Linda C Gallo

Linda C Gallo
San Diego State University | SDSU · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

371
Publications
67,126
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10,653
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2004 - present
San Diego State University
Position
  • Institute for Behavioral and Community Health
August 2001 - present
San Diego State University

Publications

Publications (371)
Article
Background: Epigenetic age acceleration (EAA), a measure of accelerated biological aging, has been associated with increased risk of several age-related chronic conditions. This is the first study to prospectively examine the relationship between EAA and both multimorbidity count and a weighted multimorbidity score among long-lived postmenopausal...
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We examined associations of micro-scale environment attributes (e.g., sidewalks, street crossings) with three physical activity (PA) measures among Hispanic/Latino adults (n = 1776) living in San Diego County, CA. Systematic observation was used to quantify micro-scale environment attributes near each participant’s home. Total PA was assessed with...
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Objective: To investigate whether the association of chronic stress with obesity is independent of genetic risk and test whether it varies by the underlying genetic risk. Methods: The analysis included data from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL), a community-based study of Hispanic/Latinos living in four US communit...
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Objective To compare the effectiveness of usual care (UC) versus a culturally tailored integrated care model in improving mental health symptoms for Latino patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods We conducted a two-arm randomized controlled trial from 2015 to 2019 at a federally qualified health center. Participants were 456 adults...
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Adherence to the American Cancer Society’s (ACS) Nutrition and Physical Activity Cancer Prevention guidelines is associated with lower overall cancer risk and mortality among U.S. adults. Prior studies of ACS guideline adherence have relied on self-reported leisure physical activity (PA), which shows low correlations and may inaccurately estimate o...
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Background: Residential segregation has been associated with cancer incidence and mortality. Hispanic/Latinos (HL) experience moderate to high residential segregation. Purpose: This study investigates levels of racial and ethnic residential segregation and racialized economic concentrations at the extremes in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Stu...
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Mobile health delivery of diabetes self-management education and support (DSME/S) can reduce barriers among racial/ethnic minority populations (e.g., Hispanics) , but little is known about how participant characteristics shape adherence and engagement with mHealth interventions. The current study examined this using data from Dulce Digital-Me, a ra...
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Diabetes self-management education and support improves clinical outcomes in populations disproportionately impacted by type 2 diabetes, including ethnic/racial minorities and individuals of low socioeconomic status. Mobile health (mHealth) interventions have been shown to reduce barriers to accessing these services. The Dulce Digital-Me study soug...
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While good cardiometabolic control can reduce complications in type 2 diabetes (T2D) , many individuals do not achieve clinical targets. This real-world trial compared medical assistant health coaching (MAC) to usual care (UC) in improving outcomes among adults with T2D and ≥ 1 of the following in the past 90 days: HbA1c ≥ 8%, LDL ≥ 100 mg/dL, SBP...
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Introduction: Studies suggest bilingualism may delay behavioral manifestations of adverse cognitive aging including Alzheimer's dementia. Methods: Three thousand nine hundred sixty-three participants (unweighted mean population age ≈56 years) at Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos baseline (2008-2011) self-reported their and their p...
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Background: Population-based studies typically rely on self-reported medical diagnosis (SRMD) of mild cognitive impairment (MCI)/dementia; however, links to objective neurocognitive function have not been established. Objective: Examine the association between SRMD of MCI/dementia and objective neurocognitive function among Hispanic/Latino adult...
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OBJECTIVE To examine diabetes incidence in a diverse cohort of U.S. Hispanic/Latinos. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos is a prospective cohort study with participants aged 18–74 years from four U.S. metropolitan areas. Participants were assessed for diabetes at the baseline examination (2008–2011), a...
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Despite experiencing health inequities, less is known about neighborhood environments and physical activity among Hispanic/Latino adults compared to other populations. We investigated this topic in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). Hispanic/Latino adults in the San Diego, California area of the U.S. completed measures...
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Background: Higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity have been associated with a lower risk of diabetes, but less is known about how daily step counts (steps/day) are associated with diabetes risk. Therefore, we examined the association of steps/day and step intensity with incident diabetes. Methods: We included 6634 adults from t...
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Background Identifying Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) phenotypes among middle-aged and older Hispanics/Latinos can facilitate personalized care, better inform treatment decisions, and could lead to improved clinical outcomes. Methods We focused on middle-aged and older adults (ages ≥45–74 years at baseline) with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥5 fro...
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Introduction: This study examines the associations of neighborhood environments with BMI, HbA1c, and diabetes across 6 years in Hispanic/Latino adults. Methods: Participants from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos San Diego site (n=3,851, mean age=39.4 years, 53.3% women, 94.0% Mexican heritage) underwent assessment of metaboli...
