Linda Darling-Hammond

Linda Darling-Hammond
Stanford University | SU · Graduate School of Education

Ed.D.

About

338
Publications
429,676
Reads
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41,609
Citations
Citations since 2016
41 Research Items
20557 Citations
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Additional affiliations
September 1998 - present
Stanford University
Position
  • Charles E. Ducommun Professor of Education
September 1989 - August 1998
Teachers College, Columbia University
Position
  • William F. Russell Professor of Education

Publications

Publications (338)
Article
Full-text available
Scholars and educators have long considered how schools can foster deep learning that supports the academic success and holistic development of all students. Yet, with the grammar of schooling that governs U.S. schools, educators often encounter institutional, political, and normative barriers that stifle efforts to redesign school environments, ma...
Article
Linda Darling-Hammond concludes the Kappan series on the future of education with a review of why the education system is fraught with inequities. She then recommends a series of policies that could bring about lasting change. These include creating organizational structures in which all communities can thrive, ensuring that every school provides a...
Article
Definitions of teaching quality differ across jurisdictions and have evolved over time. Drawing on a study of five high-achieving countries with strong supports for teachers’ professional learning and practice, this article describes the perspectives on good teaching rooted in standards for entry, preparation, and practice. These nations increasing...
Article
With the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic, even greater efforts are needed to address students’ academic and social emotional needs, all the while making up for learning loss and preparing for the unpredictable combinations of distance learning, blended learning, and in-classroom learning. These expectations, along with the need for greater emphasis...
Research
As the United States considers reopening schools after the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, policymakers and administrators need to consider how to reopen in a way that keeps students and staff safe. This brief provides insight into health and safety guidelines and social distancing strategies used in other countries that have successfully reop...
Research
California is in the midst of a severe special education teacher shortage that threatens the state's ability to improve outcomes for students with disabilities, who often have the greatest needs but receive the least expert teachers. To help policymakers address the shortage, the Learning Policy Institute conducted an analysis of the special educat...
Research
California is in the midst of a severe special education teacher shortage that threatens the state’s ability to improve outcomes for students with disabilities, who often have the greatest needs but receive the least expert teachers. To help policymakers address the shortage, the Learning Policy Institute conducted an analysis of the special educat...
Article
What constitutes accountability in teacher education? This article reviews research on elements of teacher preparation program quality and argues that professional standards can leverage greater quality if they are incorporated into professional policies governing accreditation and licensure that encourage schools of education to adopt the practice...
Article
This article takes a careful look at political and policy tools that presidential administrations have at their disposal for ameliorating educational inequalities. These tools, the authors suggest, include issuing federal guidance that informs and supports states and districts as they work to implement policies and practices that comply with federa...
Article
Full-text available
New advances in neurobiology are revealing that brain development and the learning it enables are directly dependent on social-emotional experience. Growing bodies of research reveal the importance of socially triggered epigenetic contributions to brain development and brain network configuration, with implications for social-emotional functioning,...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to summarize the key findings from a critical review of relevant US research to determine whether teachers, on average, improve in their effectiveness as they gain experience in the teaching profession. Design/methodology/approach This paper is based on the authors’ review of 30 studies published since 2003 tha...
Article
Full-text available
Addressing teacher turnover is critical to stemming the country's continuing teacher shortages. It is also important for school effectiveness, as the academic and financial costs of teacher turnover to student learning and district budgets are significant. Using the most recent nationally representative data from the National Center for Education S...
Article
Full-text available
Teacher shortages have recurred in the United States over many decades. This article introduces a special issue of EPAA that seeks to better understand the factors that contribute to the insufficient supply and inequitable distribution of qualified teachers, as well as the recurrences of teacher shortages. Together, the six articles in this issue h...
Article
Full-text available
A highly competent teacher workforce is a necessary foundation for improving children’s educational outcomes, especially for those who rely most on schools for their success. Yet in the United States, shortages in the teaching force have been growing across the country, reaching crisis proportions in some teaching fields— such as mathematics, scien...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reviews the sources of and potential solutions to teacher shortages in the United States. It describes the sources of current and projected increases in teacher demand relative to enrollments, shifts in pupil-teacher ratios, and attrition. It places these in relation to recent declines in teacher supply and evaluates evidence of shortage...
