Lian Thomas

Lian Thomas
University of Liverpool | UoL · Institue for Infection Veterinary & Ecological Sciences

BSc, MSc, DVM, PhD MRCVS

About

79
Publications
20,212
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Introduction
I am a veterinary epidemiologist with strong interest in One Health and the economics of controlling neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs). I currently lead the NZD theme within the BMZ funded One Health Centre in Africa hosted by ILRI. I hold a University of Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Institutional Strategic Support Fund Veterinary Fellowship and a Soulsby Foundation Fellowship to carry out research on food-safety in rapidly intensifying pork value chains in Nairobi.
Additional affiliations
January 2018 - present
International Livestock Research Institute
Position
  • Scientist

Publications

Publications (79)
Article
Full-text available
Taenia (T.) solium is a zoonotic parasite causing three diseases: Taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans and porcine cysticercosis in pigs. Although biomedically, the transmission of the parasite can be easily interrupted at six points along the life cycle, the contextual factors that may influence the adoption of these control strategies in Uganda...
Article
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Interventions to control or eradicate neglected zoonoses are generally paid for through the public purse and when these interventions focus on the animal hosts, they are often expected to be performed and financed through the state veterinary service. The benefits of control, however, accrue across the human, animal, and environmental spaces and en...
Article
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A study was carried out in Kamuli and Hoima districts in Eastern and Western regions of Uganda to determine the Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis (PCC) and gastrointestinal (GI) parasites co-infection status in pigs. One hundred sixty-one households were selected randomly and visited between November and December 2019. A household questionnaire w...
Article
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The World Health Organisation has targeted the elimination of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) as zero transmission by 2030. Continued surveillance needs to be in place for early detection of re-emergent cases. In this context, the performance of diagnostic tests and testing algorithms for detection of the re-emergence of Trypanosoma brucei gamb...
Article
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Estimates put the number of people dying from endemic zoonoses at more than two million each year. Those affected above all belong to the low-and middle-income strata of society who have already been overlooked by both policy-makers and healthcare providers. Our authors give an overview of the key drivers of zoonoses and show how the One Health app...
Article
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Risk assessment is a formal process of identifying hazards and assessing the risk associated with them (risk is a combination of the severity of illness and the probability of occurrence). This review highlights foodborne disease hazards reported in beverages consumed in Nigeria for the period between 2000 and 2020. Based on a preregistered protoco...
Article
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Background Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite infecting warm-blooded animals. Infection in people can occur through ingestion of oocysts passed in the faeces of the definitive hosts; ingestion of bradyzoites in the tissue of infected intermediate hosts; or exposure to tachyzoites in raw milk and eggs. Slaughterhouse workers are cons...
Article
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Background Little is known about the diagnostic performance of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for passive screening of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) in Côte d'Ivoire. We determined HAT prevalence among clinical suspects, identified clinical symptoms and signs associated with HAT RDT positivity, and assessed the diagnostic tests' specificity, p...
Article
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Q fever, caused by C. burnetii, has been reported in slaughterhouse workers worldwide. The most reported risk factor for seropositivity is the workers' role in the slaughterhouse. This study examined the seroprevalence and risk factors for antibodies to C. burnetii in slaughterhouse workers in western Kenya to fill a data gap relating to this emerg...
Article
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Background Taenia solium ( T . solium ), is a zoonotic helminth causing three diseases namely; taeniasis (in humans), neurocysticercosis (NCC, in humans) and porcine cysticercosis (PCC, in pigs) and is one of the major foodborne diseases by burden. The success or failure of control options against this parasite in terms of reduced prevalence or inc...
Article
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Background: Collaboration between the human and animal health sectors, including the sharing of disease surveillance data, has the potential to improve public health outcomes through the rapid detection of zoonotic disease events prior to widespread transmission in humans. Kenya has been at the forefront of embracing a collaborative approach in Afr...
Article
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Hospitals in Kenya continue to use the Febrile Antigen Brucella Agglutination Test (FBAT) to diagnose brucellosis, despite reports showing its inadequacy. This study generated hospital-based evidence on the performance and cost-effectiveness of the FBAT, compared to the Rose Bengal Test (RBT).Twelve hospitals in western Kenya stored patient serum s...
Article
