Linda Candy

Linda Candy
ArtworksrActive · Consultancy

BA MPhil PhD

About

145
Publications
108,581
Reads
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2,436
Citations
Introduction
I am a writer and researcher with a passion for creative practice in art and technology. After many years of academic research, I now work freelance and am co-director of ArtworksrActive (ArA) My research focuses on creative practice in art, design, science and technology. My book ‘The Creative Reflective Practitioner’ is published by Routledge: https://www.routledge.com/The-Creative-Reflective-Practitioner-Research-Through-Making-and-Practice/Candy/p/book/9781315208060
Additional affiliations
January 2003 - March 2021
University of Technology Sydney
Position
  • Professor
September 1988 - March 2003
Loughborough University
Position
  • Senior Researcher

Publications

Publications (145)
Article
Full-text available
Abstract. This chapter is about the different kinds of relationships that creative practi-tioners have with digital technologies in the making of artworks. Four types of creative process are described in which the role of the digital is differentiated as tool, medium, mediator and partner. In many cases, the digital technology performs more than on...
Chapter
This chapter is about the different kinds of relationships that creative practitioners have with digital technologies in the making of artworks. Four types of creative process are described in which the role of the digital is differentiated as tool, medium, mediator and partner. In many cases, the digital technology performs more than one role: pra...
Book
Full-text available
The Creative Reflective Practitioner explores research and practice through the eyes of people with a wholehearted commitment to creative work. It reveals what it means to be a reflective creative practitioner, whether working alone, in collaboration with others, with digital technology or doing research, and what we can learn from listening and ob...
Book
This edition revises the first edition of 2002. It adds 15 contributions from artists who shed new light on the progress made in the early decades of the 21st Century. Explorations in Art and Technology is about the creative process in action, seen through the eyes of practitioners and researchers. It brings together artists, technologists and rese...
Article
Full-text available
This article explores the subject of practice-based research, its application in the creative arts and its role in generating new forms of knowledge in the context of the PhD. Our aim is to provide more clarity about the nature of practice-based research, the approach we advocate and how it contributes to new knowledge that can be shared and scruti...
Article
Full-text available
This article is a companion to Practice-Based Research in the Creative Arts: Foundations and Futures from the Front Line. It begins with a discussion of the regulatory codes of practice that influence the nature of research and PhD submissions. Drawing on research into the experiences of practice-based PhD researchers working in the creative arts a...
Chapter
This article explores the nature of art-technology collaboration by comparing two projects conducted 15 years apart. The study data consisted of the records of conversations and interviews with the technologists in the team as well as the comments and documented reflections of the artist herself. Observations about the nature of successful art-tech...
Chapter
This chapter explores the nature of collaboration in inter-disciplinary art and technology projects. It draws upon the COSTART project described in Chapter ‘A Million Millennial Medicis’. Other inter-disciplinary initiatives took place outside the academic context. For example, in 1996 the Wellcome Trust U.K. launched the ‘SciArt’ funding programme...
Chapter
This chapter discusses a practice based action research approach to the study of art and technology. Such research seeks to find an understanding of the creative process drawing on knowledge from other fields. We consider ways in which creative practice can be studied based upon methodologies from the social sciences and the Human Computer Interact...
Chapter
To be able to push the boundaries of digital art forms, it is often necessary to do the same for the technology. Systematic approaches that bring together the various disciplines, practices and resource suppliers are required. This implies creating environments in which digital artwork can be developed. But what kind of environment is appropriate f...
Chapter
The technologies that have been most important to artists in recent times have mostly been digital. Art using digital technology was first shown in exhibitions of computer art in 1965, both in Germany and in the USA. One of the artists who showed in that year was Frieder Nake. In 1966, Billy Kluver founded Experiments in Art and Technology, E.A.T.,...
Conference Paper
At CHI2014 our two day workshop "Curating the Digital: Space for Art and Interaction", led to a set of recommendations to the SIGCHI Executive for future two day workshops at CHI2015 and CHI2016, in which interactive artworks would be the focus of presentation and discussion. The Executive and the chairs of the upcoming conferences accepted these r...