Article
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This article draws out the implications for school and classroom practices of an emerging consensus about the science of learning and development, outlined in a recent synthesis of the research. Situating the review in a developmental systems framework, we synthesize evidence from the learning sciences and several branches of educational research r...
Article
This article compares the impact of recent educational reforms on school outcomes in several countries around the world. It argues that educational reforms based on conceptions of equity and capacity-building focusing on high-quality teaching and learning systems and access to good instruction for all students have proved to be more successful than...
Chapter
Full-text available
This study uses the most recent national data from the National Center for Education Statistics, Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), 2011–2012 and Teacher Follow-up Survey (TFS), 2012–2013 to investigate attrition trends among Black teachers, and Black female teachers in particular, to inform a qualitative analysis of proposed and adopted teacher r...
Article
Fear and bigotry have spread through schools on the heels of a presidential campaign that promoted divisiveness grounded in racism and discrimination. This article describes the need for and a path toward explicit anti-racist teaching and anti-racist action to counteract this surge of hate speech. In addition, to create a more equitable and just ed...
Article
To ensure that schools enjoy a steady supply of competent and committed teachers, federal, state, and local policymakers should look to the extensive research literature in this area, focusing on five strategies in particular: strengthening teacher preparation, improving hiring practices, increasing compensation, providing support for new teachers,...
Article
Teacher residency programs (modeled after the clinical residency model in medical training) show great promise in helping local school systems build a highly capable and diverse teaching workforce. Jointly run by districts and nearby universities, these programs recruit teaching candidates, pair them with carefully selected mentor teachers, and giv...
Chapter
United States (US) education has been in a state of “reform” since a National Commission on Educational Excellence issued its report, A Nation at Risk, in 1983. President Obama has set a new goal of leading the world in the proportion of college graduates by 2020. Goal setting is not magic: In 1989, then-President Bush and the nation's governors se...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This paper examines the options available to states to redefine their accountability systems as they begin to implement the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA). The new law provides the possibility that states can create more balanced systems of support and accountability focused on educating young people so they can become productive, engaged citize...
Article
Using five AERA presidential addresses over the past half century as landmarks, this essay traces the evolution of research on teaching and teacher education as well as some critical impacts the research has had on policy and practice related to teacher education and teacher evaluation in the United States. The discussion shows how these addresses...
Book
A forward-thinking look at performance assessment in the 21st century Next Generation Assessment: Moving Beyond the Bubble Test to Support 21st Century Learning provides needed answers to the nation's growing concerns about educational testing in America. Drawing on research and the experiences of leading states and countries, this new book examine...
Chapter
Full-text available
Teachers' capacity to teach for deeper learning is strengthened through the process of planning for curriculum and assessments, scoring student work, and reflecting collectively on how to improve instruction. A system of assessments is necessary to capture the wide range of skills that students must master to be successful in postsecondary school a...
Book
Performance assessment is a hot topic in school systems, and educators continue to analyze its costs, benefits, and feasibility as a replacement for high-stakes testing. Until now, researchers and policymakers have had to dig to find out what we know and what we still have to learn about performance assessment. Beyond the Bubble Test: How Performan...
Chapter
maller countries often have a system of national standards that are sometimes accompanied by national tests in the upper grades. Larger nations-such as Canada, Australia, and China-have state- or provincial-level standards, and their assessment systems are typically a blend of state and local assessments. This chapter examines the assessment system...
Chapter
The United States has an opportunity to create a new generation of assessments that build on No Child Left Behind Act's (NCLB) strengths, including its commitment to accountability for the education of traditionally underserved groups of students. New assessments rely more heavily on the tasks requiring students to craft their own responses to comp...
Chapter
This chapter presents recent data and analysis that illustrate how higher-quality assessments can become affordable. The United States is poised to take a major step in the direction of curriculum and assessments for deeper learning with the adoption of the Common Core State Standards in more than forty states. Policymakers would like to know wheth...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the policy environments influencing the adoption of 21st century skills in general and the results and products of the ATC21STM project in terms of its research and assessment strategies in particular (The acronym ATC21STM has been globally trademarked. For purposes of simplicity the acronym is presented throughout the chapt...
Chapter
