Lillian Eby

Lillian Eby
University of Georgia | UGA · Department of Psychology

Ph.D.

About

161
Publications
195,521
Reads
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16,805
Citations
Introduction
I am an Industrial and Organizational Psychologist working at the University of Georiga and running the Owens Institute for Behavioral Research. My main areas of research interests are relationships at work, occupational health psychology, and the work-family interface. I also have specific expertise in workforce development issues facing the substance abuse treatment workforce.
Additional affiliations
August 2013 - present
Owens Institute for Behavioral Research
Position
  • Managing Director
August 1996 - present
University of Georgia
Position
  • Professor (Full)
August 1992 - August 1996
University of Tennessee
Position
  • Instructor

Publications

Publications (161)
Article
Although mentoring has documented relationships with employee attitudes and outcomes of interest to organizations, neither the causal direction nor boundary conditions of the relationship between mentoring and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) has been fully explored. On the basis of Social Learning Theory (SLT; Bandura, 1977, 1986), we p...
Article
This research investigates the influence of shared perceptions of developmental climate on individual-level perceptions of organizational commitment, engagement, and perceived competence, and whether these attitudes mediate the relationship between developmental climate and both individual voluntary turnover and supervisor-rated job performance. Su...
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This monograph reviews 190 work–family studies published in IO/OB journals from 1980 to 2002. The results of a content analysis are presented which catalog these articles with respect to the study focus, nature and direction of the proposed effects, and predictor, criterion, and mediator variables examined. Then a narrative review of the articles i...
Article
Background: On July 24, 2008, New York State (NYS) became the first state to require all state-funded or state-certified substance use disorder (SUD) treatment organizations to be 100% tobacco-free and offer tobacco cessation (TC) treatment. Methods: The current study used a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent control group design with a pretest...
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This meta-analysis summarized youth, academic, and workplace research on the potential antecedents (demographics, human capital, and relationship attributes), correlates (interaction frequency, relationship length, performance, motivation, and social capital), and consequences (attitudinal, behavioral, career-related, and health-related outcomes) o...
Article
Full-text available
Methodological checklists for improving research quality and reporting consistency - Volume 13 Issue 1 - Lillian T. Eby, Kristen M. Shockley, Talya N. Bauer, Bryan Edwards, Astrid C. Homan, Russell Johnson, Jonas W. B. Lang, Scott B. Morris, Frederick L. Oswald
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We provide a comprehensive qualitative review of 67 published studies that have examined mindfulness-based training interventions conducted with employees. The findings indicate that the most common research designs were the pre-test/post-test only design (35.8%) and the randomized waitlist control group design (26.9%). About two-thirds of the stud...
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Despite considerable advances, existing work–family conflict research tends to ignore the possibility that some behaviors may transcend work and nonwork, potentially causing interference in both domains. One such experience is gambling, which involves staking something of material value (often money) on an event with an uncertain outcome in an atte...
Article
The current article integrates research on proactive personality, career theory, and perceived organizational career growth opportunities to propose a typology describing four career scenarios that may occur for individuals based on their level of proactivity (high or low) and perceived organizational career growth (high or low). We present turnove...
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Although academics can receive considerable training in selecting appropriate research designs, types of data to collect, methods for analyzing data, as well as guidance on preparing scholarly manuscripts, there is a dearth of information on how to initiate and manage partnerships with organizations in order to conduct high-quality applied research...
Article
This concurrent embedded mixed-method study examined vocational stressors and coping mechanisms among refugees. Results from a content analysis of open-ended surveys collected from 159 refugees show that the most frequently reported refugee vocational stressor was access and opportunity (31% of comments made about vocational stressors). This meta-t...
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Participating in undergraduate research with mentorship from faculty may be particularly important for ensuring the persistence of women and minority students in science. Yet, many life science undergraduates at research universities are mentored by graduate or postdoctoral researchers (i.e., postgraduates). We surveyed a national sample of undergr...
Article
As part of the centennial celebration for the Journal of Applied Psychology, this article reviews the literature on organizational socialization and mentoring. Our review includes a comparison of organizational socialization and mentoring as processes for employee adjustment and development, the historical context that fueled the emergence of these...
Article
As part of the centennial celebration for the Journal of Applied Psychology, this article reviews the literature on organizational socialization and mentoring. Our review includes a comparison of organizational socialization and mentoring as processes for employee adjustment and development, the historical context that fueled the emergence of these...
