Linda Ng Boyle

Linda Ng Boyle
University of Washington Seattle | UW · Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering

PhD

About

175
Publications
118,555
Reads
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4,067
Citations
Introduction
Linda Ng Boyle currently works at the Department of Industrial & Systems Engineering, University of Washington Seattle. Linda does research in Human Factors, Statistical Modeling, Industrial Engineering, and Transportation Engineering.
Additional affiliations
September 2009 - July 2016
University of Washington Seattle
Position
  • Professor
August 2009 - present
University of Washington Seattle
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
January 2006 - December 2009
University of Iowa

Publications

Publications (175)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Computational models embedded in advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) require insights on drivers’ perception and understanding of their environment. This is particularly important as vehicles become increasingly automated and the partnership between the controllers (driver or vehicle) needs to be attentive to each other’s future intentions. T...
Article
Full-text available
While the number of deliveries has been increasing rapidly, infrastructure such as parking and building configurations has changed less quickly, given limited space and funds. This may lead to an imbalance between supply and demand, preventing the current resources from meeting the future needs of urban freight activities. The aim of this study was...
Article
This study examined multitasking behaviors of drivers in environments that include large numbers of pedestrians and cyclists, using video and vehicle data from the second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP2). The study includes 15 sites in both Seattle, WA, and Tampa, FL, U.S., (nine pedestrian and six cyclist locations), including three mark...
Article
Vehicle automation seeks to enhance road safety and improve the driving experience. However, a standard system does not account for variations in users and driving conditions. Customizing vehicle automation based on users' preferences aims to improve the user experience and adoption of the technologies. This study introduces a systematic paradigm t...
Article
Pedestrian fatalities have increased in the U.S. with the largest increase being observed on urban arterials and away from intersections. Rectangular Rapid Flashing Beacon (RRFB) has been widely implemented as a safety countermeasure to improve driver awareness and visibility of pedestrians, especially for midblock crosswalks. Studies show that dri...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Remote meetings have become more prevalent due to the COVID-19 pandemic and technology that facilitates remote work. There is limited research on the effect of remote meetings on group performance and the goal of this study is to identify how distractions affect the individual and group creativity in remote work meetings. A virtual study was conduc...
Article
Full-text available
The article presents a cross-cultural study of take-over performance in highly automated driving. As take-over performance is an important measure of safe driving, potential cultural differences could have important implications for the future development of automated vehicles. The study was conducted in two culturally different locations, Seattle,...
Article
Dwell time is defined as the time that delivery workers spend performing out-of-vehicle activities while their vehicle is parked. Restricting vehicle dwell time is widely used to manage commercial vehicle parking behavior. However, there is insufficient data to help assess the effectiveness of these restrictions. This makes it difficult for policym...
Article
Motor vehicle crashes are a global public health concern. Most analysis have used zero‐inflated count models for examining crash counts. However, few methods are available to account for safety metrics that have semi‐continuous observations. This article considers the problem of variable selection for the semi‐continuous zero‐inflated (SCZI) models...
Article
The Interactions website (interactions.acm.org) hosts a stable of bloggers who share insights and observations on HCI, often challenging current practices. Each issue we'll publish selected posts from some of the leading and emerging voices in the field.
Article
Farmworkers are exposed to physical risk factors including repetitive motions. Existing ergonomic assessment methods are primarily laboratory-based and, thus, inappropriate for use in the field. This study presents an approach to characterize the repetitive motions of the upper arms based on direct measurement using accelerometers. Repetition rates...
Article
This study compared farmworkers’ exposure to non-neutral postures using a new mobile platform apple harvesting method and the traditional method using ladders. Twenty-four workers were recruited and assigned into three groups: ladder workers (n = 8) picking apples from full trees using a ladder, mobile platform workers (n = 8) picking apples from u...
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides a framework for examining human-vehicle interactions with respect to three dimensions that can involve models or simulations: the agents, the environments, and the scenarios. Agents are considered on a spectrum from human to artificial actors. Environments are considered on a spectrum from simulated to real. Scenarios are consid...
