Linda Ewing-Cobbs

Linda Ewing-Cobbs
University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston · Children's Learning Institute (CLI)

About

171
Publications
27,202
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9,855
Citations
Citations since 2017
42 Research Items
3461 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600

Publications

Publications (171)
Article
Objective: The investigators examined the factors predictive of novel oppositional defiant disorder in the 6-12 months following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: Children ages 5-14 years old who experienced a TBI were recruited from consecutive admissions to five hospitals. Participants were evaluated soon after injury (baseline) for prein...
Article
Full-text available
Plasticity is often implicated as a reparative mechanism when addressing structural and functional brain development in young children following traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, conventional imaging methods may not capture the complexities of post-trauma development. The present study examined the cingulum bundles and perforant pathways using...
Article
Children who experience a traumatic brain injury (TBI) are at elevated risk for a range of negative cognitive and neuropsychological outcomes. Identifying which children are at greatest risk for negative outcomes can be difficult due to the heterogeneity of TBI. To address this barrier, the current study applied a novel method of characterizing bra...
Article
Objective: The investigators aimed to assess predictive factors of novel oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) among children and adolescents in the first 6 months following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: Children ages 5-14 years who experienced a TBI were recruited from consecutive admissions to five hospitals. Testing of a biopsychosocia...
Article
Children who experience a traumatic brain injury (TBI) are at elevated risk for a range of negative cognitive and neuropsychological outcomes. Identifying which children are at greatest risk for negative outcomes can be difficult due to the heterogeneity of TBI. To address this barrier, the current study applied a novel method of characterizing bra...
Chapter
The Pediatric Collections: Sports Medicine Playbook will increase pediatric providers’ understanding of the injuries that young athletes may incur – including their history, treatment, and prevention. Each section includes a unique expert introduction and they cover such topics as the benefits of physical activity, injuries, and concerns including...
Article
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Objective: To model pre-injury child and family factors associated with the trajectory of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems across the first 3 years in children with pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) relative to children with orthopedic injuries (OI). Parent-reported emotional symptoms and conduct problems were expected to have...
Article
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Objective Our study addressed aims: (1) test the hypothesis that moderate-severe TBI in pediatric patients is associated with widespread white matter (WM) disruption; (2) test the hypothesis that age and sex impact WM organization after injury; and (3) examine associations between WM organization and neurobehavioral outcomes. Methods Data from ten...
Article
Following pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI), post-concussion symptoms (PCS) and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) occur commonly; however, it is unknown to what degree they overlap. The study examined PCS and PTSS persisting 7 weeks after injury in children and adolescents ages 8-15 years with TBI (N=89) or extracranial injury (EI; N=40) a...
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Importance: Executive functions are critical for school and social success. Although these functions are adversely affected by pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI), recovery patterns are not well established. Objective: To examine 3-year trajectories of selected children's executive functions after TBI. Design, setting, and participants: Thi...
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In this paper we propose BVAR-connect, a variational inference approach to a Bayesian multi-subject vector autoregressive (VAR) model for inference on effective brain connectivity based on resting-state functional MRI data. The modeling framework uses a Bayesian variable selection approach that flexibly integrates multi-modal data, in particular st...
Article
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) produces microstructural damage to white matter pathways connecting neural structures in pre-frontal and striatal regions involved in self-regulation (SR). Dorsal and ventral frontostriatal pathways have been linked to cognitive ("cool") and emotional ("hot") SR, respectively. We evaluated the relation of frontostriatal...
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Mediation analysis was used to investigate the role of white matter integrity in the relationship between injury severity and verbal memory performance in participants with chronic pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). DTI tractography was used to measure fractional anisotropy (FA) within the corpus callosum, fornix, cingulum bundles, perforant p...
Preprint
Full-text available
Annually, approximately 3 million children around the world experience traumatic brain injuries (TBIs), of which up to 20% are characterized as moderate to severe (msTBI) and/or have abnormal imaging findings. Affected children are vulnerable to long-term cognitive and behavioral dysfunction, as injury can disrupt or alter ongoing brain maturation....
Preprint
In this paper we propose BVAR-connect, a variational inference approach to a Bayesian multi-subject vector autoregressive (VAR) model for inference on effective brain connectivity based on resting-state functional MRI data. The modeling framework uses a Bayesian variable selection approach that flexibly integrates multi-modal data, in particular st...