Article
Full-text available
This paper is about theory in practice and practice in theory and how, by understanding how each can alter the other, we can learn to advance both. Theory and practice operate together in creative practice but often the role of theory is perceived as quite separate. The case presented here for treating theory and practice as reflexive activities ar...
Book
The use of interactive technology in the arts has changed the audience from viewer to participant and in doing so is transforming the nature of experience. From visual and sound art to performance and gaming, the boundaries of what is possible for creation, curating, production and distribution are continually extending. As a consequence, we need t...
Article
Over the last three years the Digital Arts community of CHI has established itself and is a Spotlight for CHI2014. The focus for CHI2014 is the development of a Catalog for the Digital Arts that we hope will lead on to an Art Gallery as a future CHI conference event. This SIG will be preceded by a workshop "Curating the Digital" that will have as i...
Article
Full-text available
This workshop intends to use the key strength of the CHI Community; research linked to practice, to design an Art Catalog for CHI. The workshop will start with an examination of current research in curating interactive art. The outcomes of the first phase of the workshop will then feed into Design Charrette exercises that will involve prototyping a...
Chapter
Art in the early twenty-first century is increasingly an interactive experience that is shared with others and in public. The use of digital technology in the arts has been used to transform the viewer into a participant and is similarly starting to transform our expectations of the experience of art. From visual and sound art to performance and ga...
Chapter
This chapter is about evaluation in the creation and experience of interactive art and its implications for practitioner research methodologies. Central to the need for evaluation is the transformative nature of experience in art and the way that the advent of interactivity in the digital age has changed the audience from viewer to a new kind of pa...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter is concerned with evaluation in public art, drawing on a study of Light Logic, an exhibition of drawings, paintings and interactive digital works, conducted by Site Gallery, Sheffield in association with UK and Australian researchers. Evaluating public art requires methods that suit the needs of practitioners undertaking novel types of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The paper explores ideas about evaluation in creativity and in particular, how it contributes to creativity in the context of interactive arts practice. Evaluation is a central activity in creativity, one that involves assessing progress, exercising judgments and sometimes changing direction both during and after the process of making an artwork. T...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper discusses evaluation in the context of public art and specifically of interactive digital art. The study reported is of 'Light Logic', an exhibition of retrospective and current drawings, paintings and interactive digital works by the second author. The study was conducted by Site Gallery Sheffield in association with UK and Australian r...
Chapter
This chapter explores the concept of evaluation and its potential ­contribution to creativity. The particular focus is on evaluation within those areas of creative practice where the interaction between human beings and digital systems is a central goal. A multi-dimensional model of creativity is introduced that provides a holistic framework for ev...
Conference Paper
In this SIG for the Digital Arts Community, we respond to the conference theme of changing perspectives by offering challenging perspectives. The challenge comes in a two-way exchange between Digital Art and HCI. On the one side we have the making of new and unique forms, i.e. synthesis. Whilst on the other, we have knowledge-making grounded in the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Creativity refers to the human processes that underpin sublime forms of expression and fuel innovation. Creativity support environments (CSEs) address diverse areas, such as education, science, business, disaster response, design, art, performance, and everyday life. A CSE may consist of a desktop application, or use specialized hardware, networked...
Conference Paper
Emergence has the potential to effect complex, creative or open-ended interactions and novel game-play. We report on research into an emergent interactive system. This investigates emergent user behaviors and experience through the creation and evaluation of an interactive system. The system is +-NOW, an augmented reality, tangible, interactive art...
Article
This SIG examines the vexed question of evaluation of Digital Art and how lessons on evaluation can be exchanged between the arts and mainstream HCI. We start by looking at critiques of standard approaches to evaluation in HCI. We then look at approaches, which have been developed in Digital Art to merge qualitative and quantitative methods. These...
