Linda Argote

Linda Argote
Carnegie Mellon University | CMU · Tepper School of Business

About

120
Publications
88,551
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23,884
Citations
Citations since 2017
12 Research Items
8636 Citations
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (120)
Article
Full-text available
To successfully generate creative solutions, teams must reconcile inconsistent perspectives and integrate competing task demands. We suggest that adopting a paradoxical frame - a mental template that promotes recognizing and embracing the simultaneous existence of seemingly contradictory elements - helps teams navigate this process to produce creat...
Article
Knowledge transfer within organizations has important implications for organizational performance and competitive advantage. In this virtual special issue, we review articles on this topic published in Organization Science between 2014 and 2020 and identify 53 articles for their theoretical and empirical contributions. These articles examine knowle...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Many critical care interventions that require teamwork are adopted slowly and variably despite strong evidence supporting their use. We hypothesize that educational interventions that target the entire interprofessional team (rather than professions in isolation) are one effective way to enhance implementation of complex interventions i...
Article
This study advances understanding of the conditions under which a new worker improves organizational performance. We argue that the extent to which new group members have experience working as specialists or generalists is a critical factor in explaining performance after the new member joins. We conceptualize specialists as those who concentrate o...
Article
We trace the evolution of research on organizational learning. As organizations acquire experience, their performance typically improves at a decreasing rate. Although this learning-curve pattern is found in many industries, organizations vary in the rate at which they learn. In order to understand this variation, we separate organizational learnin...
Article
This study investigates how the information that individuals accumulate through helping others in a customer support crowdsourcing community influences their ability to generate novel, popular, and feasible ideas in an innovation crowdsourcing community. A customer support crowdsourcing community is one in which customers help each other develop so...
Article
We theorize that the effect of membership turnover on group processes and performance depends on a group’s communication network. We describe two mechanisms through which communication networks affect group performance: (1) the number of direct communication paths and (2) the clarity of the coordination logic. These mechanisms map onto two network...
Chapter
Intraorganizational learning involves the processes through which organizational units (e.g., groups, departments, or divisions) change as a result of experience. The units could learn from their own direct experience or from the experience of other units. For example, a hospital surgical team might acquire knowledge about how to use new technology...
Article
This chapter compares and contrasts the effects of two knowledge repositories, routines and transactive memory systems (TMSs), on knowledge creation, coordination, retention and transfer. We provide overviews of research on the two knowledge repositories, with particular attention to how they form and change. We then discuss the relationship betwee...
Article
Organizational learning includes processes of creating, retaining and transferring knowledge and has implications for the performance and competitiveness of organizations. Given the knowledge-based view of resources inherent in management of technology (MOT), in this paper, we adopt an organizational learning framework that considers knowledge to b...
Article
Full-text available
Considerable research has established the superior performance of teams on which team members utilize specialized knowledge and also develop transactive processes that promote coordination. Less is known, however, about the consequences for team performance when team members only possess one of the two productivity factors. We develop and test a fr...
Article
This article describes advances in the study of knowledge transfer in organizations over the fifteen years since Argote and Ingram (2000) appeared in Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. Argote and Ingram developed mechanisms of knowledge transfer and discussed factors that facilitate or impede transfer. Conditions under which know...
Article
Extending research on organizational learning to multiproduct environments is of particular importance given that the vast majority of products are manufactured in such environments. We investigate learning in a multiproduct facility drawing on exceptionally rich data for a manufacturing firm that is a leading producer of high-technology hardware c...
Chapter
This article discusses the concept of organizational learning – that is, the process by which an organization acquires knowledge through experience. The opening section gives a brief definition of the term. The article then goes on to discuss learning by doing, in which an organization learns as a result of its own actions. It then goes on to discu...
Article
Full-text available
Behavioral theories of organization are a major portion of the field of organizational studies, as behavioral reasoning is found across a range of theoretical approaches. We review the role of behavioral theory in the major research traditions of organization theory, starting with the original behavioral theory of the firm and continuing to evoluti...
Article
Many organizations have launched online knowledge-exchanging communities to promote knowledge sharing among their employees. We empirically examine the dynamics of knowledge sharing in an organization-hosted knowledge forum. Although previous researchers have suggested that geographic and social boundaries disappear online, we hypothesize that they...
Chapter
This chapter analyzes the effects of the geographic distribution of organizational units on organizational learning and knowledge transfer. Studies that examine the effect of geographic distribution on learning and knowledge transfer processes and outcomes are discussed and an analysis encompassing both single and multi-unit organizational forms is...
Article
The concept of transactive memory systems affords an opportunity for organizational learning and global strategy researchers to learn from each other to their mutual benefit. A transactive memory system is a collective system for encoding, storing, and retrieving information. Teams with well-developed transactive memory systems have been found to p...