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Full-text available
Purpose – Using mood regulation theories and the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, the purpose of this paper is to hypothesize that the relationship between organizational citizenship behaviors aimed at individuals (OCB-Is) and depressed mood, burnout, and satisfaction with life and health would be mediated by positive affect. Design/...
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Undergraduate researchers at research universities are often mentored by graduate students or postdoctoral researchers (referred to collectively as "postgraduates") and faculty, creating a mentoring triad structure. Triads differ based on whether the undergraduate, postgraduate, and faculty member interact with one another about the undergraduate's...
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The focal article by Bergman and Jean (2016) raises an important issue by documenting the underrepresentation of nonprofessional and nonmanagerial workers in industrial and organizational (I-O) research. They defined workers as, “people who were not executive, professional or managerial employees; who were low- to medium-skill; and/or who were wage...
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This study uses content analysis to provide a qualitative exploration of how life roles are affected by frequent (i.e. at least weekly) gambling, based on in-depth interviews with a community sample of 161 non-treatment-seeking frequent gamblers. Over half (51.6%) of the participants indicated problems associated with gambling and 131 examples were...
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In an attempt to distill what we know about the effects of workplace mindfulness-based training, Hyland, Lee, and Mills (2015) cast a wide net with regard to the array of studies included in their review. For example, they include studies that investigate the benefits associated with workplace mindfulness training (e.g., Wolever et al., 2012) as we...
Article
Adolescence is a prime developmental stage for early tobacco cessation (TC) intervention. This study examined substance use disorder counselors' reports of the availability and implementation of TC services (behavioral treatments and pharmacotherapies) in their treatment programs and the relationship between their tobacco-related knowledge and impl...
Article
Despite efforts to promote the use of tobacco cessation services (TCS), implementation extensiveness remains limited. This study investigated three factors (cognitive, behavioral, environmental) identified by social cognitive theory as predictors of substance use disorder counselors' likelihood of use versus non-use of tobacco cessation (TC) 5 A's...
Article
This study examined the prevalence of and factors (psychological climate for change and staff attributes) related to indoor and outdoor tobacco bans for patients, employees, and visitors in U.S. substance use disorder treatment programs. Data were collected from a random sample of 1,026 program administrators. Almost all programs banned tobacco use...
Chapter
Full-text available
Guided by transactional models of emotion (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984), this chapter proposes a model of negative affective work-to- family spillover. Throughout our review of the literature, we consider gender as a key antecedent that has downstream effects on the work-to-family spillover process. We begin by briefly introducing the transactional mod...
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Low income adults with substance use disorders (SUDs) have a high prevalence of tobacco use and often limited access to tobacco cessation treatment. This study examines the relationship between low-income SUD patient census (i.e., percentage of patients whose treatment costs are covered by Medicaid and Federal block grants) and SUD programs' availa...
Chapter
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This chapter considers the effects of nonwork crises on the work–family interface. Drawing from Crisis Theory(Caplan, 1961, 1964), we develop a framework to understand how crisis events may affect work and family life over time. In so doing, we examine the short- and long-term work–family outcomes of crisis, and consider potential moderators of the...
Conference Paper
Banning of tobacco products has traditionally decreased the amount of smoking in both the public and private sector. However, little research has been conducted in places where tobacco is thought to maintain sobriety, such as substance abuse treatment facilities. Information from recent studies indicates that abstinence from tobacco products during...
Article
This study aimed to understand substance use disorder counselors’ implementation of evidence-based tobacco cessation services (TCS) with their patients who smoke. Drawing from an established adoption of innovations framework, we investigated the association between counselors’ perceptions of the availability of TCS (both pharmacotherapies and behav...
Article
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ABSTRACT This longitudinal study investigated the extent to which substance abuse (SA) clinician turnover is associated with SA-specific knowledge loss due to change in professions (professional turnover) versus SA-specific knowledge transfer due to movement from one SA clinical setting to another (treatment program turnover). For this study, clini...
Article
This study investigated 3 organizational factors (ie, counseling staff clinical skills, absence of treatment program obstacles, and policy-related incentives) as predictors of tobacco cessation pharmacotherapy (TCP) adoption (comprised of the 9 available TCPs) in addiction treatment programs using the innovation implementation effectiveness framewo...
Article
New York State required substance use disorder (SUD) treatment programs to be 100% tobacco-free in 2008. The current study examined counselor (N = 364) and clinical supervisor (N = 98) perceptions of how extensively the tobacco-free regulation was implemented in their treatment programs, perceived accountability for implementing the regulation, and...