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The acculturation gap theory provides a complex illustration of how cultural orientations affect health behaviors among adolescents, by assuming that familial cultural orientation gaps lead to compromised family functioning and children adopting negative health behaviors. This analysis used three methods to conceptualize cultural gaps to examine th...
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OBJECTIVES Hispanic/Latino youth bear a disproportionate burden of food insecurity and poor metabolic outcomes, but research linking the two in this diverse population is lacking. We evaluated whether lower household and child food security (FS) were adversely associated with a metabolic syndrome (MetS) composite variable and clinically measured ca...
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Background: Chronic hypertension during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of adverse birth outcomes. In 2017, the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) lowered thresholds to classify hypertension in non-pregnant adults to SBP ≥ 130 mmHg and DBP ≥ 80 mmHg (ie stage I hypertension), resulting in an additio...
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Background By 2034, the number of US individuals with diabetes is predicted to increase from 23.7 to 44.1 million, and annual diabetes-related spending is expected to grow from $113 to $336 billion. Up to 55% of US Hispanics born in the year 2000 are expected to develop diabetes during their lifetime. Poor healthcare access and cultural barriers pr...
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Introduction: Episodic learning and memory performance are crucial components of cognitive assessment. To meet the needs of a diverse Hispanic/Latino population, we aimed to provide normative data on the Brief Spanish-English Verbal Learning Test (B-SEVLT). Methods: The target population for the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (...
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Introduction: Hispanic/Latinos experience a disproportionate burden of obesity. Acculturation to US obesogenic diet and practices may lead to an exacerbation of innate genetic susceptibility. We examined the role of gene–environment interactions to better characterize the sociocultural environmental determinants and their genome-scale interactions,...
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Objective To examine the association between preconception diet quality, sedentary behavior, and physical activity with gestational weight gain (GWG) among Hispanic/Latina women. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of participants from visits 1 and 2 of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos and singleton pregnancies betwee...
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Psychosocial factors including intrapersonal and interpersonal resources and social stressors are associated with changes in cognition in older non‐Hispanic whites and Blacks. Few studies have examined these associations in Hispanics/Latinos, the largest ethnic/racial group in the US, or evaluated ethnically‐based psychosocial factors that may be m...
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The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) is a representative, community‐based study of Hispanics and Latinos across the US that seeks to understand health disparities within this heterogeneous population. The Study of Latinos ‐ Investigation of Neurocognitive Aging MRI (SOL‐INCA MRI) is an ancillary MRI study to HCHS/SOL focu...
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Background: Hispanics/Latinos in the United States vary widely in their levels of acculturation (adoption of Anglo-American culture) which may have implications for cognitive functioning in older age. We aimed to characterize the relationships of acculturation with cognition and cognitive change among diverse U.S. Hispanics/Latinos. Method: Sele...
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Hispanics/Latinos have high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors which increases risk for stroke. However, the downstream impacts of CVD risk and stroke on brain structure in aging Hispanics/Latinos remains largely unknown. We compared Hispanic/Latino brain aging by CVD risk and stroke. Hispanics/Latinos (nunweighted=1,156, 50‐85...
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The older Hispanic/Latino population in the U.S. is projected to grow faster than any racial/ethnic group in the country. Little is known about brain aging in this population, and we remain poorly equipped to detect and track brain changes in this population. We characterized brain aging in a sample of Hispanics/Latinos from diverse backgrounds and...
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Team-based models that use medical assistants (MAs) to provide self-management support for adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have not been pragmatically tested in diverse samples. This cluster-randomized controlled trial compares MA health coaching with usual care in adults with T2D and poor clinical control (“MAC Trial”). The purpose was to conduc...
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Background United States (US) Hispanic/Latinos experience a disproportionate burden of obesity, which may in part be related to demographic or sociocultural factors, including acculturation to an US diet or inactive lifestyle. Therefore, we sought to describe the association between adulthood weight histories and demographic and sociocultural facto...
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The objective of this study was to determine how well Hispanic/Latino siblings' diet quality correlate with each other and whether social and environmental factors explained potential differences. Hispanic/Latino 8–16-year-olds from the cross-sectional Hispanic Community Children's Health Study/Study of Latino Youth (SOL Youth) with at least one si...
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Neighborhood-level socioeconomic deprivation can increase risk for higher blood pressure or hypertension, while greater neighborhood safety and walkability may protect against hypertension. Large-scale prospective research, particularly among Hispanics/Latinos, is lacking. We examined cross-sectional and prospective associations between neighborhoo...
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Background Diabetes mellitus and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is high in the Hispanic/Latino population in the United States. The associations between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and 100% fruit juice with prediabetes and glucose metabolism markers in the diverse Hispanic/Latino population...
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Background Sleep variability and social jetlag are associated with adverse cardiometabolic outcomes via circadian disruption. Variable eating patterns also lead to circadian disruption, but associations with cardiometabolic health are unknown. Methods and Results Women (n=115, mean age: 33±12 years) completed a 1‐week food record using the Automat...