Article
The establishment of a Digital Arts Featured Community at CHI 2012 indicates the general acceptance of mutually beneficial synergies between digital arts and HCI. At this juncture, the Digital Arts Community has an opportunity to build upon this established community platform to begin articulating lines of research. This SIG initiates this essentia...
Conference Paper
Emergence has the potential to effect complex, creative or open-ended interactions and novel game-play. We report on research into an emergent interactive system. This investigates emergent user behaviors and experience through the creation and evaluation of an interactive system. The system is +-NOW, an augmented reality, tangible, interactive art...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter explores some of the ways in which research and practice is being undertaken in the emerging field of the interactive arts. The chapter begins by providing a frame of reference for practice-based research including variations in scope on the basis of the role of the artefact. This kind of distinction, whilst useful, is not, however, ce...
Book
This book is about interaction in art and the research being done by creative practitioners to make novel and exciting ways of experiencing art a reality. Their ideas and experiences are exemplified here through the artworks they create, curate and evaluate. The practitioners who have contributed chapters are artists, musicians, designers, software...
Article
Full-text available
The authors have developed a model of practice-based research from observations and studies of practitioners undertaking PhDs. The domain of the particular PhDs is digital art and specifically, interactive art. Trajectories of research and practice have been identified that have common elements but are driven by different practitioner goals and pre...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter is concerned with the role of the artefact in practice- based research and the frameworks necessary to the success of practitioner research in the creative arts. We begin with the artefact and its role in research and knowledge creation and go on to place it within the context of practitioner and organizational frameworks. We describe...
Preprint
Full-text available
This article is a summary report of a study of creative practitioners undergoing PhD research in three Australian universities in 2008-2009. The study investigated how creative practitioners experienced a form of doctoral research that we now know as Practice-Based Research. The intention was to provide a basis for defining the characteristics of r...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of this tutorial is two fold: first, to provide an understanding of the nature of creativity based on research and practice; and second, to present an evaluation approach based on a matrix consisting of the three dimensions of how audiences respond, how we assess the creative works themselves and the expertise and skills of those who make t...
Article
New concepts emerged during the 6th Creativity & Cognition conference in June 2007, indicating a growing convergence across disciplinary boundaries and an enriched language of discourse between artists, designers, scientists and technologists. Notions of materiality—from physical objects for playful exploration to processes and materials by which t...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we describe an interaction framework which classifies musicians' interactions with virtual musical in-struments into three modes: instrumental, ornamental and conversational. We argue that conversational interactions are the most difficult to design for, but also the most in-teresting. To illustrate our approach to designing for con-v...
Article
This paper addresses the problem of understanding creative engagement with interactive systems. A model of engagement is proposed which represents modalities and phases of interactive experiences. The model was derived from empirical studies of audience interaction with art systems. The aim is to provide a means of facilitating communication betwee...
Article
This paper is concerned with the design of interactive virtual musical instruments. An interaction design strategy which uses on-screen objects that respond to user actions in physically realistic ways is described. This approach allows musicians to ‘play’ the virtual instruments using the sound of their familiar acoustic instruments. An investigat...
Article
Abstract This paper raises general issues about the way computer systems are developed and relates them to education, in particular the role of teachers in research into classroom applications. The views expressed arise from research into the use of wordprocessors in secondary schools. The broad framework of the research work undertaken has been th...
Article
Full-text available
When artists and technologists collaborate, who is in control? Should technologists support the artists or should they be equal partners? In artist-in-residency studies, these have emerged as vital questions.
Conference Paper
This paper presents an approach to investigating interdisciplinary collaboration between an artist and a technologist based on case study methods. The aim of the research is to understand how artists and technologists communicate with each other during a collaborative process. The paper begins with a brief account of the art-technology context, and...
Article
Full-text available
Interactive art is, by its very nature, concerned with audience experience. The interaction is the essence the meaning of the work to the participant. An embodied cognition framework may be used to explore individual's cognition within a cognitive system while he or she is engaged in an interactive art experience. A cognitive system is identified a...
