitigate greenhouse gas effects on climate change. This study provides a new methodology to estimate net forest carbon sequestration (FCS) in urban and...
Article
Most nations have ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, and are mandated to report National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, including the land use, land use change and forestry sector when it is significant. Participating countries commonly use data from national forest inventories as a basis for their forest-related emiss...
Article
Quantifying forest carbon changes associated with growth and major disturbances is important for management of greenhouse gas emissions related to forests. Regional-level approaches with improved local growth data may refine estimates obtained using coarser resolution information. This study integrates remote-sensing-derived land cover change produ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Conversion of forests to other land cover or land use releases the carbon stored in the forests and reduces carbon sequestration potential of the land. The rate of forest conversion could be reduced by establishing protected areas for biological diversity and other conservation goals. The purpose of this study is to quantify the efficien...
Article
The relative contributions of double counting of carbon emissions between forest-to-nonforest cover change (FNCC) and forest wildfires are an unknown in estimating net forest carbon exchanges at large scales. This study employed land-cover change maps and forest fire data in the four representative states (Arkansas, California, Minnesota, and Washi...
Book
Full-text available
The Global Environment Facility (GEF) provides substantial resources to developing and transition countries to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. One key focus is to promote conservation and enhancement of carbon stocks through sustainable management of land use, land-use change, and forestry—commonly referred to as LULUCF. These GEF interven...
Article
An important consideration in forest management to mitigate climate change is the balance between forest carbon (C) storage and ecological sustainability. We explore the effects of management strategies on tradeoffs between forest C stocks and ecological sustainability under five scenarios, three of which included management and two scenarios which...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Conversion of forests to other land uses or land covers not only releases the carbon stored in the forests, but also reduces carbon uptake. Designating lands as protected areas, which exclude human occupation or exploitation for resources to conserve biological diversity, has been shown to have lower rates of forest co...
Article
We develop an approach for estimating net ecosystem exchange (NEE) using inventory-based information over North America (NA) for a recent 7-year period (ca. 2000 2006). The approach notably retains information on the spatial distribution of NEE, or the vertical exchange between land and atmosphere of all non-fossil fuel sources and sinks of CO, whi...
Article
Forest area determined from remote sensing- derived land cover maps alone at moderate resolution may not appropriately reflect dynamics of housing development in the forested wildland- urban interface (WUI). We conducted a study to quantify how housing development could affect estimates of forest carbon sequestration (FCS) in northern New England,...
Chapter
Full-text available
The evolving use of the United States’ Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data as a basis for forest carbon estimates for broad-scale,policy-related needs from the 1990’s to 2010 is presented. The FIA survey and the improving availability of data are briefly discussed, indirect and direct methods that were used to calculate carbon stock and change...
Article
We examined spatial patterns of changes in forest area and nonsoil carbon (C) dynamics affected by land use/cover change (LUC) and harvests in 24 northern states of the United States using an integrated methodology combining remote sensing and ground inventory data between 1992 and 2001. We used the Retrofit Change Product from the Multi-Resolution...
Article
Although the exact contribution is uncertain, North American (NA) ecosystems are thought to have a significant influence on the global carbon budget by acting as a large sink of atmospheric CO2 in recent decades. Assessments of the continental carbon balance have been based on various scaling approaches, including top-down atmospheric inverse model...
Article
Full-text available
Using forests to mitigate climate change has gained much interest in science and policy discussions. We examine the evidence for carbon benefits, environmental and monetary costs, risks and trade-offs for a variety of activities in three general strategies: (1) land use change to increase forest area (afforestation) and avoid deforestation; (2) car...
Article
Full-text available
One method of increasing forest carbon stocks that is often discussed is increasing stocking levels on existing forested lands. However, estimates of the potential increases in forest carbon sequestration as a result of increased stocking levels are not readily available. Using the USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis data coupled wi...
Article
Full-text available
Land-use change and forestry is the major category featuring carbon sequestration in the annual US Greenhouse Gas Inventory, required by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. We describe the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory and present the sources of our data and methods and the most recent results. Forests and forest products...
Article
Full-text available
We estimated forest area and carbon changes in the conterminous United States using a remote sensing based land cover change map, forest fire data from the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity program, and forest growth and harvest data from the USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis Program. Natural and human-associated disturbances redu...
Article
Full-text available
The fundamental validity of the self-thinning "law" has been debated over the last three decades. A long-standing concern centers on how to objectively select data points for fitting the self-thinning line and the most appropriate regression method for estimating the two coefficients. Using data from an even-aged Pinus strobus L. stand as an exampl...
Article
Full-text available
The U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USFS) manages one-fifth of the area of forestland in the United States. The Forest Service Roadmap for responding to climate change identified assessing and managing carbon stocks and change as a major element of its plan. This study presents methods and results of estimating current forest carbon...