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Background The Environmental Affordances Model (EAM) proposes that the effects of chronic stress on depression are moderated by unhealthy behaviors and race/ethnicity. The unique social structures and contexts of Hispanics/Latinos in the U.S. may influence such relationships. This study evaluated whether unhealthy behaviors weakened the relationshi...
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Background Studies have reported an association between prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) and risk of diabetes mellitus (DM). However, factors that may explain the association remain unclear. We examined the association of prevalent CVD with incident DM and assessed whether weight gain and medication use may explain the association. Methods D...
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Our objective was to quantify the cross-sectional associations between dietary fatty acid (DFA) patterns and cognitive function among Hispanic/Latino adults. This study included data from 8,942 participants of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, a population-based cohort study (weighted age 56.2 y and proportion female 55.2%). The...
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Objectives Identifying sociocultural correlates of neurocognitive dysfunction among Hispanics/Latinos, and their underlying biological pathways, is crucial for understanding disparities in Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias. We examined cross-sectional associations between stress and neurocognition, and the role that metabolic syndrome (MetS...
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Background Evidence suggests that subjective (perceived) social status (SSS) may predict health outcomes more strongly than objective social status, but little is known about the relationship between SSS and cardiovascular health (CVH). This study focuses on this relationship among diverse Hispanic/Latino adults because while poor CVH profiles are...
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Background Previous diet findings in Hispanics/Latinos rarely reflect differences in commonly consumed and culturally relevant foods across heritage groups and by years lived in the United States. Objectives We aimed to identify and compare a posteriori heritage-specific dietary patterns (DPs) and evaluate their associations with “healthfulness” [...
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Poor sleep and different patterns of marital status among Hispanics/Latinos have been documented, yet the extent to which marital status is associated with sleep health and the moderating role of gender in this association among Hispanics/Latinos is poorly understood. Demographic and sleep data were obtained from the Hispanic Community Health Study...
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Background and Purpose There is limited literature on the prevalence of incidental brain MRI findings in the Hispanic/Latino population, despite their increased prevalence of vascular disease and undertreatment of chronic conditions. The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalence of clinically relevant incidental findings on brain MRI exa...
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Study Objectives Recent work on US Whites from clinical samples used obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) symptoms to generate phenotypes for individuals with moderate-severe OSA which suggested 3 to 5 symptom classes. However, it is unknown whether similar classes generalize to diverse Hispanics/Latino adults. Therefore, we sought to fill this gap by emp...
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Background: The relationships between obesity and cognitive decline in aging are mixed and understudied among Hispanics/Latinos. Objective: To understand associations between central obesity, cognitive aging, and the role of concomitant cardiometabolic abnormalities among Hispanics/Latinos. Methods: Participants included 6,377 diverse Hispanic...
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Socioeconomic factors appear to impact mental health conditions such as depression, but little is known about the relative and combined role of neighborhood and personal socioeconomic deprivation among Hispanics/Latinos. This study examined cross-sectional associations of neighborhood and personal socioeconomic deprivation with depression symptoms...
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We developed and tested a culturally appropriate, team-based, integrated primary care and behavioral health intervention in low income, Spanish-speaking Latinos with type 2 diabetes, at a federally qualified health center. This pragmatic randomized controlled trial included 456 Latino adults, 23–80 years, 63.7% female, with diabetes [recruitment gl...
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Introduction: We aimed to determine whether obesity or metabolic syndrome (MetS) modify associations between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), self-reported sleep duration (SD), and phenotypes of combined SDB/SD with 7-year neurocognitive decline (ND) in a community based-cohort of U.S. Hispanic/Latinos (N = 5500) in different age and sex groups....
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Introduction: Allostatic load (AL), a multi-system measure of physiological dysregulation that represents cumulative wear-and-tear due to chronic stressors, is related to higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Evidence on the association of psychosocial factors with AL is mixed despite accruing research that suggests that psychosocial factors...
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Introduction: Pregnant women with diabetes often show low levels of physical activity (PA) and high sedentary behavior (SED). Longitudinal studies with objective measures are needed to understand the relationships of daily PA with daily and next-day blood glucose (BG). Hypothesis: Increased steps or moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and decreased SED...
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Background Hispanic/Latino sexual and gender minorities (SGM) are the fastest growing ethnic group of SGM in the United States. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among Hispanics/Latinos. SGM inequities in CVD risk have been identified as early as young adulthood, and minority stress has been identified as a...
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Background Subjective social status (SSS) has shown inverse relationships with cardiometabolic risk, but intersectionalities of race/ethnicity and sex may indicate more nuanced relationships. Purpose To investigate associations of SSS with cardiometabolic risk markers by race/ethnicity and sex. Methods Data were from Wave IV (2008) of the Nationa...
