Lidia Morawska

Lidia Morawska
Queensland University of Technology | QUT · International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health

1982 PhD Physics
Lidia Morawska is a physicist and Distinguished Professor at the Queensland University of Technology

About

821
Publications
395,262
Reads
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113,412
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2020 - present
University of Surrey
Position
  • Fellow
July 2018 - present
Jinan University (Guangzhou, China)
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
January 2003 - April 2021
Queensland University of Technology
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Education
January 1977 - December 1982
Jagiellonian University
Field of study
  • Physics

Publications

Publications (821)
Article
Quantifying the threat that climate change poses to fine particle (PM2.5) pollution is hampered by large uncertainties in the relationship between PM2.5 and meteorology. To constrain the impact of climate change on PM2.5, statistical models are often employed in a different manner than physical-chemical models to reduce the requirement of input dat...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: While increasing the ventilation rate is an important measure to remove inhalable virus-laden respiratory particles and lower the risk of infection, direct validation in schools with population-based studies is far from definitive. Methods: We investigated the strength of association between ventilation and SARS-CoV-2 transmission repor...
Article
The small size and large surface area of ultrafine particles (UFP) enhance their ability to deposit in the lung periphery and their reactivity. The Ultrafine Particles from Traffic Emissions and Children's Health (UPTECH) cross-sectional study was conducted in 8–11-year-old schoolchildren attending 25 primary (elementary) schools, randomly selected...
Article
Full-text available
The spread of respiratory diseases via aerosol particles in indoor settings is of significant concern. The SARS-CoV-2 virus has been found to spread widely in confined enclosures like hotels, hospitals, cruise ships, prisons, and churches. Particles exhaled from a person indoors can remain suspended long enough for increasing the opportunity for pa...
Preprint
COVID-19 has demonstrated the devastating consequences of the rapid spread of an airborne virus in residential aged care. We report the use of CO2 based ventilation assessment to empirically identify potential 'super-spreader' zones within an aged care facility, and determine the efficacy of rapidly implemented, inexpensive, risk reduction measures...
Article
Full-text available
Poor ventilation and polluting cooking fuels in low-income homes cause high exposure, yet relevant global studies are limited. We assessed exposure to in-kitchen particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) employing similar instrumentation in 60 low-income homes across 12 cities: Dhaka (Bangladesh); Chennai (India); Nanjing (China); Medellín (Colombia); Sã...
Article
Public transport environments are thought to play a key role in the spread of SARS-CoV-2 worldwide. Indeed, high crowding indexes (i.e. high numbers of people relative to the vehicle size), inadequate clean air supply, and frequent extended exposure durations make transport environments potential hotspots for transmission of respiratory infections....
Article
Air pollution is among the top risk faced by people around the world, and therefore combating it is among the top priorities. It begins with identifying the sources that contribute the most to local air pollution to prioritize their control. There are advanced methods for source identification and apportionment, but such methods are not available i...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives To use data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2019 (GBD 2019) to estimate mortality and disability trends for the population aged ≥70 and evaluate patterns in causes of death, disability, and risk factors. Design Systematic analysis. Setting Participants were aged ≥70 from 204 countries and terri...
Article
In this study, the risk of infection from SARS‐CoV‐2 Delta variant of passengers sharing a car cabin with an infected subject for a 30‐min journey is estimated through an integrated approach combining a recently developed predictive emission‐to‐risk approach and a validated CFD numerical model numerically solved using the open‐source OpenFOAM softw...
Preprint
A consensus statement from physicians and scientists with a range of expertise in the areas of respiratory infection and aerosols, to clarify the discussion surrounding a recent preprint (https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2022.01.08.22268944v1) describing the aerosol dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) which generated cont...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this paper the risk of infection from SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant of passengers sharing a car cabin with an infected subject for a 30-min journey is estimated through an integrated approach combining a recently developed predictive emission-to-risk approach and a validated CFD numerical model numerically solved using the open-source OpenFOAM softwa...
Article
Full-text available
The airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 remains surprisingly controversial; indeed, health and regulatory authorities still require direct proof of this mode of transmission. To close this gap, we measured the viral load of SARS-CoV-2 of an infected subject in a hospital room (through an oral and nasopharyngeal swab), as well as the airborne SARS-C...