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Major shifts in how animals are bred, raised and slaughtered are involved in the intensification of livestock systems. Globally, these changes have produced major increases in access to protein-rich foods with high levels of micronutrients. Yet the intensification of livestock systems generates numerous externalities including environmental degrada...
Article
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The World Health Organization (WHO) called, in 2012, for a validated strategy towards Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis control and elimination. Estimating pig force-of-infection (FoI, the average rate at which susceptible pigs become infected) across geographical settings will help understand local epidemiology and inform effective interventio...
Article
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Our food systems are progressively more industrialized and consolidated with many modern food value chains involving multiple countries and continents, and as such being associated with changes in risk profile and impacts of emerging and re-emerging diseases. Disease outbreaks that sweep through a single region can have massive impacts on food supp...
Article
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Background: Taenia saginata is an important zoonotic parasite, causing taeniosis in humans and cysticercosis in bovines, the latter being a significant concern for the global beef industry. Many countries in East, Southeast and South Asia are experiencing rapid economic growth, and an increasing number of people in these countries are dependent on...
Chapter
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This book contains 18 chapters that describes the evolving and multi-faceted roles of ILRI in addressing these and other global challenges in nearly a half century of research. ILRI researchers and partners took leading roles, for example, in the following. This volume can serve as a reference and resource for all interested in the role of livestoc...
Article
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Background: The zoonotic tapeworm Taenia saginata, although causing only minor discomfort in humans, is responsible for considerable economic losses in the livestock sector due to condemnation or downgrading of infected beef carcasses. An overview of current knowledge on the distribution and prevalence of this parasite in West and Central Africa i...
Article
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The zoonotic helminth T. solium is one of the leading causes of acquired epilepsy in endemic countries, resulting in a high burden both in human health and social stigma of affected people (1-3). In 2012 T. solium was highlighted as a priority for control in the World Health Assembly resolution 66.12 (4). Despite a call for validated control strate...
Article
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Background The zoonotic parasite Taenia saginata transmits between humans, the definitive host (causing taeniosis), and bovines as the intermediate host (causing cysticercosis). Central and western Asia and the Caucasus have large cattle populations and beef consumption is widespread. However, an overview of the extent of human T. saginata infectio...
Article
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Background: The zoonotic parasite Taenia saginata utilizes bovines as an intermediate host (causing cysticercosis) and humans as the definitive host (causing taeniosis). The public health burden of T. saginata is assumed to be low, but the economic burden is large, due to the resources utilized in the detection and condemnation of infected carcass...
Article
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The importance of household socio-economic position (SEP) in shaping individual infectious disease risk is increasingly recognised, particularly in low income settings. However, few studies have measured the extent to which this association is consistent for the range of pathogens that are typically endemic among the rural poor in the tropics. This...
Article
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Background Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis is a public health and agricultural problem, especially in low-income countries, and has been ranked the top foodborne parasitic hazard globally. In 2012, the World Health Organization published a roadmap that called for a validated strategy for T. solium control and elimination by 2015. This goal ha...
Article
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Background & methods: Taenia solium a zoonotic tapeworm, responsible for neurocysticercosis in humans is a major public health threat, being a leading cause of acquired epilepsy in endemic regions. Eastern and southern African nations have experienced a recent rapid growth in pig production, including small-scale, free-range systems, with an accom...
Article
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The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are characterized by their tendency to cluster within groups of people, typically the poorest and most marginalized. Despite this, measures of clustering, such as within-group correlation or between-group heterogeneity, are rarely reported from community-based studies of NTD risk. We describe a general context...
Article
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Background Russia is traditionally an endemic area for Taenia saginata infection, where a programme for the prevention of infection has been implemented for sixty years. This paper aims, therefore, to review the recent epidemiology data of Taenia saginata infection in the Russian Federation. Methods We undertook a systematic review of published...
Article
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Background The beef tapeworm, Taenia saginata, causing cysticercosis in bovines and taeniosis in humans, is thought to have a global distribution. In eastern and southern Africa, cattle production plays a crucial role in the economy, but a clear overview of the prevalence of T. saginata in the region is still lacking. This review aims to summarize...
Article
