Lijing Cheng

Lijing Cheng
Institute of Atmospheric Physics · International Center for Climate and Environment Sciences

PhD
Working on ocean data (T/S/Oxygen) and gridded products, ocean heat content and energy flow, freshwater, oxygen changes

About

85
Publications
53,444
Reads
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Introduction
Dr. Lijing Cheng received his PhD from the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) in 2014 for his research “Estimation on global ocean heat content and the tropical cyclone’s impact on ocean energy budget”. He then worked in IAP/CAS as an associate professor. His work includes examination of systematic errors in ocean observations, study of historical ocean heat content (OHC) change, and Earth's energy budget. He is a lead author of United Nations - IPCC Special Report for Ocean and Cryosphere; United Nations - World Ocean Assessment.
Additional affiliations
February 2017 - January 2018
Institute of Atmospheric Physics
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
July 2014 - December 2020
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Position
  • Research Assistant

Publications

Publications (85)
Article
Full-text available
AbstractSystematic biases in historical expendable bathythermograph (XBT) data are examined using two datasets: 4151 XBT?CTD side-by-side pairs from 1967 to 2011 and 218 653 global-scale XBT?CTD pairs (within one month and 1°) extracted from the World Ocean Database 2009 (WOD09) from 1966 to 2010. Using the side-by-side dataset, it was found that b...
Article
Full-text available
eXpendable BathyThermograph (XBT) data were the major component of the ocean temperature profile observations from the late 1960s through early 2000s, and XBTs still continue to provide critical data to monitor surface and subsurface currents, meridional heat transport, and ocean heat content. Systematic errors have been identified in the XBT data,...
Article
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Earth’s energy imbalance (EEI) drives the ongoing global warming and can best be assessed across the historical record (that is, since 1960) from ocean heat content (OHC) changes. An accurate assessment of OHC is a challenge, mainly because of insufficient and irregular data coverage. We provide updated OHC estimates with the goal of minimizing ass...
Data
http://159.226.119.60/cheng/ IAP ocean subsurface temperature dataset: 1940-2016 monthly, 1by1 degree, 41 vertical levels for 0-2000m.
Article
Full-text available
Recent estimates of the global warming rates suggest that approximately 9% of the Earth’s excess heat is cumulated in the deep and abyssal oceans (below 2000 m depth) during the last two decades. Such estimates assume stationary trends deducted as long-term rates. In order to reassess the deep ocean warming and potentially shed light on its inter-a...
Article
The ocean's thermal inertia is a major contributor to irreversible ocean changes exceeding time scales that matter to human society. This fact is a challenge to societies as they prepare for the consequences of climate change, especially with respect to the ocean. Here the authors review the requirements for human actions from the ocean's perspecti...
Article
This paper includes a comprehensive assessment of 40 models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) and 33 models from the CMIP phase 6 (CMIP6) to determine the climatological and seasonal variation of ocean salinity from the surface to 2000 m. The general pattern of the ocean salinity climatology can be simulated by both the...
Article
The increased concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere create an increase in Earth’s thermal energy, which is mainly stored in the ocean. Quantification of the rate of increase in ocean heat content (OHC) is vital for understanding the current and future climate of the Earth. Linear trend-lines have been frequently used to quantify long...
Article
A new approach is taken to estimating the time of death based on cadaver temperatures. The predictions are obtained by using numerical simulation that can be performed in a case‐by‐case scenario. Such a method enables time‐of‐death predictions for persons of any size and weight and in any thermal environment. An added advantage of the method is tha...
Article
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The increased concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere from human activities traps heat within the climate system and increases ocean heat content (OHC). Here, we provide the first analysis of recent OHC changes through 2021 from two international groups. The world ocean, in 2021, was the hottest ever recorded by humans, and the 2021 ann...
Book
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Framing and Context of the Report Chapter 1 Executive Summary This special report assesses new knowledge since the IPCC 5th Assessment Report (AR5) and the Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5oC (SR15) on how the ocean and cryosphere have and are expected to change with ongoing global warming, the risks and opportunities these changes bring to e...
Article
Numerical simulations have been carried out for gas flow through a horizontal pipe. Accounting is made of buoyancy effects, changes to the thermophysical properties, and the presence of a blockage. It was found that for low-to-moderate Reynolds numbers, the combined effects on heat transfer and pressure loss leads to an improved performance with th...
Article
Full-text available
The quality control (QC) of ocean observational data, essential to establish a high-quality global ocean database, is one of the basic data pre-processing steps in oceanography research, marine monitoring, and forecasting. With the introduction of various advanced instruments in recent decades, oceanographic surveys have expanded from coastal regio...
Article
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Salinity plays a vital role in regulating ocean density, stratification and circulation, and is an indicator of the coupling between the ocean, atmosphere and land through the water cycle. This study provides a spatially complete look of the seasonal variation of the upper 2000m ocean salinity from regional to global scales, and assesses the robust...
Article
Full-text available
Global ocean physical and chemical trends are reviewed and updated using seven key ocean climate change indicators: (i) Sea Surface Temperature, (ii) Ocean Heat Content, (iii) Ocean pH, (iv) Dissolved Oxygen concentration (v) Arctic Sea Ice extent, thickness, and volume (vi) Sea Level and (vii) the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Ci...
Chapter