Article
Full-text available
Some infectious diseases, including COVID-19, can undergo airborne transmission. This may happen at close proximity, but as time indoors increases, infections can occur in shared room air despite distancing. We propose two indicators of infection risk for this situation, that is, relative risk parameter (Hr) and risk parameter (H). They combine the...
Article
Full-text available
The world's population is shifting to the cities, and consequently, cities worldwide are growing in number and in size. Cities are complex systems, making it extremely difficult to build and run cities in a way that all the elements of the system operate in harmony. Recently a concept of urbanome, the genome of the city was proposed to address this...
Article
Full-text available
Background Effective vaccines are now available for SARS-CoV-2 in the 2nd year of the COVID-19 pandemic, but there remains significant uncertainty surrounding the necessary vaccination rate to safely lift occupancy controls in public buildings and return to pre-pandemic norms. The aim of this paper is to estimate setting-specific vaccination thresh...
Article
Full-text available
The Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 causes higher viral loads in infected hosts, increasing the risk of close proximity airborne transmission through breathing, speaking and coughing. We performed a Monte Carlo simulation using a social contact network and exponential dose-response model to quantify the close proximity reproduction number of both wild-...
Article
Full-text available
Background The widely used Air Quality Index (AQI) has been criticized due to its inaccuracy, leading to the development of the air quality health index (AQHI), an improvement on the AQI. However, there is currently no consensus on the most appropriate construction strategy for the AQHI. Objectives In this study, we aimed to evaluate the utility o...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this study, we apply a novel combination of close proximity and room-scale risk assessment approaches for people sharing public transport environments to predict their contagion risk due to SARS-CoV-2 respiratory infection. In particular, the individual infection risk of susceptible subjects and the transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 (expressed thro...
Preprint
Full-text available
The question of how SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted remains surprisingly controversial today, especially with reference to airborne transmission. In fact, despite a large body of scientific evidence, health and regulatory authorities still require direct proof of this mode of transmission. To close this gap, we measured the saliva viral load of SARS-CoV-...
Article
Full-text available
Background Regularly updated data on stroke and its pathological types, including data on their incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability, risk factors, and epidemiological trends, are important for evidence-based stroke care planning and resource allocation. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) aims to provide a...
Article
Full-text available
Background SARS-CoV-2 poses a considerable threat to those living in residential aged care facilities (RACF). RACF COVID-19 outbreaks have been characterised by the rapid spread of infection and high rates of severe disease and associated mortality. Despite a growing body of evidence supporting airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2, current infection...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence of associations between exposure to ambient air pollution and health outcomes are sparse in the South Asian region due to limited air pollution exposure and quality health data. This study investigated the potential impacts of ambient particulate matter (PM) on respiratory disease hospitalization in Kandy, Sri Lanka for the year 2019. The...
Article
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Background Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 has targeted elimination of preventable child mortality, reduction of neonatal death to less than 12 per 1000 livebirths, and reduction of death of children younger than 5 years to less than 25 per 1000 livebirths, for each country by 2030. To understand current rates, recent trends, and potential traject...
Article
Full-text available
The toxicity of ultrafine particles (UFPs) on blood pressure (BP) has not been well studied. We aimed to evaluate the associations of long-term UFP exposure with different components of BP and the risk of prehypertension/hypertension. We included a total of 24 845 Chinese adults (18–74 years old) in a cross-sectional survey (Liaoning province, Chin...
Article
Full-text available
Urban air pollution is a significant health risks to urban dwellers around the world. Knowledge of the levels of air pollution at various spatial locations in a city offers insight into the personal exposure of residents and facilitates the control of air pollution. This study investigated ultrafine particles (UFP) in key microenvironments in which...
Article
Full-text available
A new design method is proposed to calculate outdoor air ventilation rates to control respiratory infection risk in indoor spaces. We propose to use this method in future ventilation standards to complement existing ventilation criteria based on the perceived air quality and pollutant removal. The proposed method makes it possible to calculate the...
Article
Background Beneficial effects of greenness on birth outcomes have been reported, but few studies have investigated the associations in both urban and non-urban settings. We aimed to evaluate and compare linear and nonlinear associations between greenness and birth outcomes in urban and non-urban settings. Methods From October 2015 to December 2018...
