Lilly Shanahan

Lilly Shanahan
University of Zurich | UZH · Jacobs Center for Productive Youth Development & Psychology

Associate Professor

About

126
Publications
23,728
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
5,660
Citations
Introduction
I am a Professor and Chair for Clinical Developmental Psychology in the Department of Psychology and at the Jacobs Center for Productive Youth Development at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. I am also affiliated with The International Max Planck Research School on the Life Course (LIFE), the z-Proso International Research Network, and the Center for Developmental Epidemiology at Duke University Medical Center, USA. I also hold an adjunct appointment in Psychology and Neuroscience at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH). Please visit the Jacobs Center at: https://www.facebook.com/Jacobs-Center-for-Productive-Youth-Development-1154637781371383/

Publications

Publications (126)
Preprint
Background: Positive prospective mental imagery plays an important role in mental well-being, and depressive symptoms have been associated with difficulties in generating positive prospective mental images (PPMIs). We used a mobile app to gather PPMIs generated by young adults during the COVID-19 pandemic and analyzed content, characteristics, and...
Article
Full-text available
Background Little is known about the childhood antecedents and adult correlates of adolescent dual-harm (i.e. co-occurring self- and other-harm). We examine the longitudinal associations between (a) social and psychological risk factors in childhood and adolescent dual-harm and (b) adolescent dual-harm and social and mental health impairments in ea...
Article
Full-text available
Background Adolescent suicidality, suicidal ideation (SUI) and self-harming behaviour (SI) are major public health issues. One group of adolescents known to be particularly prone to suicidality and mental health problems is lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) youth. Although the social acceptance of the LGB community has increased in recent years, LGB...
Article
Background The juvenile justice system in the USA adjudicates over seven hundred thousand youth in the USA annually with significant behavioral offenses. This study aimed to test the effect of juvenile justice involvement on adult criminal outcomes. Methods Analyses were based on a prospective, population-based study of 1420 children followed up t...
Article
Full-text available
The Zurich Project on the Social Development from Childhood to Adulthood (z-proso) began in 2004 in response to the need for a better evidence base to support optimal child social development and prevent crime and violence. Since then, the study has tracked the development of a diverse sample of youths ( N = 1,675 in the target sample; ~50% female)...
Preprint
Introduction: Robust sensitivity to reward may help preserve positive emotions in the face of adversity and has been proposed as a key resilience factor. We describe the development, feasibility, and efficacy of an mHealth application, Imager, which targets reward sensitivity by training individuals to create mental images of future rewarding exper...
Article
Background: Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify whether early adversities are associated with advanced methylation age or if they actually accelerate methylation aging. This study test whether different dimensions of childhood adversity accelerate biological aging from childhood to adulthood, and, if so, via which mechanisms. Methods: 381...
Article
Full-text available
Polysubstance use (i.e., simultaneous or sequential use of different psychoactive substances) is associated with increases in the risk of severe health problems and social impairments. The present study leverages community-representative, long-term longitudinal data from an urban cohort to assess: (a) the prevalence and continuation of polysubstanc...
Article
Full-text available
Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the six-month prevalence of mental illness in children with chronic physical illness (multimorbidity), examine agreement between parent and child reports of multimorbidity, and identify factors associated with child multimorbidity. Method The sample included 263 children aged 2–16 years with a physic...
Article
Objective This study tested the ‘intervention as prevention’ hypothesis: that treatment of childhood psychopathology in the community might reduce risk for adult psychopathology. Method Analyses were based on a prospective, population-based study of 1,420 children followed up to 8 times during childhood (ages 9 to 16; 6674 observations) about psyc...
Article
Using a multimethod, multiinformant longitudinal design, we examined associations between specific forms of positive and negative emotional reactivity at age 5, children’s effortful control (EC), emotion regulation, and social skills at age 7, and adolescent functioning across psychological, academic, and physical health domains at ages 15/16 ( N =...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Debates about the legalization of illegal substances (e.g., cannabis) continue around the globe. A key consideration in these debates is the adequate protection of young people, which could be informed by current prevalence and age-of-onset patterns. For Switzerland, such information is limited, which is particularly true for women,...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeThis study examined health-related quality of life (HRQL) in children across different physical illnesses; estimated parent–child agreement on HRQL reports; compared HRQL between children with and without physical–mental multimorbidity; and tested if multimorbidity was associated with HRQL.Methods Children aged 6–16 years (mean = 11.1; n = 1...