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Objective: Neuropsychological instruments are often developed in English and translated to other languages to facilitate the clinical evaluation of diverse populations or to utilize in research environments. However, the psychometric equivalence of these assessments across language must be demonstrated before populations can validly be compared....
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Introduction: Despite increased risk of cognitive decline in Hispanics/Latinos, research on early risk markers of Alzheimer's disease in this group is lacking. Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) may be an early risk marker of pathological aging. We investigated associations of SCD with objective cognition among a diverse sample of Hispanics/Latino...
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Background: Hispanics/Latinos in the United States are more likely to live in neighborhoods with greater exposure to air pollution and are projected to have the largest increase in dementia among race/ethnic minority groups. Objective: We examined the associations of air pollution with performance on cognitive function tests in Hispanic/Latino adul...
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Introduction Evidence regarding the associations between accelerometer-measured moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and cardiovascular health (CVH) indicators among Hispanic/Latino adults are unavailable. Methods Examined cross-sectional data from 12,008 Hispanic/Latino adults aged 18–74 years participating in the Hispanic Community Health...
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Background Hispanic/Latino youth are disproportionately burdened by obesity and have a high prevalence of prediabetes and dyslipidemia. Differences in parent and child acculturation related to language use and preference (i.e., language acculturation) are associated with adverse cardiometabolic health behaviors, but no study has examined associatio...
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Background: Hispanics/Latinos in the United States are more likely to live in neighborhoods with greater exposure to air pollution and are projected to have the largest increase in dementia among race/ethnic minority groups. Objective: We examined the associations of air pollution with performance on cognitive function tests in Hispanic/Latino a...
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Introduction: We determined if actigraphy-derived sleep patterns led to 7-year cognitive decline in middle-aged to older Hispanic/Latino adults. Methods: We examined 1035 adults, 45 to 64 years of age, from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Participants had repeated measures of cognitive function 7 years apart, home sleep apn...
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Background: Total sedentary time and prolonged sedentary patterns can negatively impact health. This study investigated rates of various sedentary pattern variables in Hispanic/Latino youth. Methods: Participants were 956 youths (50.9% female) in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Youth, a population-based cohort study of Hispa...
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Background: Evidence suggests that psychosocial factors are associated with cognitive health in older adults; however, associations of psychosocial factors with cognition remain largely unexamined in middle-aged and older Hispanics/Latinos. Objective: To examine the cross-sectional associations of psychosocial factors with cognitive function amo...
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Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is the experience of cognitive decline not yet apparent through formal neuropsychological testing. SCD is required to meet clinical criteria for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and is a potential early risk marker of neurocognitive changes. Despite increased risk of cognitive decline in US Hispanics/Latinos, SCD r...
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Hispanics/Latinos are the largest ethnic/racial group in the US, have the highest prevalence of diabetes and are at increased risk for neurodegenerative disorders. Additionally, Latinos have the highest prevalence of undiagnosed and untreated diabetes in the United States. Currently, little is known about the relationship between diabetes, cognitiv...
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Hispanics/Latinos are at increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD). Impairments in both cognition and daily functioning are required to meet clinical criteria for ADRD. Poorer cognition and female sex have been associated with greater declines in daily functioning with age. However, predictors of daily functioning among ol...
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Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular health problems significantly increase risk for Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Dementias (ADRDs), and Hispanics/Latinos are arguably at higher risk for ADRDs compared to Whites. Middle‐age may be a crucial time in which cardiovascular health starts to notably impact cognition. Most research supporting connections...
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Aims To determine whether loss of muscle mass (approximated using fat free mass [FFM]) is associated with risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Hispanic/Latino adults in the United States. Methods Participants were Hispanic/Latino adults (18–74-year-olds) who completed Visit 2 of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL...
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Background: Maintaining a bond with one’s family as well coping with stress while acculturating to the US may protect Hispanic/Latino youth from increased sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) consumption, which heightens the risk for overweight and obesity. This study aims to examine associations between acculturative stress, family functioning, and SSB...
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Nightly fasting duration (NFD) and eating timing and frequency may influence cardiometabolic health via their impact on circadian rhythms, which are entrained by food intake, but observational studies are limited. This 1-year prospective study of 116 US women (33 ± 12y, 45% Hispanic) investigated associations of habitual NFD and eating timing and f...
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In the US, nearly 11% of adults were living with diagnosed diabetes in 2017, and significant type 2 diabetes (T2D) disparities are experienced by socioeconomically disadvantaged, racial/ethnic minority populations, including Hispanics. The standard 15-min primary care visit does not allow for the ongoing self-management support that is needed to me...
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Objective/background: Short and long sleep duration, later sleep midpoint, and greater intra-individual sleep variability are associated with lower physical activity, but previous research lacks objective and concurrent assessment of sleep and physical activity. This cross-sectional study examined whether sleep duration, midpoint, and variability...