Article
Full-text available
The real-time monitoring of reductions of economic activity by containment measures and its effect on the transmission of the coronavirus (COVID-19) is a critical unanswered question. We inferred 5,642 weekly activity anomalies from the meteorology-adjusted differences in spaceborne tropospheric NO2 column concentrations after the 2020 COVID-19 out...
Research
Full-text available
For open communication we publish the review comments for a study titled "Evaluating the Theoretical Background of STOFFENMANAGER® and the Advanced REACH Tool" by Koivisto AJ, Jayjock M, Hämeri KJ, Kulmala M, Van Sprang P, Yu M, Boor BE, Hussein T, Koponen IK, Löndahl J, Morawska L, Little JC and Arnold S. The original study can be found from Ann W...
Article
Full-text available
STOFFENMANAGER ® and the Advanced REACH Tool (ART) are recommended tools by the European Chemical Agency for regulatory chemical safety assessment. The models are widely used and accepted within the scientific community. STOFFENMANAGER ® alone has more than 37 000 users globally and more than 310 000 risk assessment have been carried out by 2020. R...
Article
Full-text available
STOFFENMANAGER® and the Advanced REACH Tool (ART) are recommended tools by the European Chemical Agency for regulatory chemical safety assessment. The models are widely used and accepted within the scientific community. STOFFENMANAGER® alone has more than 37 000 users globally and more than 310 000 risk assessment have been carried out by 2020. Reg...
Article
Full-text available
We examined the trade-offs between in-car aerosol concentrations, ventilation and respiratory infection transmission under three ventilation settings: windows open (WO); windows closed with air-conditioning on ambient air mode (WC-AA); and windows closed with air-conditioning on recirculation (WC-RC). Forty-five runs, covering a total of 324 km dis...
Article
Full-text available
Background Evidence of maternal exposure to ambient air pollution on congenital heart defects (CHD) has been mixed and are still relatively limited in developing countries. We aimed to investigate the association between maternal exposure to air pollution and CHD in China. Method This longitudinal, population-based, case-control study consecutivel...
Article
Incense burning is a common cultural and religious practice in many Asian countries including Vietnam. However, there is scarce information about the impact of incense burning in the residential indoor environment. In this study, we quantified the concentrations of PM2.5 indoor and outdoor and assessed the influence of incense burning on indoor air...
Article
The infectious emission rate is a fundamental input parameter for airborne transmission risk assessment, but data are limited due to reliance on estimates from chance superspreading events. This study assesses the strength of a predictive estimation approach developed by the authors for SARS-CoV-2 and uses novel estimates to compare the contagiousn...
Article
Full-text available
Background Prevention, control, and treatment of respiratory tract cancers are important steps towards achieving target 3.4 of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)—a one-third reduction in premature mortality due to non-communicable diseases by 2030. We aimed to provide global, regional, and national estimates of the burden of tracheal, bron...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Effective vaccines are now available for SARS-CoV-2 in the second year of the COVID-19 pandemic, but there remains significant uncertainty surrounding the necessary vaccination rate to safely lift occupancy controls in public buildings and return to pre-pandemic norms. The aim of this paper is to estimate setting-specific vaccination thr...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the complete lockdown of many cities worldwide. Lockdowns have significantly changed human behaviour, such as fewer or no industrial activities and limited road and air transport, affecting the environment. In this study, we aimed to assess the variability and trends of PM2.5 (mass concentration of airborne particul...
Article
Severe episodic air pollution blankets entire cities and regions and have a profound impact on humans and their activities. We compiled daily fine particle (PM 2.5) data from 100 cities in five continents, investigated the trends of number, frequency, and duration of pollution episodes, and compared these with the baseline trend in air pollution. W...
Article
Full-text available
The operation of laser printers can lead to the emission of high numbers of ultrafine particles. Evidence on the toxicology and adverse health effects of these particles has been mounting, however few studies have investigated the complexity of these particles in terms of their volatility, hygroscopicity and mixing state. This study utilized a Vola...
Article
Reducing the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through indoor air is the key challenge of the COVID-19 pandemic. Crowded indoor environments, such as schools, represent possible hotspots for virus transmission since the basic non-pharmaceutical mitigation measures applied so far (e.g. social distancing) do not eliminate the airborne transmission mode. The...