Schools must teach disciplinary knowledge in ways that also help students learn how to learn, so that they can use their knowledge in new situations and manage the demands of changing information, technologies, jobs, and social conditions. In addition to the new Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in English language arts and mathematics, a consorti...
Chapter
Using more comparable, contemporary data from a carefully grounded study by the Assessment Solutions Group (ASG) demonstrates that it is possible to construct affordable, large-scale assessment systems that include a significant number of constructed-response items, reliably scored classroom-based performance tasks, and traditional multiple-choice...
Chapter
There are some legitimate questions and concerns about performance assessments. Under the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) program, many states had difficulty receiving approval from the federal Department of Education for performance elements of their systems. Research in the United States and others suggests that performance assessments can play an im...
Chapter
Performance assessments have been an integral part of educational systems in most high-achieving countries and some states in the United States. Evidence suggests that the nature and format of assessments affect the depth of knowledge and types of skills developed by students and that performance assessments are better suited to assessing high-leve...
Chapter
For many people, performance assessment is most easily defined by what it is not: specifically, it is not multiple-choice testing. Performance events can take several forms, including requests that can be answered by what are called constructed-response items-those that require students to create a response-within a relatively short time in a tradi...
Chapter
There is no shortage of creative ideas for assessing learning and performance in authentic ways. The challenge has been developing and maintaining such assessments at scale in ways that consistently set expectations and provide incentives for deeper learning. Fortunately, there is much to learn about large-scale performance assessment from state sy...
Chapter
This chapter presents a number of important Common Core standards that cannot be directly measured by consortia assessments. A system of assessment may include large-scale assessments that offer information to policymakers along with much richer school or classroom assessments that offer more detailed information to guide teachers as they develop c...
Article
In this interview, Linda Darling-Hammond describes the optimal way in which professional learning can be developed and implemented for teachers and school leaders. She emphasizes that teachers need to collaborate within a school and also have the opportunity to be part of a community with other schools. She explains that schools that are most succe...
Article
Full-text available
A despeito das persistentes críticas à formação docente, o peso de evidências substanciais indica que professores mais preparados para ensinar são mais bem-sucedidos e confiantes com os alunos do que aqueles que estudaram pouco ou quase nada para se tornarem professores. Dados recentes também indicam que as reformas na formação docente, que criaram...
Article
Full-text available
This special issue furthers the conversation begun in the August 2014 of edition of Education Policy Analysis Archives in the article Accountability for College and Career Readiness: Developing a New Paradigm by Linda Darling-Hammond, Gene Wilhoit, and Linda Pittenger. That paper posits that as schools across the country take on the challenge of pr...
Article
Full-text available
This special issue furthers the conversation begun in the August 2014 of edition of Education Policy Analysis Archives in the article Accountability for College and Career Readiness: Developing a New Paradigm by Linda Darling-Hammond, Gene Wilhoit, and Linda Pittenger. That paper posits that as schools across the country take on the challenge of pr...
Article
Full-text available
This special issue furthers the conversation begun in the August 2014 of edition of Education Policy Analysis Archives in the article Accountability for College and Career Readiness: Developing a New Paradigm by Linda Darling-Hammond, Gene Wilhoit and Linda Pittenger. That paper posits that as schools across the country take on the challenge of pre...
Article
Full-text available
The number one quality business leaders look for in employees is creativity and yet the U.S. education system undermines the development of the higher-order skills that promote creativity by its dogged focus on multiple-choice tests. Stephan Turnipseed and Linda Darling- Hammond discuss the kind of rich accountability system that will help students...
Article
Full-text available
Efforts to improve teacher education have recently focused in on the importance of well-supervised clinical practice as a critical element of effective preparation. This article outlines the challenges to creating productive clinical experiences for prospective teachers, and identifies strategies that have been found successful in confronting these...
Article
Full-text available
As schools across the country prepare for new standards under the Common Core, states are moving toward creating more aligned systems of assessment and accountability. This paper recommends an accountability approach that focuses on meaningful learning, enabled by professionally skilled and committed educators, and supported by adequate and appropr...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter describes how teacher learning through involvement with student performance assessments has been accomplished around the world, particularly in countries that have been recognized for their high-performing educational systems. It discusses how teachers' engagement with performance assessments influences their understanding of the stand...
Article
Closing the achievement gap has become an American mantra over the last decade, as federal and state policies have sought to reduce unequal educational outcomes largely by setting targets and sanctions based on student test scores. And while some progress has been made since 1990, gaps in achievement between affluent and low-income students in the...