Conference Paper
This paper presents an in-depth case study of the collaborative process of a creative art-technology project. We begin by providing a brief description of art-technology collaboration research and go on to describe the particular art-technology collaboration project called "GEO Narrative Landscapes". This is followed by an account of a novel method...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes three simple virtual musical instru- ments that use physical models to map between live sound and computer generated audio and video. The intention is that this approach will provide musicians with an intu- itively understandable environment that facilitates musi- cal expression and exploration. Musicians live sound ex- erts 'f...
Article
Full-text available
Interactive art is said to be ‘created’ by the people engaged in the active experience of it. Works are conceived and first tried out in the studio environment by the artist and then introduced to a wider audience whose behaviour influences its particular visual and auditory manifestations. Research into this kind of process presents interesting ch...
Article
In order to understand how collaboration between people from different disciplines takes place, research is being undertaken in the area of art and technology. The present paper describes three studies of collaboration between artists and technologists drawn from the COSTART (COmputer SupporT for ARTists) project, an artist-in-residency programme t...
Article
Full-text available
This document characterises practice-related research for the general reader and research student. There are two types of practice related research: practice-based and practice-led: 1. If a creative artefact is the basis of the contribution to knowledge, the research is practice-based. 2. If the research leads primarily to new understandings about...
Article
Full-text available
Creativity support tools is a research topic with high risk but potentially very high payoff. The goal is to develop improved software and user interfaces that empower users to be not only more productive but also more innovative. Potential users include software and other engineers, diverse scientists, product and graphic designers, architects, ed...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Glass Pond is an interactive artwork designed to engender exploration and reflection through an intuitive, tangible interface and a simulation agent. It is being developed using iterative methods. A study has been conducted with the aim of illuminating user experience, interface, design, and performance issues.The paper describes the study methodol...
Article
In order to understand how collaboration between people from different disciplines takes place, research is being undertaken in the area of art and technology. The paper describes two studies of collaboration between artists and technologists drawn from the COSTART (COmputer SupporT for ARTists) project, an artist-in- residency programme that provi...
Article
The different ways that computers can be involed in creative work are examined. A classification based on four categories of human-computer interaction to promote creativity is proposed: computers may facilitate (a) the management of creative work, (b) ...
Article
Creativity research is a large and varied field in which the subject is characterized on many different levels. The arrival of digital media and computational tools has opened up new possibilities for creative practice. The cutting edge in the digital arts is a highly fertile ground for the investigation of creativity and the role of new technologi...
Conference Paper
The main aim of the research from which this paper arises is to identify requirements of computer support for creative work by investigating the work of artists and exploring the potential of new creative technology in this field. The paper reports upon an experimental artists-in-residence on the campus of Loughborough University during which event...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The paper is concerned with increasing our understanding of creative expertise drawing upon studies of collaboration between technologists and artists. The nature of expertise in collaborative creative work is discussed and the implications for support tools considered. Characteristics of a visual programming environment used to support collaborati...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Artists work with computers and visual interaction in order to create artworks in complex and varied ways. Collaboration between technologists and artists frequently creates new forms of interaction and visualization: it also promotes thinking about new ways of programming such systems. This paper discusses the role of interaction in art systems an...
Article
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Loughborough University of Technology, 1998.
Article
Full-text available
When terminology gets people riled up, you know that something lurks beneath the surface. In this Whiteboard, Gerard Torenvliet describes and decries the loss of meaning that the term affordance has suffered over the years, as widely read ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We describe a collaborative project between an HCI team and an internationally known Japanese artist, based in New York, who was artist-in-residence with the group in the UK. The collaboration resulted in a new performance art work and a new interactive instrument. The research included a full study of the process of collaboration and innovation. W...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The paper reports on the use of a visual programming environment and discusses its impact on thecreative process. It draws upon research into the collaborative interactive art development process.The context of the work is COSTART, a research project on computer systems for creative work that was undertaken at the Creativity and Cognition Research...