Article
Many companies obtain new product ideas from their customers through innovation crowdsourcing. This study investigates how simultaneously participating in two crowdsourcing communities hosted by one firm, a customer support community and an innovation crowdsourcing community, affects an individual’s ability to generate novel, popular, and implement...
Chapter
This chapter presents evidence that characteristics of the organizational context affect organizational learning and knowledge retention and transfer. The organizational context interacts with experience to affect organizational learning and the retention and transfer of knowledge acquired through learning. The organizational context can facilitate...
Article
Full-text available
A Behavioral Theory of the Firm (Cyert & March, 1963) laid a conceptual foundation for the application of the “Carnegie School” approach to studying and understanding organization- level behavior and outcomes. The book has exerted enormous influence across fields such as organization theory, business strategy, economics, and organizational sociolog...
Article
We analyze performance and emotions as antecedents and consequences of team strategic decisions to explore a new routine versus exploit an existing routine. In a laboratory study, we examine team decision making over time and draw causal inferences about the relationships among team emotions, team performance, and explore-exploit decisions. We use...
Chapter
This concluding chapter discusses the relationships across learning at different levels of analysis and across different dimensions of experience. Managerial and strategic implications of research findings on organizational learning are developed. The chapter concludes with a discussion of promising future research directions that are likely to adv...
Chapter
What do organizations learn as they gain experience in production? Where is this knowledge embedded within organizations? What are the consequences of where knowledge is embedded for organizational performance? This chapter begins with a discussion of what is learned as groups and organizations gain experience. A more general discussion of organiza...
Chapter
Do organizations forget? Or do organizations retain the knowledge they acquire as time passes? The classic learning curve assumes that organizational knowledge is cumulative and persists indefinitely through time. Yet, individuals leave organizations. Records can be lost or misplaced. Technologies become obsolete and/or inoperative. Social networks...
Chapter
“Learning curves” have been found in many organizations. As organizations produce more of a product, the unit cost of production typically decreases at a decreasing rate. A learning curve for the production of an advanced military jet built in the 1970s and 1980s is shown in Fig. 1.1. The number of direct labor hours required to assemble each jet a...
Chapter
This chapter presents a theoretical framework for analyzing organizational learning that was developed in Argote and Miron-Spektor (2011). According to the framework, organizational experience is theorized to interact with the organizational context to create knowledge. The chapter discusses components of the framework, including experience, the or...
Chapter
Cisco Systems, Inc. successfully acquired many software firms with 50–100 employees (Wysocki, 1997). Cisco paid a premium for the firms—on the order of two million dollars per employee. Why is Cisco paying so much for these firms? According to Wysocki
Chapter
Great Ormond Street Hospital in Great Britain learned from Ferrari racing crews how to handle patient handovers or transitions from one unit to another more effectively and, thereby, improved patient care (Naik, 2006). General Motors Corporation built identical plants in Argentina, Poland, China, and Thailand so that knowledge acquired at one plant...
Article
Researchers have identified three indicators of the existence of transactive memory systems (Lewis, 2003; Moreland et al., 1998): knowledge or memory specialization (the tendency for group members to remember different aspects of a task or to develop specialized and complementary expertise), task credibility (how much group members trust each other...
Article
We analyze learning and knowledge transfer in a computing call center. The information technology (IT) technical services provided by call centers are characterized by constant changes in relevant knowledge and a wide variety of support requests. Under this IT problem-solving context, we analyze the learning curve relationship between problem-solvi...
Article
Many organizations have launched online knowledge forums to promote knowledge flow across boundaries. This paper theorizes and empirically tests whether employees transfer knowledge within or across boundaries and how the tendencies change as a function of a knowledge provider’s experience in an online forum. We suggest that participants prefer to...
Article
Purpose – We explore two characteristics of groups in today's work environments, membership dispersion and geographic dispersion, and the effects that these conditions have on group and organizational learning. Approach – We integrate findings on group membership dispersion and geographic dispersion and develop predictions of dispersion's effects o...
Article
Research on organizational learning and knowledge management has increased dramatically over the last 20 years. This chapter discusses reasons for the surge in research, describes approaches to defining organizational learning and knowledge, and discusses levels at which learning occurs. It presents major findings about creating, retaining, and tra...
Article
The research examined how knowledge embedded in an organization's structure can persist over time and buffer the organization from the disruptive effects of turnover. We hypothesized that turnover would affect the performance of organizations that are low in structure more than those that are high in structure. By contrast, we expected to see littl...
Article
Full-text available
Organizational learning has been an important topic for the journal, Organization Science, and for the field. We provide a theoretical framework for analyzing organizational learning. According to the framework, organizational experience interacts with the context to create knowledge. The context is conceived as having both a latent component and a...