Article
Background: There is evidence of unmet psychiatric needs in children under 6. These young children are dependent on their parents to identify their mental health needs. This study tested child and parent associations with parent perception of young child mental health need. Method: Parents of 917 children (aged 2-6 years) completed a diagnostic...
Article
Full-text available
The pathways through which exposure to maternal depressive symptoms in early childhood are linked to academic performance during adolescence are poorly understood. This study tested pathways from maternal depressive symptoms (age 2–5) to adolescent academic performance (age 15) through cumulative parenting risk (age 7) and subsequent child function...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Amidst cannabis legalization efforts and laws, we do not fully understand how the youngest frequent cannabis users fare during young adulthood. This study aims to 1) examine the prevalence of cannabis use during adolescence, and 2) investigate links of frequent (i.e., weekly or daily) teenage cannabis use with psychopathology and funct...
Preprint
The Zurich Project on Social Development from Childhood to Adulthood (z-proso) began in 2004 in response to the need for a better evidence base to support optimal child social development and prevent crime and violence. Since then, the study has tracked the development of a diverse sample of youths (N = 1,675 in the target sample; ~50% female) from...
Article
Objective Research on associations of early cannabis use with adult functioning reports mixed findings. This may be due, in part, to wide variations in the definitions of early cannabis use. This study aims to compare associations of four commonly-used definitions of early cannabis use—related to timing, dose, duration, and associated symptoms—with...
Article
Objectives: To test the associations of childhood domestic gun access with adult criminality and suicidality. Methods: Analyses were based on a 20+ year prospective, community-representative study of 1420 children, who were assessed up to 8 times during childhood (ages 9-16; 6674 observations) about access to guns in their home. Participants wer...
Article
Full-text available
We examined the longitudinal course of, and pre‐ and during‐pandemic risk factors for, self‐injury and domestic physical violence perpetration in young adults during the COVID‐19 pandemic. Data came from a Swiss longitudinal study (N = 786, age ~22 in 2020), with one prepandemic (2018) and four during‐pandemic assessments (2020). The prevalence of...
Article
Full-text available
Background Loneliness is a major risk factor for both psychological disturbance and poor health outcomes in adults. This study aimed to assess whether childhood loneliness is associated with a long-term disruption in mental health that extends into adulthood. Methods This study is based on the longitudinal, community-representative Great Smoky Mou...
Article
Full-text available
Adolescent self-injury is a widespread public health problem, but long-term longitudinal studies from European countries are rare. Self-injury in males and sex differences are poorly understood. This study describes the prevalence, frequency, age-related course, and recurrence of, and mental health services use related to adolescent self-injury. Da...
Article
Full-text available
Cardiometabolic risk (CMR) has increased among adolescents. A growing literature shows that childhood self-regulatory skills are associated with obesity and CMR. However, the developmental nature of self-regulation has not been considered in existing studies. Therefore, it is unclear how specific types of self-regulation (i.e., attentional, emotion...
Article
ZUSAMMENFASSUNG Einleitung Eine wachsende Zahl psychologischer Behandlungsangebote erfolgt über das Smartphone, bzw. über Apps. Viele der wissenschaftlich geprüften Apps basieren auf den Prinzipien der kognitiven Verhaltenstherapie (KVT), Goldstandard zur Behandlung vieler psychischer Problematiken. Ziel dieses Reviews war es, den Status Quo der Fo...
Article
The goal of the current analyses was to explore associations of self-rated physical attractiveness with facets of psychological well-being across adolescence. Participants provided information on their perceived physical attractiveness, internalized distress, suicidal ideation, and self-harm at 15, 17 and 20 years of age. Male adolescents repeatedl...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Young adults are essential to the effective mitigation of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19) given their tendency toward greater frequency of social interactions. Little is known about vaccine willingness during pandemics in European populations. This study examined young people’s attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccines in Fall 2020...
Article
Objective: This manuscript serves to provide an overview of the methods of the Multimorbidity in Children and Youth across the Life-course (MY LIFE) study, profile sample characteristics of the cohort, and provide baseline estimates of multimorbidity to foster collaboration with clinical and research colleagues across Canada. Method: MY LIFE is...
