Linda S Birnbaum

Linda S Birnbaum
National Institutes of Health | NIH · National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)

About

631
Publications
91,478
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40,478
Citations
Citations since 2017
76 Research Items
12075 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,5002,000

Publications

Publications (631)
Article
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Background Hazard identification, risk assessment, regulatory, and policy activity are usually conducted on a chemical-by-chemical basis. Grouping chemicals into categories or classes is an underutilized approach that could make risk assessment and management of chemicals more efficient for regulators. Objective and methods While there are some av...
Article
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The manufacture and production of industrial chemicals continues to increase, with hundreds of thousands of chemicals and chemical mixtures used worldwide, leading to widespread population exposures and resultant health impacts. Low-wealth communities and communities of color often bear disproportionate burdens of exposure and impact; all compounde...
Article
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Background In February 2021, over one hundred scientists and policy experts participated in a web-based Workshop to discuss the ways that divergent evaluations of evidence and scientific uncertainties are used to delay timely protection of human health and the environment from exposures to hazardous agents. The Workshop arose from a previous worksh...
Article
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While research and regulatory attention to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) has increased exponentially in recent years, data are uneven and incomplete about the scale, scope, and severity of PFAS releases and resulting contamination in the United States. This paper argues that in the absence of high-quality testing data, PFAS contaminati...
Article
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Population studies show worrisome trends towards earlier breast development, difficulty in breastfeeding, and increasing rates of breast cancer in young women. Multiple epidemiological studies have linked these outcomes with chemical exposures, and experimental studies have shown that many of these chemicals generate similar effects in rodents, oft...
Article
Background The prevalence of autoimmunity in the U.S. has increased recently for undetermined reasons. Little is known about associations between autoimmunity and environmental causes. Objectives In a large representative sample of the U.S. population, we expanded our prior exploratory study of how exposures to selected xenobiotics and dioxin-like...
Article
Objective: E-waste is rising. This is a follow up to our study reporting metals/PBDE's/PCBs in female e-waste recyclers. Here we report polybrominated, polychlorinated dioxins/furans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in these workers. Methods: Female Vietnamese recyclers and non-recyclers recruited; blood samples collected. Polybrominat...
Article
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Background Residents of Anniston Alabama were highly exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) due to longstanding manufacturing in the area. The Anniston Community Health Surveys (ACHS I-2005–2007 and II, 2014) have linked these exposures with a variety of deletereous health outcomes. In addition to PCBs, these individuals were likely simultaneo...
Article
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Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposures have been associated with liver injury in human cohorts, and steatohepatitis with liver necrosis in model systems. MicroRNAs (miRs) maintain cellular homeostasis and may regulate the response to environmental stress. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that specific miRs are associated with l...
Book
The book provides a new conceptual framework to explain the interaction of complex systems, specifically humans and their environment. It proposes that human physiology and the environment do not “connect” with each other in a direct, unidirectional manner, like a beaker pouring water into a cup. Rather, the authors propose the Biodynamic Interface...
Article
Background: To date, the toxicity of organophosphate esters has primarily been studied regarding their use as pesticides and their effects on the neurotransmitter acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Currently, flame retardants and plasticizers are the two largest market segments for organophosphate esters and they are found in a wide variety of products,...
Article
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Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is a brominated flame retardant that induces endometrial adenocarcinoma and other uterine tumors in Wistar Han rats; however, early molecular events or biomarkers of TBBPA exposure remain unknown. We investigated the effects of TBBPA on growth factor receptor activation [phospho-receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs)] in ute...
Article
The brominated flame retardant, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), is added—but not bound—to consumer products and is eventually found in the environment and human tissues. Commercial-grade HBCD mixtures contain three major stereoisomers, alpha (α), beta (β), and gamma (γ), that are typically at a ratio of 12%:6%:82%, respectively. Although HBCD is wid...
Article
Mitochondria are intracellular organelles responsible for biological oxidation and energy production. These organelles are susceptible to damage from oxidative stress and compensate for damage by increasing the number of copies of their own genome, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Cancer and environmental exposure to some pollutants have also been associ...
Article
FutureTox IV, a Society of Toxicology (SOT) Contemporary Concepts in Toxicology (CCT) workshop, was held in November 2018. Building upon FutureTox I, II, and III, this conference focused on the latest science and technology for in vitro profiling and in silico modeling as it relates to predictive developmental and reproductive toxicity (DART). Publ...
Article
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In epidemiologic and exposure research, biomonitoring is often used as the basis for assessing human exposure to environmental chemicals. Studies frequently rely on a single urinary measurement per participant to assess exposure to non-persistent chemicals. However, there is a growing consensus that single urine samples may be insufficient for adeq...
Article