Article
Weighted estimation methods for analysis of mapped plot forest inventory data are discussed. The appropriate weighting scheme can vary depending on the type of analysis and graphical display. Both statistical issues and user expectations need to be considered in these methods. A weighting scheme is proposed that balances statistical considerations...
Article
Full-text available
1] Elevation data acquired from radar interferometry at C‐band from SRTM are used in data fusion techniques to estimate regional scale forest height and aboveground live biomass (AGLB) over the state of Maine. Two fusion techniques have been developed to perform post‐processing and parameter estimations from four data sets: 1 arc sec National Eleva...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Both climate and human disturbances affect forest carbon dynamics but human-introduced disturbances may have greater impact than climate does over shorter time scales (e.g., years, decades). Thus, an integrated analysis including all major components of human-introduced disturbances on forest carbon dynamics are necess...
Article
Forest and harvested wood products (HWP) carbon (C) stocks between 2001 and 2100 for Ontario's managed forests were projected using FORCARB-ON, an adaptation of the U.S. national forest C budget model known as FORCARB2. A fire disturbance module was introduced to FORCARB-ON to simulate the effects of wildfire on C, and some of the model's C pools w...
Article
A greenhouse gas and carbon accounting profile was developed for the U.S. forest products industry value chain for 1990 and 2004-2005 by examining net atmospheric fluxes of CO(2) and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) using a variety of methods and data sources. Major GHG emission sources include direct and indirect (from purchased electricity generatio...
Article
Reviews of each nation's annual greenhouse gas inventory submissions including forestland are part of the ongoing reporting process of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Goals of these reviews include improving quality and consistency within and among reports. One method of facilitating comparisons is the use of a standard i...
Book
Full-text available
Forests play an important role in the U.S. and global carbon cycle, and carbon sequestered by U.S. forest growth and harvested wood products currently offsets 12-19% of U.S. fossil fuel emissions. The cycle of forest growth, death, and regeneration and the use of wood removed from the forest complicate efforts to understand and measure forest carbo...
Article
The North American C sink is generally considered to account for a large, but highly uncertain, portion of the northern extra-tropical land based sink, with estimates ranging from 15% to 100%. This uncertainty is owing to a number of sources, including the limitations of the methodologies used to develop estimates of C stocks and flux, the lack of...
Article
Comprehensive assessment of the North American Carbon budget requires a more precise and spatially resolved distribution of carbon stored in the aboveground live biomass (AGLB) of forests and their productivity or sequestration capacity (AGP). This distribution will improve the large uncertainty in estimates of AGLB in US forests, which currently r...
Article
Estimates of carbon dioxide sources and sinks have been compiled from numerous models and national inventories. Flux estimates include those for cropland, grassland, and forest biomass; cropland and grassland soils; fossil-fuel emissions; emissions from livestock and humans; and movement of carbon into and out of the region. Estimates have been sca...
Article
Full-text available
This study utilizes remote sensing derived forest aboveground biomass (AGB) estimates and ownership information obtained from the Protected Areas Database (PAD), combining landscape analyses and GIS techniques to demonstrate how different ownerships (public, regulated private, and other private) relate to the spatial distribution of AGB in New Engl...
Article
Full-text available
Successful management of carbon dioxide (CO2) requires robust and sustained carbon cycle observations. Yet key elements of a national observation network are lacking or at risk. A U.S. National Research Council review of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program earlier this year highlighted the critical need for a U.S. climate observing system to me...
Article
Full-text available
We quantified the scaling effects on forest area estimates for the conterminous USA using regression analysis and the National Land Cover Dataset 30 m satellite‐derived maps in 2001 and 1992. The original data were aggregated to: (1) broad cover types (forest vs. non‐forest); and (2) coarser resolutions (1 km and 10 km). Standard errors of the mode...
Article
We combined remote sensing derived forest aboveground biomass (AGB) estimation and the Conservation Biology Institute/World Wildlife Fund Protected Area Database using GIS techniques and spatial pattern analysis to illustrate how different conservation status and ownership could affect the landscape dynamics and spatial distributions of AGB in New...
Article
Full-text available
The official U.S. forest carbon inventories (U.S. EPA 2008) have relied on tree biomass estimates that utilize diameter based prediction equations from Jenkins and others (2003), coupled with U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) sample tree measurements and forest area estimates. However, these biomass prediction equations are n...
Article
Full-text available
Maine (ME), New Hampshire (NH), and Vermont (VT) are three of the four most heavily forested states in the United States. In these states, we examined how land- use change, at the Anderson Level I classification, affected regional forest carbon using the 30-m Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium 1992/2001 Retrofit Land Cover Change prod...