Article
Full-text available
Violent ideations are increasingly recognized as an important psychological pre-dictor for aggressive and violent behavior. However, little is known about the processes that contribute to violent ideations. This paper examines the extent to which polyvictimization triggers violent ideations in late adolescence and early adulthood, while also adjust...
Article
In 2015, economists Case and Deaton¹ reported that decades-long gains in US life expectancy had stalled and reversed and that rates of premature mortality had risen among middle-aged non-Hispanic White individuals with low education. They hypothesized that this premature mortality was due to increases in cause-specific mortality from suicides, drug...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Resting heart rate (HRrest), heart rate variability (HRV), and HR recovery (HRR) from exercise provide valuable information about cardiac autonomic control. RR-intervals during acute recovery from exercise (RRrec) are commonly excluded from HRV analyses due to issues of non-stationarity. However, the variability and complexity within...
Article
Sympathy is regarded as an important precursor to the development of emotional intimacy, including mutual disclosure. In turn, emotional intimacy is assumed to foster the development of sympathy. Yet, research has not examined how sympathy and mutual disclosure in generic friendships are mutually related to one another during mid‐adolescence to ear...
Article
Full-text available
Emotional eating is associated with an increased risk of binge eating, eating in the absence of hunger and obesity risk. While previous studies with children and adolescents suggest that emotion regulation may be a key predictor of this dysregulated eating behavior, little is known about what other factors may be influencing the link between emotio...
Article
Full-text available
Importance Opioid use disorder and opioid deaths have increased dramatically in young adults in the US, but the age-related course or precursors to opioid use among young people are not fully understood. Objective To document age-related changes in opioid use and study the childhood antecedents of opioid use by age 30 years in 6 domains of childho...
Article
Full-text available
Background: A growing number of psychological interventions are delivered via smartphones with the aim of increasing the efficacy and effectiveness of these treatments and providing scalable access to interventions for improving mental health. Most of the scientifically tested apps are based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) principles, which a...
Article
OBJECTIVE: Some eating behaviors are associated with negative nutrition-related outcomes in adults, but research is lacking in adolescent samples. The current study examined whether dietary restraint moderates the relationship between disinhibition and weight outcomes and overall diet quality in a community sample of 16-year old adolescents. METHOD...
Article
Full-text available
Self-injury often arises as a maladaptive coping strategy used to alleviate distress. Past research has typically examined how chronic stressors in a specific context are associated with self-injury. Little is known about the unique and cumulative associations between acute stressful life events that occur in different social contexts and self-inju...
Article
Full-text available
Rationale: Adolescents and young adults were identified internationally as a group with potentially low compliance rates with public health measures aimed at curbing the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although non-compliance research during pandemics has typically focused on concurrent correlates, less is known about how prior soci...
Preprint
Introduction: A growing number of psychological interventions are delivered via smartphone with the aim to increase the efficacy and effectiveness of these treatments and provide scalable access to interventions for improving mental health. Most of the scientifically tested apps are based on cognitive behavioural therapy principles which are consid...
Article
Objective Depression is common, impairing, and the leading cause of disease burden in youth. This study aimed to identify the effects of childhood/adolescent depression on a broad range of longer-term outcomes. Method The analysis is based on the prospective, representative Great Smoky Mountains Study of 1,420 participants. Participants were asses...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and associated lockdown could be considered a 'perfect storm' for increases in emotional distress. Such increases can only be identified by studies that use data collected before and during the pandemic. Longitudinal data are also needed to examine (1) the roles of previous distress and...
Article
Full-text available
Importance Deaths of despair is a term that has recently been used to describe the increases in premature mortality from suicides, drug overdoses (particularly from opiates), and alcohol-related liver disease among US adults. Despite the use of the term despair, its role in these causes of premature death has not been empirically tested. Objective...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Establishing a diet that follows the Dietary Guidelines for Americans has been associated with lower risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease and cancer. Some research has shown that individuals’ desire for weight control is an important factor in determining food choices. The aims of this study were to 1) examine dietary restraint...
Article
Full-text available
Background A growing number of psychological interventions are delivered via smartphones with the aim of increasing the efficacy and effectiveness of these treatments and providing scalable access to interventions for improving mental health. Most of the scientifically tested apps are based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) principles, which ar...
Preprint
Background: Do young adults have low compliance rates with public health measures aimed at curbing the spread of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)? This paper leverages a prospective-longitudinal cohort study with data before and during the pandemic to examine this question.Methods: Data came from an ongoing cohort study (n=737). Non-compliance w...