Article
In this introductory paper, I discuss the goals and motivations for the special issue New Perspectives in Organization Science, which coincides with the 20th anniversary of the journal Organization Science. Senior editors of Organization Science provide their perspectives on topics that are important to the field. The papers identify current themes...
Article
The article provides a brief overview of past research on organizational learning. Current research themes are identified, including taking a fine-grained approach to characterizing organizational experience, understanding the role of the organizational context in organizational learning, and analyzing processes and outcomes of knowledge creation,...
Article
Over two decades have passed since Wegner and his co-authors published the groundbreaking paper on transactive memory systems (TMS) in 1985. The concept attracted the interest of management, psychology, and communication scholars who have employed a variety of methods to examine the phenomenon. In this paper, we review 76 papers that examined trans...
Article
How does prior experience influence team creativity? We address this question by examining the effects of task experience acquired directly and task experience acquired vicariously from others on team creativity in a product-development task. Across three laboratory studies, we find that direct task experience leads to higher levels of team creativ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines whether developers learn from their experience and from interactions with peers in OSS projects. A Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is proposed that allows us to investigate (1) the extent to which OSS developers actually learn from their own experience and from interactions with peers, (2) whether a developer's abilities to learn from...
Article
Full-text available
This chapter presents a theoretical framework for the effects of prior task experience on team creativity. We distinguish among different types of experience within teams, namely direct and indirect prior task experience. We argue that different types of prior task experience differentially influence team creativity, and that the prior experience–c...
Chapter
This chapter discusses how a shared superordinate identity increases knowledge creation and transfer in firms. It presents evidence, from both the field and laboratory, that sharing a superordinate identity promotes knowledge creation and transfer. It develops theory about the conditions under which a shared superordinate identity is most valuable....
Article
Full-text available
The article discusses the need for corporations to both produce innovations and implement them within their existing systems, goals which can seem mutually exclusive. The rubric of paradoxical cognition is recommended for increasing motivation and framing contradictions constructively. The results of a study which indicated that paradoxical cogniti...
Article
To understand how teams develop transactive memory systems, we investigated the relationships among TMS, motivation, and identity. We discovered that individual motivation influenced positively the development of TMS only when group identification was high. When group identification was low, individual motivation had a negative effect on the develo...
Chapter
Research on Groups in OrganizationsA Reformulation: The Nature of Groups in Organizational ContextsFormation ProcessesCoordination ProcessesAdaptation ProcessesLearning ProcessesTemporal and Contextual IssuesConcluding Comments
Chapter
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKCONCLUSIONACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Article
Full-text available
I n this introductory piece, we take stock of the impact of Cyert and March's A Behavioral Theory of the Firm, describe current research trends in the behavioral tradition, and introduce the special issue's papers. A Behavioral Theory of the Firm is one of the most influential management books of all time. In the book, Cyert and March developed the...
Article
This Crossroads section continues the Organization Science tradition of providing a forum for discussing issues central to our understanding of organizations. Dan Levinthal and Claus Rerup begin the conversation in their essay “Crossing an Apparent Chasm: Bridging Mindful and Less-Mindful Perspectives on Organizational Learning.” Karl Weick and Kat...
Article
This study examined the effects of turnover and task complexity on group performance. Two hundred and forty subjects arranged into three-person groups performed a production-type task for six experimental periods. The design was a 2 (Turnover vs. No Turnover) × 2 (Simple vs. Complex Task) × 2 (Male vs. Female) × 6 (Periods) factorial with repeated...
Article
Our work integrates organizational learning research with information systems research and empirically tests whether new information technology (IT) contributes to an organization's ability to retain knowledge accumulated through experience as well as to transfer knowledge between firm locations. We conducted a cross-sectional time series analysis...
Article
Full-text available
revious studies have provided evidence of the positive impact of transactive memory (TM) on group per- formance, such as the efficient storage and recall of knowledge and better product quality. This paper aims to unify the experimental research on TM and to extend it to more dynamic and diverse group settings. In this paper, we develop an empirica...
Article
Learning by doing represents an important mechanism through which organizations prosper. Some firms, however, learn from their experience at a dramatic rate, while other firms exhibit very little learning at all. Three factors have been identified that affect the rate at which firms learn: (a) the proficiency of individual workers, (b) the ability...
Article
The commentary reflects on two essays on managing learning and knowledge in organizations. The essay on organizational learning was written by Friedman, Lipshitz, and Popper; the essay on knowledge management was written by Hazlett, McAdam, and Gallagher. Key points in the two essays are highlighted and points of convergence discussed. Opportunitie...
Article
Our research integrates organizational learning research with information systems research and empirically tests whether new information technology (IT) contributes to an organization's ability to learn from experience as well as to transfer knowledge between firm locations. We conducted a cross-sectional time series analysis of detailed monthly da...