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Here we provide an overview of some of the most commonly used turbulence models used in current CFD modeling. We compare the governing equations, applications of use, and results between the models. Finally, we provide our own recommendations, based on more than two decades of collaborative research.
Article
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This chapter details 2020 global patterns in select observed oceanic physical, chemical, and biological variables relative to long-term climatologies, their differences between 2020 and 2019, and puts 2020 observations in the context of the historical record.
Article
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Ocean temperature observations are crucial for a host of climate research and forecasting activities, such as climate monitoring, ocean reanalysis and state estimation, seasonal-to-decadal forecasts, and ocean forecasting. For all of these applications, it is crucial to understand the uncertainty attached to each of the observations, accounting for...
Chapter
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KEYNOTE POINTS 1. Thermal expansion from a warming ocean and land ice melt are the main causes of the accelerating global rise in the mean sea level. 2. Global warming is also affecting many circulation systems. The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation has already weakened and will most likely continue to do so in the future. The impacts o...
Article
Full-text available
Expendable bathythermographs (XBTs) have been widely deployed for ocean monitoring since the late-1960s. Improving the quality of XBT data is a vital task in climatology. Many factors (e.g., temperature, probe type, and manufacturing time) have been identified as major influences of XBT systematic bias. In addition, the recording system (RS) has lo...
Article
Full-text available
The long-term warming of the ocean is a critical indicator of both the past and present state of the climate system. It also provides insights about the changes to come, owing to the persistence of both decadal variations and secular trends, which the ocean records extremely well (Hansen et al., 2011; IPCC, 2013; Rhein et al., 2013; Trenberth et al...
Article
Full-text available
Seawater generally forms stratified layers with lighter waters near the surface and denser waters at greater depth. This stable configuration acts as a barrier to water mixing that impacts the efficiency of vertical exchanges of heat, carbon, oxygen and other constituents. Previous quantification of stratification change has been limited to simple...
Article
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The study of energy flows in the Earth system is essential for understanding current climate change. To understand how energy is accumulating and being distributed within the climate system, an updated reconstruction of energy fluxes at the top of atmosphere, surface and within the atmosphere derived from observations is presented. New satellite an...
Article
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The Indian Ocean Observing System (IndOOS), established in 2006, is a multinational network of sustained oceanic measurements that underpin understanding and forecasting of weather and climate for the Indian Ocean region and beyond. Almost one-third of humanity lives around the Indian Ocean, many in countries dependent on fisheries and rain-fed agr...
Article
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Ocean salinity records the hydrological cycle and its changes, but data scarcity and the large changes in sampling make the reconstructions of long-term salinity changes challenging. Here, we present a new observational estimate of changes in ocean salinity since 1960 from the surface to 2000 m. We overcome some of the inconsistencies present in ex...
Article
Full-text available
Human-induced atmospheric composition changes cause a radiative imbalance at the top of the atmosphere which is driving global warming. This Earth energy imbalance (EEI) is the most critical number defining the prospects for continued global warming and climate change. Understanding the heat gain of the Earth system – and particularly how much and...
Article
Full-text available
The rate of global-mean sea-level rise since 1900 has varied over time, but the contributing factors are still poorly understood¹. Previous assessments found that the summed contributions of ice-mass loss, terrestrial water storage and thermal expansion of the ocean could not be reconciled with observed changes in global-mean sea level, implying th...
Chapter
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Overview—R. Lumpkin In this chapter, we examine the state of the global oceans in 2019, focusing both on changes from 2018 to 2019 and on the longer-term perspective. Sidebars focus on the significant and ongoing scientific results from the growing array of Argo floats measuring biogeochemical properties, and on the OceanObs’19 conference, a once-p...
Article
The current coronavirus pandemic has reached global proportions and requires unparalleled collective and individual efforts to slow its spread. One critically important issue is the proper sterilization of physical objects that have been contaminated by the virus. Here, we review the currently existing literature on thermal inactivation of coronavi...
Article
The importance of a national or regional network of meteorological stations for improving weather predictions has been recognized for many years. Ground-based automatic weather stations typically observe weather at a height of 2–10 m above ground level (AGL); however, these observations may have two major shortcomings. Large portions of data cannot...
Article
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A strategy that informs on countries’ potential losses due to lack of climate action may facilitate global climate governance. Here, we quantify a distribution of mitigation effort whereby each country is economically better off than under current climate pledges. This effort-sharing optimizing approach applied to a 1.5 °C and 2 °C global warming t...
Article
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A homogeneous, consistent, high-quality in situ temperature data set covering some decades in time is crucial for the detection of climate changes in the ocean. For the period 1940 to present, this study investigates the data quality of temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermographs (MBT) by comparing these data with reference data obtained...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. Human-induced atmospheric composition changes cause a radiative imbalance at the top-of-atmosphere which is driving global warming. This Earth Energy Imbalance (EEI) is a fundamental metric of climate change. Understanding the heat gain of the Earth system from this accumulated heat – and particularly how much and where the heat is distri...