Article
Full-text available
The Performance Assessment for California Teachers (PACT) is an authentic tool for evaluating prospective teachers by examining their abilities to plan, teach, assess, and reflect on instruction in actual classroom practice. The PACT seeks both to measure and develop teacher effectiveness, and this study of its predictive and consequential validity...
Chapter
The experience of [high-performing] school systems suggests that three things matter most: 1) getting the right people to become teachers; 2) developing them into effective instructors and; 3) ensuring that the system is able to deliver the best possible instruction for every child. (Barber & Mourshed, 2007)
Technical Report
Full-text available
Based on the changing demands of today’s workforce, advances in other nations, and original analysis, this report provides a set of criteria for high-quality student assessments. These criteria can be used by assessment developers, policymakers, and educators as they work to create and adopt assessments that promote deeper learning of 21stcentury s...
Article
A quality system of teacher evaluation would be built on high-quality preparation and evaluated authentically through performance assessments that develop and measure beginning teacher effectiveness.
Book
When newly liberated African American slaves attempted to enter the marketplace and exercise their rights as citizens of the United States in 1865, few, if any, Americans expected that, a century and a half later, the class divide between black and white Americans would be as wide as it is today. The United States has faced several potential key tu...
Article
Full-text available
Recent policy interest in tying student learning to teacher evaluation has led to growing use of value-added methods for assessing student learning gains linked to individual teachers. VAM analyses rely on complex assumptions about the roles of schools, multiple teachers, student aptitudes and efforts, homes and families in producing measured stude...
Article
Full-text available
The inequitable distribution of well-qualified teachers to students in the United States is a longstanding issue. Despite federal mandates under the No Child Left Behind Act and the use of a range of incentives to attract teachers to high-need schools, the problem remains acute in many states. This study examines how and why teacher quality is ineq...
Article
Full-text available
There is a growing consensus that evidence of teachers' contributions to student learning should be a component of teacher evaluation systems, along with evidence about the quality of teachers' practice. Value-added models (VAMs), designed to evaluate student test score gains from one year to the next are often promoted as tools to accomplish this...
Article
Preparing Principals for a Changing World provides a hands-on resource for creating and implementing effective policies and programs for developing expert school leaders. Written by acclaimed author and educator Linda Darling-Hammond and experts Debra Meyerson, Michelle LaPointe, and Margaret Terry Orr, this important book examines the characterist...
Chapter
Program Sample SelectionProgram Contexts and DesignsCommon Components of Exemplary Programs
Chapter
Program ChampionsPartnershipsFinancial SupportsImplications of Program Support Strategies
Chapter
Summary of FindingsImplications for ProgramsImplications for Policymakers
Chapter
Learning Opportunities for PrincipalsA Landscape of State Leadership Development PoliciesPolicy Contributions to Exemplary Programs
Chapter
A Comprehensive Approach to Developing Practice in PracticeA Learning ContinuumCollegial Learning NetworksLooking Across Programs
Chapter
Pre-Service Graduates' Views of Their ProgramsPrincipals' Beliefs and PracticesIn-Service Leadership Development ProgramsProgram Principals in ActionLooking Across Programs
Chapter
The Study: ContextEight Exemplary ProgramsThe Dilemma: Issues in Leadership DevelopmentConceptual Framework: What Makes an Effective School Leader
Article
Full-text available
This article describes teacher education in jurisdictions around the world that have well-developed systems for teacher development. It examines teacher education policies and practices in Australia (with a focus on Victoria and New South Wales), Canada (with a focus on Alberta and Ontario), Finland and Singapore within the context of recruitment,...
Chapter
Full-text available
Many nations around the world have undertaken wide-ranging reforms of curriculum, instruction, and assessment with the intention of better preparing all children for the higher educational demands of life and work in the twenty-first century. While large-scale testing systems in some countries emphasize multiple-choice items that evaluate recall an...
Article
Full-text available
This March 2011 article is a reprint of the original April 1995 (V76N8) article and includes a new one-page introduction (on page 67 of this issue) by one of the authors. The policy problem for professional development in this era of reform extends beyond mere support for teachers' acquisition of new skills or knowledge-professional development tod...
Article
Now more than ever, high-quality education for all is a public good that is essential for the good of the public. As the fate of individuals and nations is increasingly interdependent, the quest for access to an equitable, empowering education for all people has become a critical issue for the American nation as a whole. No society can thrive in a...
Article
Full-text available
The issue of teacher effectiveness has risen rapidly to the top of the education policy agenda, and the federal government and states are considering bold steps to improve teacher and leader effectiveness. One place to look for ideas is the experiences of high-performing education systems around the world. Finland, Ontario, and Singapore all have w...

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