Linda Chang

Linda Chang
University of Hawai'i System · Department of Medicine, John A. Burns School of Medicine

M.D., M.S.

About

355
Publications
43,306
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
21,821
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2017 - present
University of Maryland, Baltimore, School of Medicine
Position
  • Chair
July 2017 - present
Johns Hopkins Medicine
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
July 2017 - present
University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (355)
Article
Full-text available
The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD)SM study aims to retain a demographically diverse sample of youth and one parent across 21 sites throughout its 10-year protocol while minimizing selective (systematic) attrition. To evaluate the effectiveness of these efforts, the ABCD Retention Workgroup (RW) has employed a data-driven approach to...
Article
Full-text available
Background Adaptive computerized working memory (WM) training has shown favorable effects on cerebral cortical thickness as compared to non-adaptive training in healthy individuals. However, knowledge of WM training-related morphological changes in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is limited. Objective The primary objective of this double-blind ran...
Article
Background Mechanisms linking a pro-inflammatory diet to obesity remain under investigation. The ability of diet to influence the gut microbiome (GM) in creating chronic low-grade systemic inflammation provides a plausible connection to adiposity. Methods: In the cross-sectional Multiethnic Cohort Adiposity Phenotype Study (812 men, 843 women, 60...
Article
Full-text available
Background Racial/ethnic disparities in health reflect a combination of genetic and environmental causes, and DNA methylation may be an important mediator. We compared in an exploratory manner the blood DNA methylome of Japanese Americans (JPA) versus European Americans (EUA). Methods Genome-wide buffy coat DNA methylation was profiled among healt...
Article
Full-text available
Physical health in childhood is crucial for neurobiological as well as overall development, and can shape long-term outcomes into adulthood. The landmark, longitudinal Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development StudySM (ABCD study®), was designed to investigate brain development and health in almost 12,000 youth who were recruited when they were 9–10 y...
Article
Background Diet plays a key role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Limited data exist regarding specific nutrients and food groups and liver fat continuously, particularly among different ethnicities. Objectives We aimed to determine the relationship between usual dietary intake and accurately measured liver fat content in a...
Article
Full-text available
Several studies have found associations between higher pancreatic fat content and adverse health outcomes, such as diabetes and the metabolic syndrome, but investigations into the genetic contributions to pancreatic fat are limited. This genome-wide association study, comprised of 804 participants with MRI-assessed pancreatic fat measurements, was...
Article
Purpose: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) may be more important than subcutaneous fat in type 2 diabetes (T2D) etiology. We examined a VAT score developed in reference to MRI measurement of VAT in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) as a risk factor for incident T2D. Methods: Two nested case-control studies of cancer allowed calculation of the VAT score b...
Preprint
Full-text available
Physical health in childhood is crucial for neurobiological as well as overall development, and can shape long-term outcomes into adulthood. The landmark, longitudinal Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study SM (ABCD study®), was designed to investigate brain development and health in almost 12,000 youth who were recruited when they were 9-10...
Article
Objectives To assess, in a large multiethnic cross-sectional study, associations between the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®) and total adiposity and ectopic fat, and whether these associations are mediated by gut microbiota (GM). Methods Analyses used data from 1,655 participants (812 men, 843 women, 60–77 y) in the Adiposity Phenotype Study. At...
Article
Full-text available
A full list of affiliations appears at the end of the paper. T he ABCD Study ® aims to characterize adolescent development and evaluate many influences that might shape developmental trajectories. While numerous factors are plausibly associated with neurodevelopment (for example, nutrition, sleep, exercise, head injuries and substance use), we have...
Article
Objective: To determine if visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area measured through MRI can be used opportunistically to assess the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors and compare its performance to simpler adiposity measures. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was carried out on a subset of 1683 participants (856 women) from the Adiposity Phen...
Preprint
Full-text available
Several studies have found associations between higher pancreatic fat content and adverse health outcomes, such as diabetes and the metabolic syndrome, but investigations into the genetic contributions to pancreatic fat are limited. This genome-wide association study, comprised of 804 participants with MRI-assessed pancreatic fat measurements, was...
Article
Importance Incidental findings (IFs) are unexpected abnormalities discovered during imaging and can range from normal anatomic variants to findings requiring urgent medical intervention. In the case of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), reliable data about the prevalence and significance of IFs in the general population are limited, making it...
Article
Full-text available
Aim To examine individual variability between perceived physical features and hormones of pubertal maturation in 9–10-year-old children as a function of sociodemographic characteristics. Methods Cross-sectional metrics of puberty were utilized from the baseline assessment of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study—a multi-site samp...
Article
Full-text available
Working memory training (WMT) effects may be modulated by mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subtypes, and variations in APOE-epsilon (APOE-ε) and LMX1A genotypes. Sixty-one individuals (41 men/20 women, mean age 66 years) diagnosed with MCI (31 amnestic/30 non-amnestic) and genotyped for APOE-ε and LMX1A completed 4 weeks/20–25 sessions of WMT. Cogni...