Article
The goal of this study is to provide a framework, using hidden semi-Markov models, for modeling a driver's response time after an alert is provided in manual driving. Given the plethora of alerts and warning within a vehicle, there is a need to understand when a driver will respond after an alert is provided. Data from a previous driving simulator...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
How can technology support workers in our rapidly changing world? How can we help them be productive and creating, and how can we support their overall wellbeing? Our team explores these broad questions for two specific areas: working in future automated vehicles, and working from home. We argue that making progress in these areas will require conv...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
What is the future of work and wellbeing? How did the COVID-19 crisis affect this future? What can, and what should, researchers and practitioners in the field of human-computer interaction do, as they develop interfaces for work and wellbeing? These are the questions that we explore in a weekly online series of conversations with HCI experts. In t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With increasing automation of the driving task, cars' cockpits are transforming towards living spaces rather than pure modalities of transport. The promise of automated vehicles being individual places for relaxation and productivity while on-the-go, however, requires significant research. Not only safety-critical questions, but also issues related...
Article
The Tactile Detection Response Task (TDRT) has been used to assess the cognitive workload of driver distraction with response time and miss rate as metrics of cognitive workload. However, it is not clear which metric is more sensitive and whether sensitivity is maintained for visual tasks. The objective of this study was to assess the sensitivity o...
Article
In current supply chain operations, original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) procure parts from hundreds of globally distributed suppliers, which are often small and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs). The SMEs also obtain parts from many other dispersed suppliers, some of whom act as sole sources of critical parts, leading to the creation of complex s...
Article
Objective The objective of this study was to assess the effects of different warning messages for an Intersection Movement Assist (IMA) based on drivers’ ability to avoid a potential safety hazard. Background An IMA system can detect hazards and warn drivers when it is unsafe to enter an intersection. The effects of different warning information c...
Article
Objective This paper examines drivers’ allocation of attention using response time to a tactile detection response task (TDRT) while interacting with an in-vehicle information system (IVIS) over time. Background Longer TDRT response time is associated with higher cognitive workload. However, it is not clear what role is assumed by the human and sy...
Article
New human-centered sensing capabilities are introduced in surface transportation, aviation, healthcare, as well as many other professional and recreational domains. These capabilities enable industrial systems and consumer products to monitor a variety of human states and behaviors, enabling machines to better understand the users and to provide so...
Article
The examination of commercial pilot workload often requires the use of controlled simulated studies to identify causal effects. The specific scenarios to consider within a simulator study require an extensive understanding of the safety situations that can occur in flight while also considering the specific training that pilots are provided within...
Article
Automated technology in vehicles is increasingly changing and reducing the driving responsibilities for the human operator. However, these systems are still unequipped to handle many unexpected events and conditions. This study examined changes in driver attention allocation before and during exposure, and after removal of an active lane keeping sy...
Article
Full-text available
Intersection and non-intersection locations are commonly used as spatial units of analysis for modeling pedestrian crashes. While both location types have been previously studied, comparing results is difficult given the different data and methods used to identify crash-risk locations. In this study, a systematic and replicable protocol was develop...
Conference Paper
This video shows a concept of a future mobile office in a semi-automated vehicle that uses augmented reality. People perform non-driving tasks in current, non-automated vehicles even though that is unsafe. Moreover, even for passengers there is limited space, it is not social, and there can be motion sickness. In future cars, technology such as aug...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A driving simulator study was conducted in Slovenia and the USA to examine cultural differences in driver response to take-over requests (TOR) in highly automated driving. There was a total of 38 participants (19 in each study location). Drivers engaged in secondary tasks while also monitoring the driving task. A TOR occurred at the end of the driv...
Conference Paper
This video demonstrates the proposed Super Wing (S.Wing), a self-driving modular transportation system that provides children the opportunity to travel by themselves. The safety of children in vehicles is often threatened by distracted driving behaviors. With the on-demand S.Wing system, a child can travel by themselves based on the mutual needs of...
Article
Problem statement: In the U.S., a safety rating is assigned to each motor carrier based on data obtained from the Motor Carrier Management Information System (MCMIS) and an on-site investigation. While researchers have identified variables associated with the safety ratings, the specific direction of the relationships are not necessarily clear. O...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the evolution of technical systems, freedom from error and early adoption plays a major role for market success and to maintain competitiveness. In the case of automated driving, we see that faulty systems are put into operation and users trust these systems, often without any restrictions. Trust and use are often associated with users' experien...