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The outbreak of COVID-19 raised numerous questions on the interactions between the occurrence of new infections, the environment, climate and health. The European Union requested the H2020 HERA project which aims at setting priorities in research on environment, climate and health, to identify relevant research needs regarding Covid-19. The emergen...
Article
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Background Human exposures to bisphenol A (BPA) are widespread. The current study addresses uncertainties regarding human pharmacokinetics of BPA following dermal exposure. Objective To examine the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of BPA in humans following dermal administration. Methods We dermally administered deuterated BPA (...
Article
Telomere length (TL) can be affected by various factors, including age and oxidative stress. Changes in TL have been associated with chronic disease, including a higher risk for several types of cancer. Environmental exposure of humans to PCBs and dioxins has been associated with longer or shorter leukocyte TL. Relative telomere length (RTL) may se...
Article
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2,4,6-Tribromophenol (TBP, CAS No. 118-79-6) is a brominated chemical used as a precursor, flame retardant, and wood antifungal agent. TBP is detected in environmental matrices and biota, including human breast milk, placenta, and serum. To address reports of TBP accumulation in human placenta and breast milk, studies were conducted to characterize...
Article
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This commentary presents a scientific basis for managing as one chemical class the thousands of chemicals known as PFAS (per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances). The class includes perfluoroalkyl acids, perfluoroalkylether acids, and their precursors; fluoropolymers and perfluoropolyethers; and other PFAS. The basis for the class approach is presented...
Article
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The Anniston Community Health Survey (ACHS-I) was initially conducted from 2005 to 2007 to assess polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposures in Anniston, Alabama residents. In 2014, a follow-up study (ACHS-II) was conducted to measure the same PCBs as in ACHS-I and additional compounds e.g., polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated...
Article
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Purpose of review: Although vulnerable populations are disproportionately exposed to synthetic chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties, few recent reviews have summarized the impact of synthetic chemicals on cardiometabolic health among these groups. Recent findings: Of 37 eligible epidemiological studies among vulnerable populations publ...
Article
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Background: Ammonium 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-2-(heptafluoropropoxy)propanoic acid (GenX) is a replacement for perfluorooctanoic acid in the production of fluoropolymers used in a variety of consumer products. GenX alters fetal development and antibody production and elicits toxic responses in the livers and kidneys of rodents. The GenX effect on the b...
Chapter
Each day people are exposed to a wide variety of agents and stressors that have the potential to impact human health and well-being. Environmental health is the study of those environmental factors and how they may contribute to human health and disease. An individual’s environment is one of the most important contributors to one’s overall wellness...
Article
Background: In 2014, we conducted a longitudinal study [Anniston Community Health Survey (ACHS II)] 8 y after the baseline (ACHS I). Objectives: We investigated the relationship between persistent chlorinated compounds and hypertension in residents living around the former polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) production plant in Anniston, Alabama. We...
Article
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As the use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and the entire class of organohalogen flame retardants, is declining, the use of organophosphate ester flame retardants (OPFRs) is increasing. In this paper, we ask whether OPFRs are a better choice than PBDEs. To address this question, we compared OPFRs with PBDEs for a wide range of properties...
Article
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Anniston, Alabama was home to a major polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) production facility from 1929 until 1971. The Anniston Community Health Survey I and II (ACHS-I 2005–2007, ACHS-II 2013–2014) were conducted to explore the effects of PCB exposures. In this report we examined associations between PCB exposure and DNA methylation in whole blood usi...
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Background: The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study, coordinated by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), produces influential, data-driven estimates of the burden of disease and premature death due to major risk factors. Expanded quantification of disease due to environmental health (EH) risk factors, including climate change,...
Article
Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) has become a ubiquitous indoor contaminant due to its widespread use as an additive flame retardant in consumer products. Reported evidence of endocrine disruption and accumulation of TBBPA in brain tissue has raised concerns regarding its potential effects on neurodevelopment and behavior. The goal of the present stud...
Article
2,4,6-Tribromophenol (TBP, CAS No. 118-79-6) is a brominated chemical used in the production of flame-retardant epoxy resins and as a wood preservative. In marine environments, TBP is incorporated into shellfish and consumed by predatory fish. Food processing and water treatment facilities produce TBP as a byproduct. TBP has been detected in human...
Article
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Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA, CAS No. 79-94-7) is a brominated flame retardant (BFR) used in 90% of epoxy coated circuit boards. Exposures to TBBPA can induce neurotoxicity, and disrupt MAPK, estrogen, thyroid, and PPAR-associated signaling pathways [1-5]. Since these pathways also regulate transporters of the central nervous system (CNS) barriers...
Article
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2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP, CAS No. 118-79-6) is widely used as a brominated flame retardant and wood antifungal agent. TBP is frequently detected in environmental matrices, biota, and humans. In female SD rats, systemically available TBP (10 µmol/kg, IV) was rapidly excreted primarily via urine, with ∼61% of the dose recovered after 4h, and 89-94%...
Article