Article
This study investigated patterns of cortical organization in adolescents who had sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI) during early childhood to determine ways in which early head injury may alter typical brain development. Increased gyrification in other patient populations is associated with polymicrogyria and aberrant development, but this ha...
Article
Background: Childhood severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of long-lasting acquired disability, but little is known about functional outcome. Objective: We aimed to 1) study clinical recovery and functional outcome over 24 months after severe childhood TBI, 2) identify early sociodemographic and severity factors influencing outcom...
Article
Heterogeneity of injury severity among children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) classified by the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) makes comparisons across research cohorts, enrollment in clinical trials, and clinical predictions of outcomes difficult. The present study uses latent class analysis (LCA) to distinguish severity subgroups from a prospective...
Article
Objectives: To determine the effect of bovine lactoferrin on prevention of late-onset sepsis (LOS) and neurodevelopment delay. Study design: Randomized, double-blind, controlled trial in neonates with a birth weight of 500-2000 g in 3 neonatal units in Lima, Peru, comparing bovine lactoferrin 200 mg/kg/day with placebo administered for 8 weeks....
Article
Purpose: To assess the Pediatric Intensity Level of Therapy (PILOT) score alone and in combination with Emergency Department (ED) GCS and Rotterdam score of initial head CT to predict functional outcomes in children with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: Children (n=108) aged 31months-15years with moderate to severe TBI were prospectively e...
Article
BACKGROUND: We enrolled patients in a prospective study in which we obtained estimates of the direct and indirect burden for families of children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) relative to a control group of families of children with orthopedic injury (OI). METHODS: Parents were surveyed at 3 time points following injury: 3, 6, and 12 month...
Article
Pre-frontal limbic circuitry is vulnerable to effects of stress and injury. We examined microstructure of pre-frontal limbic circuitry after traumatic brain injury (TBI) or extracranial injury (EI) and its relation to post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Participants aged 8 to 15 years who sustained mild to severe TBI (n = 53) or EI (n = 26) in m...
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Objective To evaluate brai structural connectivity in children with traumatic injury (TI) following a motor vehicle accident using graph theory analysis of DTI tractography data. Methods DTI scans were acquired on a 3 T Philips scanner from children aged 8–15 years approximately 2 months post-injury. The TI group consisted of children with traumat...
Article
: media-1vid110.1542/5828371885001PEDS-VA_2018-0939Video Abstract OBJECTIVES: We examined whether preinjury, demographic, and family factors influenced vulnerability to postconcussion symptoms (PCSs) persisting the year after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Methods: Children with mTBI (n = 119), complicated mild traumatic brain injury (cmTBI)...
Article
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IMPORTANCE Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), or concussion, in children is a rapidly growing public health concern because epidemiologic data indicate a marked increase in the number of emergency department visits for mTBI over the past decade. However, no evidence-based clinical guidelines have been developed to date for diagnosing and managing...
Article
Full-text available
Importance Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), or concussion, in children is a rapidly growing public health concern because epidemiologic data indicate a marked increase in the number of emergency department visits for mTBI over the past decade. However, no evidence-based clinical guidelines have been developed to date for diagnosing and managing...
Article
Children under 4 years of age have the highest incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among the non-elderly and may be at high risk of poor developmental outcomes. We prospectively enrolled a cohort of children injured before 31 months old with TBI or orthopaedic injury (OI), from 2013 to 2015 at two pediatric level 1 trauma centers to study ver...
Article
Objective: This prospective longitudinal study investigated sleep disturbance (SD) and internalizing problems after traumatic injury, including traumatic brain injury (TBI) or extracranial/bodily injury (EI) in children and adolescents, relative to typically developing (TD) children. We also examined longitudinal relations between SD and internaliz...
Article
Time since traumatic brain injury (TBI) and developmental stage at injury may affect the trajectory of outcomes associated with adjustment and school success. We prospectively enrolled a cohort of 519 children with either TBI or orthopedic injury (OI) aged 2.5 - 15 years to examine children's psychosocial and executive function outcomes at 3 and 12...