Article
Ensuring safe operations of large commercial vehicles (motor carriers) remains an important challenge, particularly in the United States. While the federal regulatory agency has instituted a compliance review-based rating method to encourage carriers to improve their safety levels, concerns have been expressed regarding the effectiveness of the cur...
Article
The effects of an in-vehicle voice control system (VCS) on cognitive workload and driving performance were evaluated using a driving simulator study with 24 participants. Participants were asked to perform two types of in-vehicle tasks while driving: voice-command based radio and navigation tasks. The tasks were of two difficulty levels (easy, hard...
Article
Full-text available
Movement of goods within a central business district can be very constraining with high levels of congestion and insufficient curb spaces. Pick-up and delivery activities encompass a significant portion of urban goods movement, and inefficient operations can negatively impact the already highly congested areas and truck dwell times. Identifying and...
Article
Objective: A driving simulator study was conducted to evaluate the longitudinal effects of an intervention and withdrawal of a lane keeping system on driving performance and cognitive workload. Background: Autonomous vehicle systems are being implemented into the vehicle fleet. However, limited research exists in understanding the carryover effe...
Article
Collision warning systems alert drivers of potential safety hazards. Forward collision warning (FCW) systems have been widely implemented and studied. However, intersection collision warning systems (ICWS), such as intersection movement assist (IMA), are more complex. Additional studies are needed to identify the best alert for directing the driver...
Conference Paper
In current supply chain operations, the transactions among suppliers and original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) are sometimes inefficient and unreliable due to limited information exchange and lack of knowledge about the supplier capabilities. For the OEMs, majority of downstream operations are sequential , requiring the availabilities of all the...
Article
There are reasons why the driver's foot may not be applied to the correct pedal while driving and this can lead to unintended consequences. In this study, we seek to capture common and unique patterns of variations in drivers' foot movements using functional principal components analysis (FPCA). This analysis technique was used to analyze three cat...
Article
We introduce a Hidden Markov Model framework to formalize the beliefs that humans may have about the mode in which a semi-automated vehicle is operating. Previous research has identified various "levels of automation," which serve to clarify the di↵erent degrees of a vehicle's automation capabilities and expected operator involvement. However, a ve...
Article
The treatment of patients in the emergency department (ED) with severe pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is challenging, and treatment process strategies that facilitate good outcomes are not well documented. The overall objective of this study was to identify factors that can affect the care process associated with pediatric TBI. This objecti...
Article
In-Vehicle Information Systems (IVIS) are becoming more accessible to drivers but also contain more complex communication features. Voice control systems are shown to be less distracting than visual-manual interfaces, but they can still impose cognitive workload. This study examined the cognitive workload associated with interactions with voice sys...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The full paper is available at: http://drivingassessment.uiowa.edu/DA2005/PDF/65_AmitPaul_LBoyleformat.pdf
Article
Full-text available
Forward collision warning (FCW) systems help prevent rear-end collisions by identifying and alerting drivers of threats ahead. Understanding drivers’ avoidance strategies i.e. the tendency to brake or steer is important for the design and effectiveness of these systems. A driving simulator study was performed across five US locations to examine thr...
Article
Driver adaptation to semi-autonomous vehicles is examined in this study using a longitudinal driving simulator study with 18 subjects randomly assigned to a control (n = 9) and treatment (n = 9) group. A Tactile Detection Response Task (TDRT) was used to measure cognitive workload while drivers engaged in visual-manual distracting tasks using an in...
Book
Full-text available
Whether it is the car you drive or the app on your smartphone, technology has an increasingly powerful influence on you. When designed with people in mind, this influence can improve lives and productivity. This book provides a broad introduction on how to attend to the needs, capabilities, and preferences of people in the design process. We combin...
Article
Objective: To examine the frequency of and factors associated with emergency department (ED) intracranial pressure (ICP) monitor placement in severe paediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: Retrospective, multicentre cohort study of children <18 years admitted to the ED with severe TBI and intubated for >48 hours from 2007 to 2011. Res...
Article
Background: In the treatment of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI), timely treatment of patients can affect the outcome. Our objectives were to examine the treatment process of acute pediatric TBI and the impact of non-value-added time (NVAT) on patient outcomes. Methods: Data for 136 pediatric trauma patients (age < 18 years) with severe TB...