Conference Paper
Research has shown that most smokers who successfully quit do so own their own, but many use other cessation programs or methods at some point during their smoking history. This study will examine smoking behaviors and quit methods of program administrators at substance abuse treatment facilities. Data were collected using online surveys administer...
Conference Paper
Data were collected using telephone surveys administered September 2011 - July 2012 to 881 program directors and administrators (PAs) from substance abuse treatment facilities randomly selected using the SAMHSA database. Despite current research indicating that sustaining from nicotine while quitting other drugs helps maintain long-term sobriety, r...
Conference Paper
The prevalence of smoking among individuals seeking treatment for co-occurring substance abuse is between 70-95%; however, little is known about the quality of smoking cessation programs offered alongside substance abuse treatment or whether counselors use evidence-based treatment (EBTs) approaches to smoking cessation. Previous studies find that m...
Conference Paper
Nicotine is considered one of the most addictive drugs, yet there are few programs that treat nicotine addiction on the same level as alcohol and other drugs. This can be problematic, particularly when there is a window for halting the progression of nicotine addiction into adulthood. This study is a subsample of a larger federally funded study tha...
Conference Paper
Research shows that smoking cessation interventions during addiction treatment enhance chances of patients' sobriety; however, many treatment facilities have not adopted anti-smoking policies and continue to discredit smoking cessation treatments. This study examines tobacco use among program administrators and the influence of use on beliefs about...
Conference Paper
Many substance abuse treatment facilities do not necessarily make an effort to encourage smoking cessation, even if they have patients who are interested in quitting. The purpose of this study is to investigate the availability that patients have of pharmacological and behavioral treatments for smoking cessation. The study population of substance a...
Conference Paper
Substance abuse counselors help people in crisis regain healthier lives, but little is known about counselors' lives and needs. Substance abuse counselors have high burnout/turnover rates, and investigating their lives is a vital step toward improving counselor support systems and resources. This study reports demographic, workplace, and health cha...
Article
Full-text available
In 2008, the state of New York required substance use disorder treatment organizations to be 100% tobacco-free. This longitudinal study examined clinicians' perceptions of the implementation extensiveness of the tobacco-free practices approximately 10-12 months (Time 1) and 20-24 months (Time 2) post regulation and investigated whether clinicians'...
Article
This study measured substance use disorder clinicians' perceptions regarding the implementation extensiveness of the Office of Alcohol and Substance Abuse Services (OASAS) tobacco-free regulation, passed in New York State in July of 2008, at three time-points and across organizations with varying characteristics. Repeated cross-sectional data were...
Article
Full-text available
Two studies were conducted to develop a psychometrically sound measure of supervisor health and safety support (SHSS). We identified three dimensions of supervisor support (physical health, psychological health, safety) and used Study 1 to develop items and establish content validity. Study 2 was used to establish the dimensionality of the new meas...
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When mental health counselors have limited and/or inadequate training in substance use disorders (SUDs), effective clinical supervision (ECS) may advance their professional development. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether ECS is related to the job performance of SUD counselors. Data were obtained in person via paper-and-penc...
Article
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Introduction: The majority of individuals who enter substance use disorder (SUD) treatment also use tobacco. Integrating smoking cessation services into SUD treatment may have substantial public health benefits, but few studies have examined whether organizations offering counseling-based smoking cessation programs sustain them over time. Methods...
Conference Paper
The purpose of this study is to investigate smoking and tobacco knowledge as well as use behaviors of substance abuse counselors. Data were collected using online surveys administered October 2010 - August 2011 to 1054 counselors from substance abuse treatment facilities randomly selected using the SAMHSA database. Results indicate there was not a...
Conference Paper
Research has shown that smoking cessation interventions during addiction treatments enhance chances of patients' sobriety; however, at many treatment facilities tobacco use is viewed as a less harmful alternative to alcohol or illicit drug use. Previous research has shown that health professionals who smoke have the potential to unintentionally aff...
Conference Paper
Research to practice continues to be a challenge when providing evidence-based programs to the public. This study investigates the attitudes concerning evidence-based practices of substance abuse counselors in drug and alcohol treatment centers. Data were collected using online surveys administered to 1054 counselors using the SAMHSA database for s...
Conference Paper
Research has shown that the prevalence of smoking among patients seeking treatment at substance abuse treatment facilities is between 70-95%. Although some patients may be interested in quitting smoking, many facilities do not encourage smoking cessation during their substance abuse treatment. The purpose of this study is to examine the pharmacolog...