Article
A fundamental question in developmental science is how parental emotion socialization processes are associated with children's subsequent adaptation. Few extant studies have examined this question across multiple developmental periods and levels of analysis. Here, we tested whether mothers' supportive and nonsupportive reactions to their 5-year-old...
Article
Full-text available
Parasympathetic nervous system functioning as indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is widely used as a measure of physiological regulation. We examined developmental patterns of children's resting RSA and RSA reactivity from 2 to 15 years of age, a period of time that is marked by considerable advances in children's regulatory abilities. P...
Article
Peer victimization is a well-established risk factor for children's internalizing problems. We longitudinally examined the moderating role of children's early perceptions of positive peer relationships and inhibitory control on the association between peer victimization at age 6 and internalizing symptoms at age 10. Perceptions of peer relationship...
Article
Insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and Type II diabetes are increasingly common among young people in the United States. The quality of social relationships is a predictor of cardiometabolic health among adults, but has not been studied as a predictor of earlier insulin resistance. The purpose of this study was to test whether social preference...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Multimorbidity, the co-occurrence of a chronic physical condition and mental disorder, affects a substantial number of children and youth and can lead to compromised quality of life, hardship for families, and an increased burden on the healthcare system. We are conducting a study to document the course of mental disorder in children a...
Article
Full-text available
Importance In 2016, an estimated 8% of US children younger than 18 years had experienced the incarceration of a parent, and rates were substantially higher among children from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds and disadvantaged groups. Little is known about whether parental incarceration during childhood is associated with adult psychiatric pr...
Article
Full-text available
Two seemingly associated demographic trends have generated considerable interest: income stagnation and rising premature mortality from suicides, drug poisoning, and alcoholic liver disease among US non-Hispanic Whites with low education. Economists interpret these population-level trends to indicate that despair induced by financial stressors is a...
Article
Full-text available
The prevalence of obesity among U.S. youth continues to increase, with many adolescents engaging in unhealthy eating behaviors. Increasingly, research points to the role of self-regulation in obesity development, yet existing work has largely focused on young children and/or clinical adult populations. This multi-method longitudinal study (N = 153)...
Article
Objective: The prevalence of depression increases dramatically during puberty in girls. Earlier work in this sample reported that the sex steroids estradiol and testosterone were associated with increased depression in girls. Using three additional data waves (983 new observations), we retest the relative contributions of pubertal timing, pubertal...
Article
Full-text available
Importance Being exposed to trauma is a common childhood experience associated with symptoms and impairments in childhood. Objective To assess the association between cumulative childhood trauma exposure and adult psychiatric and functional outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective, population-based cohort study of 1420 participants...
Article
We examined longitudinal associations across an 8-year time span between overcontrolling parenting during toddlerhood, self-regulation during early childhood, and social, emotional, and academic adjustment in preadolescence (N = 422). Overcontrolling parenting, emotion regulation (ER), and inhibitory control (IC) were observed in the laboratory; pr...
Article
Full-text available
Obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk are public health concerns in adolescents, yet few studies have examined the association of their diet to CVD risk factors. This study investigated associations between diet, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), and blood lipids in 163 16-17 year olds. Diet recall data w...
Article
Full-text available
Research Findings: This study examines whether the development of social skills during childhood serves as a mechanism through which temperamental anger and positive reactivity in toddlerhood influence children’s academic competence during preadolescence (N = 406). Temperamental anger at age 2 was negatively associated with children’s social skills...
Article
Background and aims: There has been a growth in the proportion of emerging adults vulnerable to pain-related sequelae of chronic health conditions (CHCs). Given the paucity of research during this important developmental period, this study investigated the association between CHCs and chronic disruptive pain among emerging adults and the extent to...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To identify risk profiles associated with patterns of problematic cannabis use in early adulthood. Method Data came from 1,229 participants in the Great Smoky Mountains Study, a prospective 20-year cohort study from 1993 to 2015 that is representative of western North Carolina with yearly assessments conducted from ages 9 and 16 years, a...
Article
We examined associations between specific self-regulatory mechanisms and externalizing behavior patterns from ages 2 to 15 ( N = 443). The relation between multiple self-regulatory indicators across multiple domains (i.e., physiological, attentional, emotional, and behavioral) at age 2 and at age 5 and group membership in four distinct externalizin...