Article
The Client makes use of this Report or any information provided by CRC CI in relation to the Consultancy Services at its own risk. CRC CI will not be responsible for the results of any actions taken by the Client or third parties on the basis of the information in this Report or other information provided by CRC CI nor for any errors or omissions t...
Article
Full-text available
The challenge of applying protection to systems, software, and networks with intrinsic vulnerabilities is a lofty, but ultimately realizable, one.
Article
Full-text available
Achieving a balance of control and freedom by supporting a mix of strategies.
Book
Introduction Part 1: Digital Art Retrospective Context Environment Research Collaboration Practice Part 2 Bettina Brendel: Windows to a New Dimension Harold Cohen: A Million Millennial Medicis Ernest Edmonds: Structure in Art Practice Manfred Mohr: Generative Art Stelarc: From Zombies to Cyborg Bodies: Extra Ear, Exoskeleton and Avatars Joan Trucke...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Collaborative projects in art and technology provide an opportunity to investigate how co-creativity takes place. This paper describes some of the characteristics of collaborative work that were identified from empirical evidence captured during the COSTART project [4]. We examine the way the information was analyzed and the results of that exercis...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The panel will discuss the nature of research in creative practice. The participants will draw upon their current studies and experiences of projects that investigate creativity and the role of digital technology.Edmonds and Candy are applying a practice-led research approach to the study of collaborative work between artists and technologists.Mott...
Chapter
Roy Stringer believed that it is the artist, rather than the engineer, who leads in the finding of new visions, or what he calls the “emergent order”. Billy Kluver also remarked that “the artist widens the vision of the engineer” [2]. But is this just the railing of the artist against the power of the technocrat? What is the evidence from past expe...
Chapter
Art and technology projects provide an opportunity to try to understand just what the ingredients of successful creative collaborations are. One of the research questions that was posed was how to identify the support requirements for art and technology collaborative projects. This chapter describes some of the characteristics of collaborative work...
Chapter
Intersection between art and technology in the 1960s was led by artists and computer specialists whose commitment was essential for the survival of those early ventures. It was also a time when academic equipment proved a useful resource for experimentation. From the 1980s onwards, the rapid changes in technologies presented new opportunities and d...
Chapter
In the popular mind, computers have a poor reputation when it comes to creativity. Until the invention of the World Wide Web, they were associated mainly with calculations, science, banking and word processing. However, from the early days of computers, some people have always been interested in using them to create art. In 1963 the magazine, Compu...
Chapter
Since the mid-1960s, artists have been actively and successfully using digital technology in their practice. Many of these artists can be classified as `computer expert’. Bringing the expertise of art and technology together has usually been the achievement of one person working alone. As we consider more recent digital art, increasing collaboratio...
Chapter
This chapter is concerned with research into art and technology. This is an activity that seeks understanding of the creative process and how it might be related to knowledge of other fields. Whilst artists and technologists collaborate in creating digital art, at the same time, researchers observe events for themselves and then collate and assess...
Article
This article describes the development and implementation of a methodology for evaluating the effectiveness of model data exchanges between Systems Engineering tools. The context of the work is the SEDRES (System Engineering Data Representation and Exchange Standardization) project. This is a European initiative toward the development of a standard...
Article
This paper considers aspects of strategic knowledge in design and some implications for designing in collaborative environments. Two key questions underline the concerns. First, how can strategic knowledge for collaborative design be taught and second, what kind of computer-based collaborative designing might best support the learning of strategic...
Article
Full-text available
For the creative person, the ability to determine how the creative process evolves is of critical importance.
Article
The System Engineering Data Representation and Exchange Standardisation (SEDRES) Project is a European initiative towards the development of a standardised data exchange capability for use between the different tools used in System Engineering. A significant issue arising from the Project is the usability of such a data transfer capability, and its...
Article
Sharing design information during the systems engineering activities on large international projects within virtual enterprises faces many challenges, amongst them is working with heterogeneous sets of systems engineering tools. The adoption of neutral data exchange standards is one appropriate approach now well advanced in areas such as structural...

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