Article
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Abstract Introduction: Previous research indicates disruption of learning and memory in children who have experienced traumatic brain injury (TBI). Objective: This research evaluates the impact of pediatric TBI on volumetric differences along the long axis of the hippocampus, a region of the brain that is critical for explicit memory. Methods: Stru...
Article
Injury is the leading cause of death and disability in childhood. Injured children are at high risk for developing alterations in stress response systems and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) that may compromise long-term physical and psychological health. In a prospective, observational cohort study, we examined individual differences in, and...
Article
In a prospective longitudinal study, the trajectory of verbal and visual-spatial working memory (WM) development was examined 2-, 6-, 12-, and 24-months following complicated-mild to severe pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI; n = 55) relative to an orthopedic injury comparison group (n = 47). Individual growth curve modeling revealed an interact...
Article
Objective: This trial compared attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment alone, intensive reading intervention alone, and their combination for children with ADHD and word reading difficulties and disabilities (RD). Method: Children (n = 216; predominantly African American males) in Grades 2-5 with ADHD and word reading/decoding...
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Background: Numerous pre-clinical studies using bone marrow derived cells for the treatment of traumatic brain injury and stroke have demonstrated efficacy in terms of blood-brain barrier preservation, neurogenesis, and other functional outcomes. Phase 1 clinical trials using bone marrow mononuclear cells infused intravenously in children with sev...
Article
Primary objective: The long-term effects of TBI on verbal fluency and related structures, as well as the relation between cognition and structural integrity, were evaluated. It was hypothesized that the group with TBI would evidence poorer performance on cognitive measures and a decrease in structural integrity. Research design: Between a paediatri...
Article
Following pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI), longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging may characterize alterations in initial recovery and subsequent trajectory of white matter development. Our primary aim examined effects of age at injury and time since injury on pathway microstructure in children ages 6-15 scanned 3 and 24 months after TBI. Mic...
Article
Objective: To better understand the impact of age at injury, severity of injury, and time since injury on long-term school outcomes of children with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants: Four groups of children: complicated mild/moderate TBI (n = 23), severe TBI (n = 56), orthopedic injury (n = 35), and healthy controls (n = 42). Children...
Article
The objective of this prospective longitudinal study was to assess the nature, rate, predictive variables, and neuroimaging characteristics of novel (new-onset) anxiety disorders (compared with no novel anxiety disorders) 6-12 months after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). Psychiatric and psychosocial interviews were administered to children...
Article
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Pediatric traumatic brain injury often results in significant long-term deficits in mastery of reading ability. This study aimed to identify white matter pathways that, when damaged, predicted reading deficits in children. Based on the dual-route model of word reading, we predicted that integrity of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus would be...
Article
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Processing speed (PS) and working memory (WM), core abilities that support learning, are vulnerable to disruption following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Developmental increases in WM are related to age-related changes in PS. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether WM deficits in children with TBI are mediated by PS. The performance of...
Article
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Personality change due to traumatic brain injury (PC) in children is an important psychiatric complication of injury and is a form of severe affective dysregulation. This study aimed to examine neurocognitive correlates of PC. The sample included 177 children 5-14 years old with traumatic brain injury who were enrolled from consecutive admissions t...
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The present study compared executive dysfunction among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) after traumatic brain injury (TBI), also called secondary ADHD (S-ADHD), pre-injury ADHD and children with TBI only (i.e., no ADHD). Youth aged 6-16 years admitted for TBI to five trauma centers were enrolled (n=177) and evaluated wi...
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To establish reliability and validity of the Pediatric Injury Functional Outcome Scale (PIFOS), a brief injury-specific rating scale covering motor, self-care, communication, social-emotional, cognition, physical, and academic areas. In a prospective longitudinal study, the PIFOS structured interview was administered to parents of children 3-15 yea...
Chapter
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of disability in children. This chapter addresses the unique challenges facing children with TBI. Outcome, assessment, and intervention issues are discussed in relation to injuries sustained during two stages of development: (1) infancy and early childhood and (2) school-age and adolescence. Two cases...
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The objective of this study was to understand how novel psychiatric disorders (NPD) in children with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) are related to pre-injury variables, injury-related variables, and concurrent neurocognitive outcome. A group of 79 children, ages 5 to 14 years, who had experienced MTBI, were studied from consecutive hospital adm...