Article
The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has many important roles in neurogenesis and neuronal health. BDNF is also involved in learning and memory. Individuals with BDNF-Val66Met variant (Met +) are at higher risk for neuropsychiatric disorders and have smaller hippocampi and amgydalae compared to those without this variant (Met −). Whether th...
Article
Full-text available
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a risk factor for liver cancer and prevalence varies by ethnicity. Along with genetic and lifestyle factors, the gut microbiome (GM) may contribute to NAFLD and its progression to advanced liver disease. Our cross-sectional analysis assessed the association of the GM with hepatic adiposity among African A...
Article
Full-text available
As dietary intake and endocrine metabolism are vastly different by sex, we evaluated differences in the association of diet quality with body composition between men and women. Close to 2000 participants from the Multiethnic Cohort completed calibrated quantitative food frequency questionnaires at cohort entry (1993–96) and clinic visit (2013–16),...
Article
Full-text available
The global rise in fatty liver is a major public health problem. Thus, it is critical to identify both global and population‐specific genetic variants associated with liver fat. We conducted a genome‐wide association study (GWAS) of percent liver fat and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) assessed by magnetic resonance imaging in 1,709 partic...
Conference Paper
Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is thought to be the main driver for the recent rise of chronic liver disease and liver cancer. NAFLD is also associated with other obesity-related metabolic diseases. Relative fat deposition in the liver varies by race/ethnicity and may partially account for liver cancer disparities. Thus, we ai...
Article
Background: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) may play a greater role than subcutaneous fat in increasing cancer risk but is poorly estimated in epidemiologic studies. Methods: We developed a VAT prediction score by regression equations averaged across 100 LASSO models in a cross-sectional study of 1,801 older adults in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC)....
Article
Background: As the stronger association of obesity with postmenopausal breast cancer in Asian than white women may be due to body fat distribution, we examined the relation of adiposity measures with percent mammographic density (PMD), a strong predictor of breast cancer incidence. Methods: A total of 938 women from five ethnic groups (69.1±2.7...
Article
Full-text available
The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study is an ongoing, nationwide study of the effects of environmental influences on behavioral and brain development in adolescents. The main objective of the study is to recruit and assess over eleven thousand 9-10-year-olds and follow them over the course of 10 years to characterize normative brai...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Intra-abdominal adiposity in the viscera and liver, compared to total adiposity, carries a higher metabolic risk, and it varies substantially by sex and race. We examined the association of neurometabolites and cognitive function with visceral obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in multiethnic older adults. Methods:...
Article
Structure‐by‐structure analysis, in which the brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is parcellated based on its anatomical units, is widely used to investigate chronological changes in morphology or signal intensity during normal development, as well as to identify the alterations seen in various diseases or conditions. The multi‐atlas label fusio...
Article
Full-text available
Objective We investigated if a 5-week computerized adaptive working memory training program (Cogmed®) of 20 to 25 sessions would be effective in improving the working memory capacity and other neuropsychological functions compared to a non-adaptive working memory training program (active-controlled) in adult patients with mild cognitive impairment...
Article
Full-text available
This special issue contains 11 papers, including 3 Invited Reviews, one Brief Report and 6 Original Articles, which highlight the work by selected presenters at the third meeting of the biennial Conference Series to Promote Global Health held on August 15–17, 2017 in Los Angeles University City, California, USA. The Conference Series is sponsored b...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study is an ongoing, nationwide study of the effects of environmental influences on behavioral and brain development in adolescents. The ABCD Study is a collaborative effort, including a Coordinating Center, 21 data acquisition sites across the United States, and a Data Analysis and Informatics Cent...
Article
Full-text available
Background & aims: We compared fat storage in the abdominal region among individuals from 5 different ethnic-racial groups to determine whether fat storage is associated with disparities observed in metabolic syndrome and other obesity-associated diseases. Methods: We collected data from 1794 participants in the Multiethnic Cohort Study (60-77 y...
Article
Full-text available
In this cross-sectional study, we sought to describe cognitive and neuroimaging profiles of Memory clinic patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). 51 MCI patients and 51 controls, matched on age, sex, and socio-economic status (SES), were assessed with an extensive neuropsychological test battery that included a measure of intelligence (Gener...
Article
Full-text available
Excess body fat, especially intra-abdominal fat, is a leading risk factor for metabolic diseases. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of two imprinted genes, insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and H19, have been associated with obesity due to their important roles in regulating body composition, but have not been examined in relation to intra...
Article
Full-text available
Pain remains highly prevalent in HIV-seropositive (HIV+) patients despite their well-suppressed viremia with combined antiretroviral therapy. Investigating brain abnormalities within the pain matrix, and in relation to pain symptoms, in HIV+ participants may provide objective biomarkers and insights regarding their pain symptoms. We used Patient-Re...
Article
Full-text available
Marijuana (MJ) use is associated with cognitive deficits. Both mitochondrial (mt) dysfunction and gut dysbiosis also affect cognition. We examined whether cognition is related to peripheral blood mononuclear cells’ (PBMCs) mt function and fecal microbiota in chronic MJ users. Nineteen chronic MJ users and 20 non-users were evaluated using the Cogni...
