Lia Nower

Lia Nower
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey | Rutgers · School of Social Work

JD, Ph.D.

About

101
Publications
91,525
Reads
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4,308
Citations
Citations since 2017
35 Research Items
2257 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
Additional affiliations
September 2006 - present
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
Position
  • Managing Director
January 2002 - August 2009
The University of Sydney
Description
  • Visiting research scholar.
July 2000 - December 2006

Publications

Publications (101)
Article
Full-text available
Background and Aims The Pathways Model is a highly-cited etiological model of problem gambling. In the past two decades, a number of studies have found support for the model's utility in classifying gambling subtypes. The aims of this paper were to refine empirically the model subtypes and to revise and update the model based on those findings. De...
Preprint
Despite the rapid expansion of legalized gambling, few social workers are trained to identify problem gambling symptoms. This study explored gambling knowledge, behavior, and problem symptoms in a sample of 1,777 clinical social workers through an online survey. Findings indicate about 77% of social workers gambled and more than 4% of those who gam...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction This study examined the degree to which perceptions of familial and household participation in gambling and other addictive behaviors in youth was associated with frequency and problem severity of gambling, alcohol and/or drug use in participants as adults. Method The study measured perceived frequency of gambling, alcohol use, drug u...
Article
Objective: This study explores the presence of different profiles of video game players across five mindfulness facets (i.e., describing, observing, nonreacting, nonjudging, and acting with awareness) and nonattachment (i.e., the ability to relate to experiences without clinging onto them). Method: Adults who play video games (N = 629) were recr...
Article
This review evaluated psychometric properties of measures developed based on the proposed DSM–5 criteria for Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) and investigated the prevalence of IGD via meta-analyses. Systematic searches in five databases identified 22 measures, examined in 56 pertinent studies. These measures, which seek to operationalize the same DS...
Article
Purpose To explore the personal gambling behavior and problem symptoms of social workers and other mental health providers to gauge their level of self-awareness, an important prerequisite to identifying and assisting clients who gamble. Method A survey was conducted with a convenience sample of 2,317 social workers and other mental health provide...
Article
Over the last decade, gambling opportunities worldwide have increased significantly, providing continual access to more people. Thus, standardized measures to assess various facets of Gambling Disorder and holistic approaches to identifying sub-groups of dis- ordered gamblers are needed. The Gambling Pathways Questionnaire (GPQ), based on the Pathw...
Article
Problem video gaming (PVG) is of significant concern among youth and contributes to increases in mental health issues among adolescents. Prevalence rates for PVG are estimated at 1-3% among non-clinical samples. Like problem gambling, it has been hypothesized that individuals reporting PVG are part of a heterogeneous group with different profiles,...
Article
Full-text available
This study applied constructs from a widely-utilized subtyping model in the field of gambling studies, the Pathways Model, to a sample of 118 patients with opioid use disorder receiving methadone-maintenance-treatment. Surveys were analyzed using latent class analysis (LCA) to examine whether the Pathways Model indicators distinguished class member...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives The present study investigated the five facets of mindfulness and nonattachment in individuals who gamble to identify latent profiles and explore descriptive differences in those profiles relative to etiological precursors to problem gambling.Methods An online convenience sample of 843 adults (59.91% male; Mage = 39.40 years; SD = 12.52)...
Article
The current study looks at participation on a popular message board website (reddit.com) to see if recent expansions of sports betting in the US correspond with the growth of a mutual support group. Data for the study included the number of weekly posts on the r/problemgambling message board from January 1, 2016 to December 31, 2020. The current st...
Article
The lottery is the most widely available form of legal gambling in the US. However, there is relatively little work in promoting responsible gambling strategies by lottery providers. The current study applies five evidence-based responsible gambling strategies, to the responsible gambling information made available on 46 state lottery websites. The...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of Review The purpose of this review was to identify possible sources of bias in the study of gambling among older adults. These sources of bias included social desirability bias including issues of increased stigmatization of gambling behaviors in older adults, recall bias including deficits in the recall of negative experiences, and selec...