The National Toxicology Program (NTP) receives requests to evaluate chemicals with potential to cause adverse health effects, including developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). Some recent requests have included classes of chemicals such as flame retardants, polycyclic aromatic compounds, perfluoroalkyl substances, and bisphenol A analogs with approximat...
Article
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Tetrabromobisphenol A Bis(2,3-dibromopropyl) ether (TBBPA-BDBPE) is a high production volume brominated flame retardant (BFR) used in consumer products, resulting in ubiquitous human exposure. Although the major route of exposure for this chemical is believed to be via ingestion, dermal contact is likely via contaminated dust. Independent trials of...
Article
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To address concerns among Gulf Coast residents about ongoing exposures to volatile organic compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, and m-/p- xylene (BTEX), we characterized current blood levels and identified predictors of BTEX among Gulf state residents. We collected questionnaire data on recent exposures and measured blood...
Data
Table S1a. Community concerns and linear predictors of blood toluene and ethylbenzene levels among participants with blood 2,5-dimethylfuran < 0.014 ng/mL (n=423). Table S1b. Community concerns and linear predictors of blood xylene levels among participants with blood 2,5-dimethylfuran < 0.014 ng/mL (n=423). Table S2. Community concerns and predict...
Article
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Due to the extensive use of botanical dietary supplements by consumers in the United States, there is a need for appropriate research and data to support safety assessments. Complexity and variability, both natural and introduced, of botanical dietary supplements make research on these products difficult. Botanical dietary supplements are regulated...
Article
The effects of body fat mass on the elimination of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was examined in mice. When male C57BL/6J mice are fed a high-fat, simple carbohydrate diet (HFD) for 13 weeks, they develop an obese phenotype. In contrast, A/J mice fed a HFD do not become obese. After 13 weeks on a normal diet (ND) or HFD, male C57BL/6J...
Article
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Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a diet and gut microbiota-derived metabolite that has been linked to cardiovascular disease risk in human studies and animal models. TMAO levels show wide inter and intra individual variability in humans that can likely be accounted for by multiple factors including diet, the gut microbiota, levels of the TMAO gener...
Article
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Objective: Electronic-waste is increasing.Its frequently conducted in developing countries.This is the first study to report metals, polybrominated diphenyl-ethers(PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs), 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane(p,p'-DDT), and p,p'-DDE concentrations in female e-waste workers. Methods: Female Vietnamese rec...
Article
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Tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) is a brominated flame retardant (BFR) commonly used in electronics to meet fire safety standards and has the largest worldwide production of any BFR. TBBPA has been detected in human breast milk and maternal/cord serum, indicating exposure to mothers, fetuses, and breastfeeding newborns although exposure to fetuses and...
Article
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Background: The 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster led to the largest ever marine oil spill. Individuals who worked on the spill were exposed to toxicants and stressors that could lead to adverse effects. Objectives: The GuLF STUDY was designed to investigate relationships between oil spill exposures and multiple potential physical and mental healt...
Article
Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is a brominated flame retardant used globally at high volumes, primarily in the epoxy resin of circuit boards. It has been detected in the environment and in humans. The National Toxicology Program found that chronic oral TBBPA treatment of 250 mg/kg and higher caused an increased incidence of uterine lesions in female...
Article
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Why the interest in dioxins, a group of structurally related chemicals which have a common mechanism of action, a common spectrum of biological responses and are environmentally and biologically persistent? A plethora of effects have been reported in people, wildlife, and domestic animals since chloracne was first described in 1899. Cattle, horses,...
Article
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Background: Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a high production volume brominated flame retardant added to building insulation foams, electronics, and textiles. HBCD is a commercial-mixture (CM-HBCD) composed of 3 main stereoisomers: α-HBCD (10%); β-HBCD (10%); γ-HBCD (80%). A shift from the dominant stereoisomer γ-HBCD to α-HBCD is detected in hum...
Article
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In 1978, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) was established and headquartered at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. On the occasion of the 50th Anniversary of the NIEHS, this article documents some of the historical and current NTP programs and scientific advances that have...
Article
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1. It was important to investigate the disposition of decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) based on concerns over its structural similarities to decabromodiphenyl ethane (decaBDE), high potential for environmental persistence & bioaccumulation, and high production volume. 2. In the present study, female Sprague Dawley rats were administered a single do...
Article
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Chemical compounds studied in this article: 2-Ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (PubChem CID: 71316600; CAS No. 183658-27-7 FW: 549.92g/mol logPest: 7.73-8.75 (12)) Abdallah et al., 2015a. Other published abbreviations for 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate are TBB EHTeBB or EHTBB Abdallah and Harrad, 2011. bis(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromopht...
Article
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2-Ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB; MW 549.92 g/mol; CAS 183658-27-7) is a brominated component of flame retardant mixtures used as substitutes for some PBDEs. EH-TBB is added to various consumer products, including polyurethane foams, and has been detected in humans. The present study characterized the fate of EH-TBB in rodents. [(14)...