Chapter
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enters the brain early after infecting humans and may remain in the central nervous system despite successful antiretroviral treatment. Many neuroimaging techniques were used to study HIV+ patients with or without opportunistic infections. These techniques assessed abnormalities in brain structures (using computed...
Article
Methods: Twenty subjects were recruited from a Neurological Intensive Care Unit, and compared to 18 healthy control subjects. MRI scanning was performed on a 3.0 T Siemens TIM Trio Scanner including T1- and T2-weighted sequences and DTI. Images were processed using DTIStudio software. SAS was used for statistical analysis of group differences in 1...
Article
The Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study incorporates a comprehensive range of measures assessing predictors and outcomes related to both mental and physical health across childhood and adolescence. The workgroup developed a battery that would assess a comprehensive range of domains that address study aims while minimizing partic...
Article
Full-text available
Retention efforts are critical to maintain relationships with research participants over time. This is especially important for the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study, where families are asked to stay engaged with the study throughout the course of 10 years. This high-degree of involvement is essential to longitudinally track child...
Preprint
Full-text available
Brain genetics is an active research area. The degree to which genetic variants impact variations in brain structure and function remains largely unknown. We examined the heritability of regional brain volumes (p ~ 100) captured by single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in UK Biobank (n ~ 9000). We found that regional brain volumes are highly herit...
Article
Full-text available
HIV-infected individuals (HIV+) has 2–3 times the rate of tobacco smoking than the general population, and whether smoking may lead to greater psychiatric symptoms or cognitive deficits remains unclear. We evaluated the independent and combined effects of being HIV+ and chronic tobacco-smoking on impulsivity, psychopathological symptoms and cogniti...
Article
Objective: The relationship of diet quality assessed by established indices (HEI-2010, AHEI-2010, aMED, DASH) with adiposity measures was examined, especially visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL). Methods: Close to 2,000 participants of the Multiethnic Cohort completed validated food frequency questionnaires at cohor...
Article
Full-text available
The 2017 CALDAR Summer Institute on Longituidnal Research and International Conference Series to Promote Global Health will take place in Los Angeles Universal City, CA, USA from August 15 to August 17, 2017. The conference will present a selection of the lastest and most current reseach in the areas of addiction, HIV, and related treatment.
Article
Full-text available
The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Mapping the Critical Gestational Age at Birth that Alters Brain Development in Preterm-born Infants using Multi-Modal MRI” (Wu D, Chang L, Akazawa K, Oishi K, Skranes J, Ernst T, Oishi K) [1]. Brain immaturity at birth poses critical neurological risks in the preterm-b...
Article
Full-text available
Glycogen storage disease type-IV has varied clinical presentations and subtypes. We evaluated a 38-year-old man with memory complaints, common symptoms in adult polyglucosan body disease subtype, and investigated cognitive and functional MRI changes associated with two 25-sessions of adaptive working memory training. He showed improved trained and...
Article
Full-text available
Preterm birth adversely affects postnatal brain development. In order to investigate the critical gestational age at birth (GAB) that alters the developmental trajectory of gray and white matter structures in the brain, we investigated diffusion tensor and quantitative T2 mapping data in 43 term-born and 43 preterm-born infants. A novel multivariat...
Article
Full-text available
Methamphetamine (METH) is an addictive stimulant, and METH users have abnormal brain structures and function. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationships between impulsivity, brain structures, and possible sex-specific differences between METH users and non-drug using Controls. Structural MRI and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BI...
Article
Importance: Methamphetamine is a common illicit drug used worldwide. Methamphetamine and/or tobacco use by pregnant women remains prevalent. However, little is known about the effect of comorbid methamphetamine and tobacco use on human fetal brain development. Objective: To investigate whether microstructural brain abnormalities reported in chil...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an adaptive-working memory training (WMT) program, the corresponding neural correlates, and LMX1A-rs4657412 polymorphism on the adaptive-WMT, in HIV-participants compared to seronegative controls (SN). Methods: 201/206 qualified participants completed baseline assessments before randomization...
Article
Full-text available
This special issue contains 20 papers including 3 Perspectives, 1 Brief Report, 6 Invited Reviews, and 10 Original Articles, which highlight the work by presenters at the second meeting of the biennial Conference Series to Promote Global Health held on April 22–24, 2015 in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. These papers focused on the prevalent substance m...
Article
Full-text available
HIV-infection is associated with neuroinflammation and greater psychopathological symptoms, which may be mediated by imbalances in the kynurenic pathway (KP). Two key KP enzymes that catabolize kynurenine include kynurenine-aminotransferase II (KATII), which yields antioxidative kynurenine acid [KYNA] in astrocytes, and kynurenine-3-monooxygenase (...
Article
Full-text available
Methamphetamine (Meth) use disorder continues to be highly prevalent worldwide. Meth users have higher impulsivity and brain abnormalities that may be different between current and past Meth users. The current study assessed impulsivity and depressive symptoms in 94 participants (27 current Meth users, 32 past Meth users and 35 non-drug user contro...