Article
Full-text available
Little is empirically known about clinical supervision in addiction treatment. This study describes multiple domains of clinical supervision in addiction treatment from the perspectives of clinical supervisors and their counselors. Survey data were obtained from 484 matched clinical supervisor-counselor dyads working in diverse addiction treatment...
Article
In an effort to reduce patient tobacco dependence and create healthier work environments, New York State (NYS) mandated 100% tobacco-free addiction treatment programs for state funded or certified facilities in 2008. We present the results of a longitudinal study examining how local implementation features shape clinician reactions to the regulatio...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter defines mentoring in organizations and identifies several ethical issues associated with mentoring relationships. Using the American Psychological Association’s Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct as a framework, the potential ethical dilemmas faced from the perspective of both the protégé and mentor are illustrated through the use...
Article
Full-text available
The main goals of the current study were to investigate whether there are linear or curvilinear relationships between substance use disorder counselors' job performance and actual turnover after 1 year utilizing four indicators of job performance and three turnover statuses (voluntary, involuntary, and no turnover as the reference group). Using lon...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: In 2008, the New York State (NYS) Office of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Services (OASAS) required all state-funded or state-certified addiction treatment programs to be 100% tobacco-free. The regulation prohibits the use or possession of all tobacco products by patients, employees, volunteers, and visitors. This includes exterior...
Article
This chapter reviews the existing research on workplace mentoring from the perspective of both the protégé and the mentor. Factors related to the initiation, maturation, and decline of mentoring relationships are discussed, along with the major theoretical frameworks that have been used to study mentoring relationships and that show promise in push...
Article
Using data from a nationwide study, we annually track a cohort of 598 substance use disorder counselors over a four-wave period to (a) document the cumulative rates of voluntary turnover and (b) examine how counselor perceptions of the organizational environment (procedural justice, distributive justice, perceived organizational support, and job sa...
Conference Paper
The importance of smoking cessation services and attitudes about smoking culture vary among addiction treatment centers in the US. This study investigates the impact that organizational policy towards staff smoking has on the overall attitudes about smoking among clinical staff. The data was collected from telephone interviews from 222 program admi...
Conference Paper
It is well documented that the prevalence of smoking among individuals seeking treatment for co-occurring substance abuse is between 70-95%; however, little is known about the quality of smoking cessation programs offered alongside substance abuse treatment and the extent to which counselors or treatment staff use evidence-based treatment (EBT) app...
Conference Paper
A perceived lack of financial resources in substance abuse treatment programs is strongly linked with the absence or very limited existence of system-level support for smoking cessation. In-depth telephone interviews were used to collect data from 226 program administrators at substance abuse treatment centers across the United States. The treatmen...
Conference Paper
There are different schools of thought as to the advantages of including smoking cessation in substance abuse treatment facilities. The purpose of this study is to examine the differences between substance abuse treatment centers that have a staff dedicated to smoking cessation and those who do not. Using randomly selected substance abuse treatment...
Conference Paper
Smoking cessation in substance abuse treatment facilities has been shown to increase sobriety for those patients in treatment for alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs. The purpose of this study is to investigate if those facilities with smoking cessation programs actually differ in system-level support for smoking cessation. In-depth telephone intervi...
Conference Paper
The prevalence of smoking among individuals seeking treatment for a co-occurring substance abuse condition is very high, between 70%-95%. However, many drug treatment facilities do not encourage smoking cessation during treatment, even though patients often show interest in quitting smoking. The purpose of this study is to investigate the beliefs o...
Conference Paper
Oftentimes people's behavior is greatly impacted by the prevailing social norms of their surrounding culture and environment. This is especially true with smoking behaviors in drug treatment centers. The purpose of this study is to investigate smoking culture in drug treatment centers. Data were collected from in-depth telephone interviews administ...
Article
Full-text available
This study assessed the extent of implementation of the Public Health Service tobacco cessation guidelines among a national sample of counselors working in five different types of substance abuse treatment programs. Further, we identified implementation patterns among counselors using cluster analysis and considered differences in counselor charact...
Article
This study assessed counselors' knowledge of the adoption of evidence-based tobacco cessation medications (TCMs)--varenicline, bupropion, and five nicotine replacement therapies (NRTs)--and predictors of adoption in diverse substance abuse treatment settings. We used Managing Effective Relationships in Treatment Services (MERITS I) data from 658 co...
Article
This study examines the association between negative mentoring experiences and protégé intentions to leave the mentoring relationship. The role of perceived mentoring alternatives and fear of mentor retaliation was also examined as moderators of the relationship between negative mentoring experiences and intentions to leave. Results indicate that s...