Article
Although the interpersonal distance represents an important parameter affecting the risk of infection due to respiratory viruses, the mechanism of exposure to exhaled droplets remains insufficiently characterized. In this study, an integrated risk assessment is presented for SARS-CoV-2 close proximity exposure between a speaking infectious subject...
Article
Looking further than COVID-19, some of the key messages: 1. We from now on should include the risk of indoor respiratory infections in our design of buildings and its ventilation. 2. Treat the air quality in a similar way as we are used to for water and food quality. 3. ‘Visualize’ the air quality by displaying monitoring values (e.g. CO2 concentra...
Article
Particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5μm (PM2.5) concentrations vary between countries with similar carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which can be partially explained by differences in air pollution control efficacy. However, no indicator of air pollution control efficacy has yet been developed. We aimed to develop such an indicator, and t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Some infectious diseases, including COVID-19, can be transmitted via aerosols that are emitted by an infectious person and inhaled by susceptible individuals. Most airborne transmission occurs at close proximity and is effectively reduced by physical distancing, but as time indoors increases, infections occur in those sharing room air despite maint...
Preprint
Although close contact represents an important contagion route, the mechanism of exposure to exhaled droplets remains insufficiently characterized. In this study, an integrated risk assessment is presented for SARS-CoV-2 close contact exposure between a speaking infectious subject and a susceptible subject. It is based on a three-dimensional transi...
Article
Existing evidence is scarce concerning the various effects of different PM sizes and chemical constituents on blood lipids. A panel study that involved 88 healthy college students with five repeated measurements (440 blood samples in total) was performed. We measured mass concentrations of particulate matter with diameters ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), ≤1.0 μm...
Preprint
Reducing the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through indoor air is the key challenge of the COVID-19 pandemic. Crowded indoor environments, such as schools, represent possible hotspots for virus transmission since the basic non-pharmaceutical mitigation measures applied so far (e.g. social distancing) do not eliminate the airborne transmission mode. The...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this study, a respiratory infection-based outdoor air ventilation criterion was derived in the form of new ventilation equation that was applied to cases studies representing typical rooms in public buildings. The derived ventilation equation allows to calculate the required ventilation rate at a given probability of infection and quanta emissio...
Article
In every breath, humans take in particles that may be deposited on the respiratory tract and exhale particles that may contain pathogens. Lidia Morawska and Giorgio Buonanno explain how physics advances are needed to understand these processes.
Article
Full-text available
Given the widespread concern but general lack of information over the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 infection in public transport, key issues such as passenger personal hygiene, efficient air circulation systems, and the effective disinfection of frequently touched surfaces need to be evaluated to educate the public and diminish the risk of viral trans...
Article
Full-text available
The way we produce and use energy is transforming. Policy in this area intersects decisions that affect climate change, air quality, and the economy. The exponential increase in use of fossil fuel and nuclear energy has now essentially replaced human and animal energy (McKinney 2019 Curr. Pollut. Rep. 5 394–406; Solomon and Krishna 2011 Energy Poli...
Preprint
Background The infectious emission rate is a critical input parameter for airborne contagion models, but data are limited due to reliance on estimates from chance superspreading events. A predictive estimation approach for the quanta emission rate (ER q ) was recently proposed for SARS-CoV-2 using the droplet volume concentration of various expirat...
Article
Exposure to air pollutants, including black carbon (BC), during transportation is an important contribution to the total daily respiratory exposure for humans. Exposure to BC is especially relevant in crowded cities of developing countries. Specifically, in Hanoi (Vietnam), air pollution including BC is of concern, particularly near traffic. Despit...
Article
The diurnal variation of pollutants such as particles and carbon monoxide (CO) in urban environments typically follow the traffic density, with two peaks coinciding with the weekday morning and evening rush-hour periods. However, observations made in central Brisbane, the third largest city in Australia, demonstrated an anomalous diurnal variation...
Article
Full-text available
The Covid-19 pandemic has caused untold disruption and enhanced mortality rates around the world. Understanding the mechanisms for transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is key to preventing further spread but there is confusion over the meaning of “airborne” whenever transmission is discussed. Scientific ambivalence originates from evidence published many yea...
Article
Full-text available
Spraying roads with water on a large scale in Chinese cities is one of the supplementary precaution or mitigation actions implemented to control severe air pollution events or heavy haze-fog events in which the mechanisms causing them are not yet fully understood. These air pollution events were usually characterized by higher air humidity. Therefo...