Article
Full-text available
During the Argo period, the Pacific Ocean as well as the global oceans became saltier in the upper-200 m from 2005 to 2015, with a significant spatial variability. Using Argo-based observations and the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO), a salinity budget analysis in the upper 200 m was conducted to investigate what controls...
Chapter
Full-text available
This is the Summary for Policy Makers of the IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate, as approved by the IPCC member countries at the Plenary in Monaco, 25 September 2019.
Poster
Full-text available
Community Paper - Frontiers of Marine Science https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00432/full
Article
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The energy radiated by the Earth toward space does not compensate the incoming radiation from the Sun leading to a small positive energy imbalance at the top of the atmosphere (0.4–1 Wm–2). This imbalance is coined Earth’s Energy Imbalance (EEI). It is mostly caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and is driving the current warming of the...
Article
Full-text available
The first eXpendable BathyThermographs (XBTs) were deployed in the 1960s in the North Atlantic Ocean. In 1967 XBTs were deployed in operational mode to provide a continuous record of temperature profile data along repeated transects, now known as the Global XBT Network. The current network is designed to monitor ocean circulation and boundary curre...
Article
Full-text available
Ocean meridional heat transports (MHTs) are deduced as a residual using energy budgets to produce latitude versus time series for the globe, Indo-Pacific, and Atlantic. The top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiation is combined with the vertically integrated atmospheric energy divergence from atmospheric reanalyses to produce the net surface energy fluxes e...
Article
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As the strongest interannual perturbation to the climate system, El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) dominates the year-to-year variability of the ocean energy budget. Here we combine ocean observations, reanalyses, and surface flux data with Earth system model simulations to obtain estimates of the different terms affecting the redistribution of e...
Chapter
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The canonical problem of flow over a square cylinder has been studied extensively in the scientific literature. Nevertheless, there are some critical issues which are not fully understood. Here, an extensive review of the literature is presented and brought together in a single repository. Next, remaining questions are identified such as: Which mod...
Chapter
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This Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere1 in a Changing Climate (SROCC) was prepared following an IPCC Panel decision in 2016 to prepare three Special Reports during the Sixth Assessment Cycle2 . By assessing new scientific literature3 , the SROCC4 responds to government and observer organization proposals. The SROCC follows the other two Sp...
Article
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Ocean heat content (OHC) is the major component of the earth’s energy imbalance. Its decadal scale variability has been heavily debated in the research interest of the so-called “surface warming slowdown” (SWS) that occurred during the 1998–2013 period. Here, we first clarify that OHC has accelerated since the late 1990s. This finding refutes the c...
Presentation
Full-text available
Reliable long-term ocean subsurface temperature measurements are critical for understanding changes in the Earth’s energy imbalance, ocean temperature, sea level, and also separating natural variability from anthropogenic factors. The International Quality Controlled Ocean Database (IQuOD, www.iquod.org), with support from programmes, such as CLIVA...
Article
Full-text available
The T5 expendable bathythermographs reach the greatest depth within the current XBT family. Since the early 1970s, in several areas they have been providing a significant part of available temperature profiles below 1000 m and therefore represent an important resource for ocean climate study. In this paper we present new results from laboratory tes...
Article
Full-text available
Global mean sea level is an integral of changes occurring in the climate system in response to un-forced climate variability as well as natural and anthropogenic forcing factors. Its temporal evolution allows changes (e.g., acceleration) to be detected in one or more components. Study of the sea-level budget provides constraints on missing or poorl...
Article
Global mean sea level is an integral of changes occurring in the climate system in response to unforced climate variability as well as natural and anthropogenic forcing factors. Its temporal evolution allows changes (e.g., acceleration) to be detected in one or more components. Study of the sea-level budget provides constraints on missing or poorly...
Article
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In 2017, the dominant greenhouse gases released into Earth's atmosphere-carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide-reached new record highs. The annual global average carbon dioxide concentration at Earth's surface for 2017 was 405.0 ± 0.1 ppm, 2.2 ppm greater than for 2016 and the highest in the modern atmospheric measurement record and in ice cor...
Article
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While hurricanes occur naturally, human-caused climate change is supercharging them and exacerbating the risk of major damage. Here using ocean and atmosphere observations, we demonstrate links between increased upper ocean heat content due to global warming with the extreme rainfalls from recent hurricanes. Hurricane Harvey provides an excellent c...
Article
Full-text available
Inconsistent global/basin ocean heat content (OHC) changes were found in different ocean subsurface temperature analyses, especially in recent studies related to the slowdown in global surface temperature rise. This finding challenges the reliability of the ocean subsurface temperature analyses and motivates a more comprehensive inter-comparison be...
Article
Full-text available
The difficulty in effectively evaluating sea surface temperature (SST) analyses is finding independent observations, since most available observations have been used in the SST analyses. In this study, the ocean profile measurements [from reverse thermometer, CTD, mechanical bathythermograph (MBT), and XBT] above 5-m depth over 1950-2016 from the W...