Article
The study examines the effects of social identity and knowledge quality on knowledge transfer across groups. One hundred and forty-four students performed a production task in three-person groups. Midway through the task, a member from a different group rotated into each group. The primary dependent variable was whether the group adopted the produc...
Article
This editorial describes the objectives of Organization Science and the kind of manuscripts that we hope to attract to the journal. Previous Editors-in-Chief are acknowledged and thanked for the excellent jobs they have done and for the superb reputation that the journal developed under their leadership. Incoming Senior Editors and members of the E...
Article
The commentary discusses connections between Jelinek’s analysis of strategic change and research on organizational learning. Points of convergence and divergence between the strategic change case and the organizational learning literature are identified in three areas: the role of experience in organizational learning, knowledge transfer within and...
Chapter
This chapter explores why some groups or organizations are better than others at learning from experience. It discusses factors found to facilitate or impede the rate at which groups and organizations learn. It pays particular attention to the role of experience and examines whether certain patterns of experience are more conducive to group or orga...
Article
In this concluding article to the Management Science special issue on ÜManaging Knowledge in Organizations: Creating, Retaining, and Transferring Knowledge,Ý we provide an integrative framework for organizing the literature on knowledge management. The framework has two dimensions. The knowledge management outcomes of knowledge creation, retention,...
Article
To investigate the conditions under which learning-by-hiring (or the acquisition of knowledge through the hiring of experts from other firms) is more likely, we study the patenting activities of engineers who moved from United States (U.S.) firms to ...
Chapter
In this book, the editors and a team of distinguished international contributors analyse the nature of organizational capabilities, studying how organizations do things, use their knowledge base, and diffuse that knowledge in competitive environment. Offering both theoretical analysis and detailed evidence from a variety of individual firms and sec...
Article
Full-text available
Transactive memory systems refer to the idea that people in continuing close relationship develop a shared system for encoding, storing and retrieving information from different substantive domains. Previous studies provide both direct and indirect evidence of the positive impact of transactive memory systems on group performance, such as the effic...
Article
This concluding chapter of Volume 3 of Research in Managing Groups and Teams: Technology identifies themes in research on groups and technology represented in the volume. The chapter also discusses the implications of changes in group structures and processes enabled by technology for four fundamental features of groups: interdependence, social ide...
Article
In an effort to improve their competitiveness, many organizations have become more dynamic. One feature of such organizations is teamwork, but teams in dynamic organizations differ in certain ways from more traditional work teams. Many of these differences have implications for knowledge management, especially transactive memory. Transactive memory...
Article
La finalité de notre article est de comprendre la nature et la diversité des relations intervenant dans le processus de diffusion interorganisationnelle des connaissances. Notre questionnement porte dans un premier temps sur la nature des dimensions de ces relations et dans un second temps sur leur diversité. L’intérêt est double : préciser et comp...
Article
On the basis of a step-by-step procedure (see Hinkin, 1998), this article discusses the design and evaluation of a self-report questionnaire (Change Climate Questionnaire) that can be used to gauge the internal context of change, the process factors of change, and readiness for change. The authors describe four studies used to develop a psychometri...
Book
Why do some organizations learn at faster rates than others? Why do organizations "forget"? Could productivity gains acquired in one part of an organization be transferred to another? These are among the questions addressed in Organizational Learning: Creating, Retaining and Transferring Knowledge. Since its original publication in 1999, this book...
Chapter
The presence of a learning curve has been documented in many industries. Yet we know little about why learning occurs. For example, is learning attributable to accumulating experience of production workers or management, to increasing sophistication of capital equipment, or to improved coordination of the production process? Similarly, there is lit...
Article
The paper provides an overview of recent developments in the area of organizational learning curves. The paper discusses whether knowledge acquired through learning by doing is cumulative, as the classic learning-curve model implies, or whether organizational learning evidences 'forgetting' or depreciation. The extent to which the productivity gain...
Article
Does knowledge acquired through learning by doing on one shift transfer to a second shift when it is introduced at a manufacturing plant? The answer to this question has important theoretical implications about where knowledge is embedded in organizations and about sources of productivity growth. The answer also has important practical implications...
Article
information processing by groups requires socially shared cognition, that is, collaboration among members who seek to encode, interpret, and recall information together rather than apart our research has focused on the role of shared experience . . . in both the development and operation of transactive memory systems / as people work together on...
Article
The task performance of laboratory work groups whose members were trained together or alone was investigated. At an initial training session, subjects were taught to assemble transistor radios. Some were trained in groups, others individually. A week later, subjects were asked to recall the assembly procedure and actually assemble a radio. Everyone...
Article
The paper examines the acquisition, depreciation and transfer of knowledge acquired through learning by doing in service organizations. The analysis is based on weekly data collected over a one and a half year period from 36 pizza stores located in Southwestern Pennsylvania. The 36 stores, which are franchised from the same corporation, are owned b...

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