Article
Full-text available
Satellite-derived coarse-resolution data are typically used for conducting global analyses. But the forest areas estimated from coarse-resolution maps (e.g., 1 km) inevitably differ from a corresponding fine-resolution map (such as a 30-m map) that would be closer to ground truth. A better understanding of changes in grain size on area estimation w...
Article
Full-text available
A better understanding of scaling-up effects on estimating important landscape characteristics (e.g. forest percentage) is critical for improving ecological applications over large areas. This study illustrated effects of changing grain sizes on regional forest estimates in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan of the USA using 30-m land-cover maps (1...
Article
Concerns over the effect of greenhouse gases and consequent international agreements and regional/national programs have spurred the need for comprehensive assessments of forest ecosystem carbon stocks. Down and dead woody (DDW) materials are a substantial component of forest carbon stocks; however, few surveys of DDW carbon stocks have been conduc...
Article
Full-text available
This analysis quantifies projected carbon (C) storage in harvested wood products (HWP) from Ontario’s Crown forests. The large-scale forest C budget model, FORCARB-ON, was applied to estimate HWP C stock changes using the production approach defined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Harvested wood volume was converted to C mass and...
Article
Full-text available
Humans utilise about 40% of the earth’s net primary production (NPP) but the products of this NPP are often managed by different sectors, with timber and forest products managed by the forestry sector and food and fibre products from croplands and grasslands managed by the agricultural sector. Other significant anthropogenic impacts on the global c...
Article
Full-text available
We combined satellite (Landsat 7 and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) and U.S. Department of Agriculture forest inventory and analysis (FIA) data to estimate forest aboveground biomass (AGB) across New England, USA. This is practical for large-scale carbon studies and may reduce uncertainty of AGB estimates. We estimate that total regional...
Article
Data developed by the Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials were used to estimate savings of greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption associated with use of wood-based building materials in residential construction in the United States. Results indicate that houses with wood-based wall systems require 15–16% less total en...
Chapter
Full-text available
Unless action is taken, the developing world will face recurrent problems of food security and conflict. This volume provides a summary and perspective of the field of land resources and suggests improvements needed to conserve resources for future generations. Coverage provides an authoritative review of the resources of soils, water, climate, for...
Article
While fine resolution land-cover datasets (e.g. 30-m Landsat data) are appropriate and verifiable for local land use planning, coarse land characterization datasets (1-km resolution) are more suitable for large scale ecological analysis. A better understanding of scaling-up effects on estimating some important landscape characteristics (e.g. forest...
Article
Full-text available
We used remote-sensing-driven models to detect land-cover change effects on forest aboveground biomass (AGB) density (Mg.ha(-1), dry weight) and total AGB (Tg) in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan USA, between the years 1992-2001, and conducted an evaluation of the approach. Inputs included remotely-sensed 1992 reflectance data and land-cover map...
Article
Full-text available
We developed matrices representing historical area transitions between forest and other land uses. We projected future transitions on the basis of historical transitions and econometric model results. These matrices were used to drive a model of changes in soil and forest floor carbon stocks. Our model predicted net carbon emission from 1900 until...
Article
Full-text available
This study linked the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer and USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data through empirical models established using high-resolution Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus observations to estimate aboveground biomass (AGB) in three Lake States in the north-central USA. While means obtained from...
Article
Full-text available
Predictions of snag longevity, defined here as the probability of snag survival to a given age, are key to designing silvicultural regimes that ensure their availability for wildlife and form an important component of carbon flow models. Species, diameter at breast height, stand density, management regime, and agent of tree mortality were assessed...
Article
Forest inventory data supplemented with data from intensive research sites and models were used to estimate carbon stocks and sequestration rates in U.S. forests, including effects of land use change. Data on the production of wood products and emission from decomposition were used to estimate carbon stocks and sequestration rates in wood products...
Article
This study linked the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) and USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data through empirical models established using high-resolution Landsat ETM+ observations to estimate aboveground biomass (AGB) in three "Lake" States in the north central USA. While means obtained from larger sample s...
Article
Full-text available
We modeled the effects of afforestation and deforestation on carbon cycling in forest floor and soil from 1900 to 2050 throughout 13 states in the southern United States. The model uses historical data on gross (two-way) transitions between forest, pasture, plowed agriculture, and urban lands along with equations describing changes in carbon over m...
Article
In recent years alternative modeling techniques have been used to account for spatial autocorrelations among data observations. They include linear mixed model (LMM), generalized additive model (GAM), multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network, radial basis function (RBF) neural network, and geographically weighted regression (GWR). Previous studi...
Article
Predictions of snag longevity, defined here as the probability of snag survival to a given age, are key to designing silvicultural regimes that ensure their availability for wildlife and form an important component of carbon flow models. Species, diameter at breast height, stand density, management regime, and agent of tree mortality were assessed...