Poster
Full-text available
Problem video gaming (PVG) as a behavioral addiction contributes to physical, psychological, and interpersonal issues, and is associated with increased mental health issues. Estimated prevalence rates for PVG range from 1.7% to 10% among adolescents and adult samples. Further, adolescence is a developmental period marked by substantial changes that...
Article
Interactive technology use (e.g., Internet and video games) can promote children’s educational access and achievement. However, excessive technology use, particularly for entertainment, may adversely affect children’s educational development. This study examined the relationship of the amount of entertainment-related interactive technology use and...
Preprint
Active military members and veterans both show elevated risk of Gambling Disorder. However, research comparing these groups to civilians in epidemiological samples is sparse. There is also some research suggesting that there is a stronger association between military service and poor mental outcomes for women. The current study applies bivariate an...
Article
Background: Research into problem gambling has established that the addiction results from a complex array of bio-psycho-social factors. The range of factors, however, has yet to be comprehensively identified. Applications of Self-Determination Theory (SDT) have shown that specific characteristics are associated with problem gambling, including use...
Preprint
Full-text available
Few investigations have focused on problematic social casino gaming. Social casino games are a type of video game that feature gambling elements. Unlike gambling machines, social casino games present with a number of added interactive features that render them more like video games. Therefore, problematic social casino gaming may present with sympt...
Preprint
Full-text available
In A. Begun and M. Murray (eds), The Routledge Handbook of Social Work and Addictive Behaviors (forthcoming)
Preprint
Full-text available
In Begun, A & Murray, A (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Social Work and Addictive Behaviors (forthcoming).
Article
Full-text available
This knowledge translation article is intended to help practitioners who may feel unprepared to treat gambling addiction. We describe important facts, provide an overview of best practice approaches for assessment and treatment, and outline options to help practitioners build capacity for gambling disorder services in their setting. The article is...
Article
Loot boxes are virtual items in many video games that let players to “gamble” on an item of chance. Loot boxes bring an element of gambling into video games, which might prime video game users to engage in online gambling activities. However, few studies have focused on this emerging issue. The present study investigated the relationships between l...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Attempts to address gambling-related harms have evolved rubrics to foster responsible gambling and informed choice. Those efforts have largely focused on apportioning the relative responsibility placed on government, industry, and individuals for reducing excessive gambling that leads to adverse consequences. Empirical evaluations of re...
Article
Full-text available
Studies point to a relationship between fantasy sports/daily fantasy sports (DFS) play and gambling behavior. However, little is known about the nature of those relationships, particularly regarding the development of gambling problems. This study investigates the nature, frequency, and preferences of gambling behavior as well as problem gambling s...
Article
Full-text available
A few studies have examined gambling behavior and problem gambling among minorities and reported higher rates of both participation and gambling problems among particular minority groups in comparison to Whites who gamble. The present study utilized a representative, epidemiological sample of adults in New Jersey to explore gambling behavior, gambl...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Internet Gaming Report, Calendar 2016
Article
Full-text available
The Pathways Model (Blaszczynski & Nower, 2002) is a theoretical framework that proposes three pathways for identifying etiological subtypes of problem gamblers. The model has been used to assist clinicians in developing individualized treatments that target not only the gambling behavior but also associated risk factors that may undermine recovery...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of Review The rapid expansion of legalized gambling opportunities over the past 20 years has generated interest in problem gambling and gambling disorder. This review will provide an overview of classic and newer instruments in the field. Recent Findings Early instruments in the field of gambling studies were focused exclusively on populat...
Article
Full-text available
Gambling disorder is a significant public health concern. The recent and continued proliferation of land-based and interactive gambling opportunities has increased both accessibility and acceptability of gambling in the United States and abroad, resulting in greater and more varied participation. However, there is currently no designated federal fu...