Article
Data from a naturalistic driving study was used to examine foot placement during routine foot pedal movements and possible pedal misapplications. The study included four weeks of observations from 30 drivers, where pedal responses were recorded and categorized. The foot movements associated with pedal misapplications and errors were the focus of th...
Conference Paper
This paper summarizes the outcome of an outreach project that examined the perception of distracted driving among high school and university students in the Pacific Northwest. The primary objective of the project was to identify secondary tasks that young drivers consider distracting and determine their self-reported engagement in those tasks while...
Conference Paper
In-vehicle voice interactions appear to be less distracting than those systems with visual-manual interfaces only. However, speaking with an auditory interface can still divert drivers' attention away from the primary driving task. A driving simulator study was conducted to compare the workloads of speaking and listening. Thirty-two participants we...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The purpose of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration project titled, In-Vehicle Voice Control Interface Performance Evaluation was to conduct empirical research about the use of voice control systems (VCS) by drivers and potential measures that could be used for evaluating possible distraction from using these systems while driving. An...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
User acceptance of automated vehicles (and dependent dimensions such as road safety, frequency of use or level of recommendation) is said to be highly dependent on the operator's individual trust in this technology. As a consequence, the development of driving functions and future driver-vehicle interfaces should allow for appropriate trust calibra...
Article
Full-text available
The labor market as a whole and specifically those areas where human factors/ergonomics (HF/E) professionals are employed are in constant flux. Academic institutions, on the other hand, tend to be more stable with changes in programs happening much more slowly. There is some evidence that the education of new HF/E professionals falls short of meeti...
Article
Objectives: Early resuscitation may improve outcomes in pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). We examined the association between timely treatment of hypotension and hypoxia during early care (prehospital or emergency department locations) and discharge outcomes in children with severe TBI. Methods: Hypotension was defined as systolic blood pr...
Article
OBJECTIVE Posttraumatic seizure is a major complication following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of this study was to determine the variation in seizure prophylaxis in select pediatric trauma centers. The authors hypothesized that there would be wide variation in seizure prophylaxis selection and use, within and between pediatric trauma cent...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Adherence to pediatric traumatic brain injury guidelines has been associated with improved survival and better functional outcome. However, the relationship between guideline adherence and hospitalization costs has not been examined. To evaluate the relationship between adherence to pediatric severe traumatic brain injury guidelines, m...
Article
Cognitive distraction represents an important and growing traffic safety issue, particularly with the increasing computerization of cars. The target paper in this special section describes a protocol for assessing the distraction potential of information and entertainment systems. Cognitive distraction has specific relevance to the challenges facin...
Article
Despite demonstrated improvement in patient outcomes with use of the Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Guidelines (Guidelines), there are differential rates of adherence. Provider perspectives on barriers and facilitators to adherence have not been elucidated. This study aimed to identify and explore in depth the provider perspective on factor...
Article
Many in-vehicle systems have multimodal interfaces and allow mobile device connectivity to embedded and cloud-based systems. However, some drivers continue to use their hand-held devices regardless of whether the device can be synched with the vehicle. In these situations, drivers appear to rely more on voice interfaces given the perception that th...
Article
Full-text available
Participants recruited for driving simulator studies may need to be excluded if they fail to complete the study as designed. The data that is analyzed therefore includes a sampling bias that is not typically considered but important to recognize. This sampling bias was examined using a study involving five data collection sites in the US. The goal...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of secondary tasks on the driving performance of individuals with mild traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). Studies suggest detrimental impacts of driving with TBI or while distracted but the impact of driver distraction on TBI drivers is not well documented. Bayesian regression models were used to esti...
Article
Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) is designed for convenience to maintain a set speed and specified distance from a lead vehicle. However, use of ACC may change driving patterns and perceptions over time. Many drivers perceive safety benefits associated with ACC even though the safety implications are not always clear. This study examined the factors t...
Article
The aim of this study was to examine variations in drivers' foot behavior and identify factors associated with pedal misapplications. Few studies have focused on the foot behavior while in the vehicle and the mishaps that a driver can encounter during a potentially hazardous situation. A driving simulation study was used to understand how drivers m...
Article
Driving on an approach to a signalized intersection while distracted is relatively risky, as potential vehicular conflicts and resulting angle collisions tend to be relatively more severe compared to other locations. Given the prevalence and importance of this particular scenario, the objective of this study was to examine the decisions and actions...