Article
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The objective was to assess the nature, rate, predictive factors, and neurocognitive correlates of novel psychiatric disorders (NPD) after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Children age 5–14 years with MTBI (N=87) from consecutive admissions to five trauma centers were enrolled and studied with semistructured psychiatric interviews soon after inj...
Article
Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS) or duplication 17p11.2 syndrome is a newly characterized condition causing a variety of health problems with variable severity, including failure to thrive in infancy and childhood, hypotonia, structural heart anomalies, cognitive impairments, speech and learning difficulties, and autism. Due to its recent clinical ch...
Article
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Deficits in working memory are a common consequence of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI), and are believed to contribute to difficulties in a range of cognitive and academic domains. Reduced integrity of the corpus callosum (CC) following TBI may disrupt connectivity between bilateral frontoparietal neural networks underlying working memory. I...
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Core social interaction behaviors were examined in young children 0-36 months of age who were hospitalized for accidental (n = 61) or inflicted (n = 64) traumatic brain injury (TBI) in comparison to typically developing children (n = 60). Responding to and initiating gaze and joint attention (JA) were evaluated during a semi-structured sequence of...
Article
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Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) show deficient response inhibition. ADHD itself is a common consequence of TBI, known as secondary ADHD (S-ADHD). Similarity in inhibitory control in children with TBI, S-ADHD, and ADHD would implicate impaired frontal-striatal systems; however, it is fir...
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This study compared mathematical outcomes in children with predominantly moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI; n = 50) or orthopedic injury (OI; n=47) at 2 and 24 months post-injury. Working memory and its contribution to math outcomes at 24 months post-injury was also examined. Participants were administered an experimental cognitive add...
Article
Cognitive assessments and behavioral ratings of attention were used to examine the relation of inattention to math performance in children. Third grade students with math difficulties (MD; n = 17) and math and reading difficulties (MDRD; n = 35) were administered the Attentional Network Test (ANT), as well as achievement and intelligence measures....
Article
The present study evaluated the stability of math learning difficulties over a 2-year period and investigated several factors that might influence this stability (categorical vs. continuous change, liberal vs. conservative cut point, broad vs. specific math assessment); the prediction of math performance over time and by performance level was also...
Article
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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and orthopedic injury (OI) patients are prone to anxiety and mood disorders. In the present study, we integrated anatomical and diffusion tensor neuroimaging to investigate structural properties of the amygdala and hippocampus, gray matter regions implicated in anxiety and mood disorders. Children and adolescents were e...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) on verbal and visual-spatial working memory (WM). WM tasks examined memory span through recall of the last item of a series of stimuli. Additionally, both verbal and visual-spatial tests had a dual-task condition assessing the effect of increasing dem...
Article
The objective was to assess the nature, rate, predictive factors, and neuroimaging correlates of novel (new-onset) depressive disorders, both definite and subclinical, after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Children with TBI from consecutive admissions were enrolled and studied with psychiatric interviews soon after injury (baseline), and again 6 mont...
Article
Full-text available
The human brain thalami play essential roles in integrating cognitive, sensory, and motor functions. In multiple sclerosis (MS), quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) measurements of the thalami provide important biomarkers of disease progression, but late development and aging confound the interpretation of data collected from patients ov...
Article
The purpose of the present investigation was to characterize the relations of specific social communication behaviors, including joint attention, gestures, and verbalization, with surface area of midsagittal corpus callosum (CC) subregions in children who sustained traumatic brain injury (TBI) before 7 years of age. Participants sustained mild (n=1...
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This article addresses the need for age-relevant outcome measures for traumatic brain injury (TBI) research and summarizes the recommendations by the inter-agency Pediatric TBI Outcomes Workgroup. The Pediatric Workgroup's recommendations address primary clinical research objectives including characterizing course of recovery from TBI, prediction o...
Article
Behavioral dysregulation is a common and detrimental consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children that contributes to poor academic achievement and deficits in social development. Unfortunately, behavioral dysregulation is difficult to predict from either injury severity or early neuropsychological evaluation. The uncinate fasciculus (UF...
Article
Full-text available
Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children is associated with substantial long-term morbidity and mortality. Currently, there are no successful neuroprotective/neuroreparative treatments for TBI. Numerous preclinical studies suggest that bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMMNCs), their derivative cells (marrow stromal cells), or similar c...