Technical Report
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Article
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Differences in problem gambling rates between males and females suggest that associated risk factors vary by gender. Previous combined analyses of male and female gambling may have obscured these distinctions. This study aimed to develop separate risk factor models for gambling problems for males and for females, and identify gender-based similarit...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This is the first in a series of research reports to the New Jersey Division of Gaming Enforcement analyzing online gaming in New Jersey.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Book
Full-text available
This report is available at: http://www.responsiblegambling.vic.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/14289/A-comparative-study-of-men-and-women-gamblers.pdf Research objectives This study was funded by the Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation to extend the analyses conducted for A Study of Gambling in Victoria (Hare, 2009) to provide detailed a...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of gambling disorder and comorbid psychiatric disorders in a homeless population and identify features related to potential subtypes. At baseline, participants were administered a structured interview including socio-demographic sections of the National Comorbidity Study (NCS) interview; s...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter explores the current state of research on older adult gambling and highlights areas for future research and policy development. Bingo, once a primary gambling activity among older adults, has declined in popularity coincidental to the legalization of casinos offering a variety of gaming machines. Despite increasing participation in gam...
Chapter
Full-text available
A comprehensive meta-analysis of existing outcome studies by Pallesen and his colleagues reported medium to large effect sizes for cognitive-behavioral therapy, cognitive-behavioral group therapy, selfhelp interventions, aversive therapy, Gamblers Anonymous, imaginal desensitization and imaginal relaxation. The fundamental aim of cognitive therapy...
Chapter
Full-text available
It is well-documented that the downward spiral of disordered gambling often leads to serious financial and legal difficulties, including the commission of criminal acts. Ultimately, most gamblers will adversely impact their credit, some will file for bankruptcy, and many will face arrest or incarceration. This chapter reviews the scholarly research...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter briefly summarizes the study and the general findings as well as specific results related to the topic “Treatment Issues,” which was deemed most important by a majority of participants in the study. The survey results highlight the need for future research into issues that will aid in the development and utilization of more effective t...
Article
Full-text available
The study utilizes data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to test the extent to which retrospectively reported ADHD symptoms are associated with gambling behaviour in young adults. Results from linear probability and logistic regression models using data from 6145 survey respondents indicate that youths who repo...
Article
Full-text available
To derive empirical subtypes of problem gamblers based on etiological and clinical characteristics described in the Pathways Model, using data from a nationally representative survey of US adults. Data were collected from structured diagnostic face-to-face interviews using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule DSM-...
Article
Full-text available
This research tests the applicability of the Integrated Pathways Model for gambling to adolescent problem gamblers, utilizing a cross-sectional design and self-report questionnaires. Although the overall sample consisted of 1,133 adolescents (Quebec: n = 994, 87.7 %; Ontario: n = 139, 12.3 %: Male = 558, 49.5 %; Female = 569, 50.5 %), only problem...
Article
Full-text available
Many international jurisdictions have introduced responsible gambling programs. These programs intend to minimize negative consequences of excessive gambling, but vary considerably in their aims, focus, and content. Many responsible gambling programs lack a conceptual framework and, in the absence of empirical data, their components are based only...
Article
Full-text available
It is argued that there exists a relatively neglected distinct sub-group of pathological gamblers, described in the clinical literature, who display intermittent episodes of uncontrolled gambling superimposed on a background of prolonged intervening periods of abstinence. This sub-group is characterised by intense bouts of impaired control over gam...
Article
Full-text available
Few studies have explored gamblers’ attitudes towards money despite the central role money plays in the development and maintenance of problem gambling (PG) behaviours. This study explored attitudinal differences towards money among subgroups of electronic gaming machine players (n = 127) using the framework advanced by Lea and Webley 2006. Money a...