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The drivers of vaccine development are many and varied. They include, for example, recognition of the burden of a vaccine-targeted disease, prioritisation of the multiple problems associated with a disease, consideration of the differing socio-economic situations under which vaccines are used, the influence of advocacy groups, and assessment of the...
Article
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Background: The distribution of Taenia saginata in the Americas is unclear. Establishing the distribution, economic burden, and potentials for control of bovine cysticercosis is increasingly important due to the growing demand for beef. This paper aims to take the first step and reviews the recent distribution of T. saginata taeniosis and bovine c...
Chapter
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Article
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The genetic diversity of African pigs, whether domestic or wild has not been widely studied and there is very limited published information available. Available data suggests that African domestic pigs originate from different domestication centers as opposed to international commercial breeds. We evaluated two domestic pig populations in Western K...
Data
List of genes identified in the top 0.25% iHS value for signatures of selection in Bush pig, Busia, Homabay, and Warthog populations. (XLSX)
Article
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Alphaviruses, such as chikungunya virus, and flaviviruses, such as dengue virus, are (re)-emerging arboviruses that are endemic in tropical environments. In Africa, arbovirus infections are often undiagnosed and unreported, with febrile illnesses often assumed to be malaria. This cross-sectional study aimed to characterize the seroprevalence of alp...
Data
Strobe checklist for cross-sectional studies. (DOC)
Article
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Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic arbovirus affecting livestock and people. This study was conducted in western Kenya where RVFV outbreaks have not previously been reported. The aims were to document the seroprevalence and risk factors for RVFV antibodies in a community-based sample from western Kenya and compare this with slaughterhouse...
Article
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Background The neglected zoonotic diseases (NZD) are an understudied group that are a major cause of illness throughout the developing world. In general, little is known about the prevalence and burden of NZDs in affected communities, particularly in relation to other infectious diseases with which they are often co-endemic. We describe the design...
Article
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Anna L Okello,1 Lian Francesca Thomas2 1Division of Infection and Pathway Medicine, Edinburgh Medical School, Biomedical Sciences College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Scotland; 2Independent Consultant, Lusaka, Zambia Abstract: Human taeniasis is a zoonotic condition resulting from infection with the adult stages of...
Article
Full-text available
Human brucellosis is considered to be an important but typically under-diagnosed cause of febrile illness in many low and middle-income countries. In Kenya, and throughout East Africa, laboratory diagnosis for the disease is based primarily on the febrile antigen Brucella agglutination test (FBAT), yet few studies of the diagnostic accuracy of this...
Article
Full-text available
The tapeworm Taenia solium is the parasite responsible for neurocysticercosis, a neglected tropical disease of public health importance, thought to cause approximately 1/3 of epilepsy cases across endemic regions. The consumption of undercooked infected pork perpetuates the parasite’s life-cycle through the establishment of adult tapeworm infection...
Data
Output of Sensitivity Analysis for Risk Analysis Model. (XLSX)
Article
Full-text available
Eimeriosis is caused by a protozoan infection affecting most domestic animal species. Outbreaks in cattle are associated with various environmental factors in temperate climates but limited work has been done in tropical settings. The objective of this work was to determine the prevalence and environmental factors associated with bovine Eimeria spp...
Article
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Background Inadequate facilities and hygiene at slaughterhouses can result in contamination of meat and occupational hazards to workers. The objectives of this study were to assess current conditions in slaughterhouses in western Kenya and the knowledge, and practices of the slaughterhouse workers toward hygiene and sanitation. Methods Between Feb...
Article
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Objectives Leptospirosis has been documented in slaughterhouse workers around the world. Risk factors include smoking and drinking at work, and performing tasks such as cleaning offal. This paper examined risk factors for leptospirosis seropositivity in slaughterhouse workers in western Kenya. Methods The study was conducted between May 2011 and O...
Article
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Following confirmation that a remote village of approximately 300 inhabitants in northern Lao PDR was hyperendemic for the Neglected Tropical Disease Taenia solium, a pilot human-porcine therapeutic control intervention was implemented between October 2013 and November 2014. Mass drug administration with a three day albendazole 400mg protocol was o...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence suggests that the intracellular bacterial pathogen Coxiella burnetii (which causes Q fever) is widespread, with a near global distribution. While there has been increasing attention to Q fever epidemiology in high-income settings, a recent systematic review highlighted significant gaps in our understanding of the prevalence, spatial distri...
Data
Univariable results for human seropositivity from mixed-effects logistic regression analysis. (DOCX)
Data
Univariable results for cattle seropositivity from mixed-effects logistic regression analysis. (DOCX)