Article
Full-text available
Studies attempting to identify the specific 'addictive' features of electronic gaming machines (EGMs) have yielded largely inconclusive results, suggesting that it is the interaction between a gambler's cognitions and the machine, rather than the machine itself, which fuels excessive play. Research has reported that machine players with gambling pr...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the density of lottery outlets within ethnically concentrated neighborhoods in Middlesex County, New Jersey, using geospatial statistical analyses. No prior studies have empirically examined the relationship between lottery outlet density and population demo-graphics. Results indicate that lottery outlets were not randomly dispe...
Conference Paper
Background/Purpose: Little is known about the gambling behavior of older adults, though rates of gambling participation appear to be increasing (citations omitted). A majority of older adults gamble recreationally, however, higher rates of problem gambling have been reported among ethnic minorities and those who frequent casinos, senior centers, an...
Conference Paper
Background and Purpose: Excessive participation in lottery play is prevalent among low income and otherwise disadvantaged populations served by social workers (citations omitted). National studies in the U.S. and the U.K have reported that lottery expenditures are predictive of problem gambling, particularly in low-income households. In the U.S., 4...
Chapter
Full-text available
Epidemiological studies indicate that a majority of those who gamble in Atlantic City and elsewhere gamble responsibly within their financial limits. However, a small proportion of gamblers develop problems so severe that they cause serious and, sometimes, irreparable adverse consequences to themselves, their families and their communities. This ch...
Article
Full-text available
Electronic gaming machines are popular among problem gamblers; in response, governments have introduced "responsible gaming" legislation incorporating the mandatory display of warning signs on or near electronic gaming machines. These signs are designed to correct irrational and erroneous beliefs through the provision of accurate information on pro...
Article
Full-text available
The development and maintenance of gambling and problem gambling with its corresponding irrational beliefs may be fundamentally linked to patterns of wins and losses during electronic gaming machine (EGM) play. The current study investigated the extent to which irrational thoughts and erroneous perceptions of chance differed based on individual win...
Article
Full-text available
Gambling among older adults appears to be increasing, though little is known about the characteristics of older adult problem gamblers. The purpose of this study was to compare older adults to younger and middle-aged adults in a cohort of problem gamblers participating in a state-administered casino self-exclusion program. Self-reported problem gam...
Article
Full-text available
The phenomenological similarities between gambling and substance dependence have led to the conceptualization of pathological gambling as an addictive disorder. Tolerance and withdrawal are important features of both disorders, suggesting commonalities in the neurobiological processes associated with neuroadaptational underpinnings. However, there...
Article
Full-text available
Pathological gambling is classified as a disorder of impulse control, though many of its diagnostic criteria parallel those found in substance use disorders. A number of unitary and complex biopsychosocial conceptual models have been postulated to account for the multifactorial nature of gambling pathology. These models have implications for varied...
Article
Full-text available
It is well-established that problem gambling results, in part, from erroneous perceptions about the probability of winning. While individuals retain the ultimate responsibility over gambling choices and level of participation, optimal decision-making depends, among other factors, on the availability of reliable, comprehensive information. From a pu...
Article
Full-text available
Impaired control leading to excessive gambling and subsequent adverse consequences is the primary feature of pathological gambling. Defined as an impulse control disorder, elevated traits of impulsivity are associated with increased levels of intensity of gambling and symptoms severity and are predictive of treatment dropout. However, to date, rese...
Article
Full-text available
Self-exclusion is a programme utilized by the gaming industry to limit access to gaming opportunities for problem gamblers. It is based on the following principles: (1) The gaming industry recognizes that a proportion of community members gamble excessively and have difficulty controlling gambling behaviours; (2) The gaming industry has a responsib...
Article
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Article
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The DSM-IV-TR classifies pathological gambling as a disorder of impulse control. Empirical studies have noted elevated levels of impulsivity in pathological gamblers and putative functional relationships between impulsivity, severity of gambling problems and treatment attrition. However the concept of impulsivity has been variably defined with a pe...
Article
Full-text available
The present study explores gender-related differences in the demographic and gambling-related characteristics of 2670 problem gamblers participating in a state-administered (Missouri) casino self-exclusion program between 2001 and 2003. Female (n=1298, 48.4%) and male (n=1372, 51.1%) participants ranged in age from 21 to 84 years. Gender-related di...
Article
Full-text available
Reviews "Pathological Gambling: Etiology, Comorbidity, and Treatment" by N. M. Petry (see record 2004-20358-000 ) which seeks to educate researchers and policymakers about various aspects of pathological gambling. The primary strength of the book lies in its aim to offer a resource for researchers, and this book delivers a precise analytical evalua...
Article
Full-text available
Article
The United States is in the gambling business. Three times in our country's history we have alternately sanctioned legalized gambling as a financial savior, then demonized it as a social ill. Today, as more states covet gambling money to supplement ailing budgets, few ask the obvious question: Are the revenues worth the price? Earl Grinols says, de...
Chapter
Full-text available
The Pathways Model identifies clinically distinct subgroups of gamblers who exhibit common, overt cardinal symptoms, but who, at the same time, differ significantly with respect to premorbid psychopathology, childhood history, and neurobiological functioning. The model proposes a conceptual frame-work that integrates research data and clinical obse...
Article
Full-text available
Both suicide and problem gambling among youth are two growing areas of public health concern, though studies have yet to characterise the relationship between these issues. Youth report higher prevalence rates of problem gambling than adults, but no studies to date have investigated whether they are likewise prone to higher risks of gambling-relate...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the relationship of impulsivity, sensation seeking, coping, and substance use to disordered gambling in a sample of 1,339 youth (637 males and 702 females), 17-21 years old. Results indicate that males with serious gambling problems were more likely than their peers to abuse substances and to use avoidant stress-coping strategie...
Article
Full-text available
Prevalence studies have indicated that a significant percentage of school-age youth exhibit problem or pathological gambling behaviors. However, to date there are few guidelines to assist educators in identifying those at risk and incorporating harm-reduction strategies into school curricula. This paper proposes using the Pathways Model of patholog...
Article
Full-text available
Commercial gaming is a thriving and popular industry. Increasingly, emerging technologies like the Internet provide unlimited access to gambling at work. This article provides an overview of patholog-ical gambling and its associated adverse financial, legal, and psychosocial consequences with implications for the workplace. It also offers recom-men...
Article
Full-text available
Imaginal desensitization is a simple but effective relaxation-based technique that uses images to assist individuals suffering with specific types of impulse control disorders: pathological gambling, sexual paraphilia, trichotillomania (compulsive hair-pulling), kleptomania (shoplifting), compulsive buying, and some forms of explosive aggression an...
Article
Full-text available
It is argued that there exists a relatively neglected distinct sub-group of pathological gamblers, described in the clinical literature, who display intermittent episodes of uncontrolled gambling superimposed on a background of prolonged intervening periods of abstinence. This sub-group is characterised by intense bouts of impaired control over gam...
Article
Full-text available
Focus groups were conducted at five chemical dependency treatment facilities assessing residents' (N = 65) conceptualizations of denial and the role it may have played in the pathogenesis and progression of their substance use disorders. Two of the authors read verbatim transcripts of the focus group proceedings and independently developed models o...
Article
Μέχρι στιγμής δεν υπάρχει ούτε ένα θεμελιώδες θεωρητικό μοντέλο για τον τζόγο που να αιτιολογεί επαρκώς τις διάφορες βιολογικές, ψυχολογικές και οικολογικές μεταβλητές οι οποίες συμβάλλουν στην ανάπτυξη της παθολογικής εκδήλωσής του. Η όποια πρόοδος στον τομέα, παρεμποδίζεται από ανακριβείς ορισμούς του παθολογικού τζόγου, από την αποτυχία να διαχω...
Article
Full-text available
At the moment, there is no single conceptual theoretical model of gambling that adequately accounts for the multiple biological, psychological and ecological variables contributing to the development of pathological gambling. Advances in this area are hampered by imprecise definitions of pathological gambling, failure to distinguish between gamblin...