Li-Wei Kuo

Li-Wei Kuo
National Central University | NCU · Department of Earth Sciences

Doctor of Philosophy
Characterization of geological records from extreme deformation events, including earthquakes and lightning strikes.

About

51
Publications
11,165
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Introduction
My research is motivated by a desire to understand how rocks/minerals were formed by extreme deformation events, e.g., faulting or lightning. I mainly work on the investigation of fault behaviors of a fault during the seismic cycle, to obtain earthquake physics for a seismically active fault, and to expand understanding of fault deformation together with significant applications to other natural faults.
Additional affiliations
August 2018 - July 2022
National Central University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
August 2015 - July 2018
National Central University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
June 2015 - July 2015
National Taiwan University
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
September 2004 - February 2011
National Taiwan University
Field of study
  • Characteristics of Clay Minerals from the Taiwan Chelungpu fault Drilling Project
September 2001 - February 2004
National Taiwan University
Field of study
  • Fault-Related Rocks from Foot Hill of Miaoli
September 1997 - June 2001

Publications

Publications (51)
Article
Full-text available
The Longmenshan fault that ruptured during the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan (China) earthquake was drilled to a depth of 1200 m, and fault rocks including those in the 2008 earthquake slip zone were recovered at a depth of 575-595 m. We report laboratory strength measurements and microstructural observations from samples of slip zone fault rocks at deforma...
Article
Stress on seismogenic faults provides critical information about how much elastic energy is stored in the crust and released by earthquakes, which is crucial in understanding earthquake energetics and recurrence. However, determining post-earthquake stress states on faults remains challenging because current borehole methods are rarely applicable t...
Article
Full-text available
Although nephrite jade has been collected and treasured since the Stone Age, we lack a clear understanding of how it forms during deformation and metasomatism in shear zones. Using microstructural analysis of samples from Taiwan, California, and New Zealand, we propose a conceptual model for the evolution of nephrite jade that distinguishes four ne...
Article
Full-text available
The 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake generated ∼270 and ∼80 km long surface ruptures along the Longmenshan fault belt, namely the Yingxiu‐Beichuan fault (YBF) and the Guanxian‐Anxian faults (GAF), respectively. So far, most of the frictional investigations were performed on the YBF gouge materials. Here, we present the results of rotary shear fricti...
Conference Paper
Olivine and enstatite, formed by dehydroxylation of serpentine, have been naturally and experimentally documented as evidence of paleo-earthquake rupture propagation within natural serpentinite-bearing slip zones. To investigate the rheological and textural evolution during dehydroxylation of serpentinite, we performed rotary-shear friction experim...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the stress state before and after an earthquake is essential to study how stress on faults evolves during the seismic cycle. This study integrates wellbore failure analysis, laboratory experiments, and edge dislocation model to study the stress state before and after the Chi‐Chi earthquake. The post‐earthquake in‐situ stress state obs...
Article
Full-text available
Cloud-to-ground lightning causes both high-temperature and high-pressure metamorphism of rocks, forming rock fulgurite. We demonstrate that a range of microstructural features indicative of high temperatures and pressures can form in fulgurites at the surface and in fractures up to several meters below the surface. In comparison to a granite refere...
Article
Most previous experiments conducted on water-saturated clay-rich gouges sheared under extreme deformation conditions (including seismic slip rates e.g., 1 m/s, and displacements exceeding several meters) relied on gouge confinement using Polytetrafluoroethene (Teflon). Use of teflon restricts such experiments to low normal stresses (< 2 MPa), which...
Article
Permeable structures associated with faults are commonly treated as geothermal fluid conduits in most tight geothermal reservoirs. However, the properties of permeable structures within fault zones remain unclear due to the lack of subsurface geological data, e.g., the geothermal systems in the tight slate and metasandstone formations in Northeaste...
Book
臺灣花蓮豐田地區特有的臺灣閃玉乃海洋板塊組成的蛇紋岩經過熱水換質作用形成,並且在擠壓的變質作用環境下形成特殊的葉理構造。在蛇紋岩與斜黝簾石岩的接觸面上出現透鏡狀的閃玉與脈狀的透輝石。閃玉形成於早期擠壓的應力環境,而蛇紋石與透閃石石棉則形成於後期的層間錯動。當整體應力環境逐漸轉變為張應力作用下,閃玉再次經過熱液換質形成透輝石,而閃玉內的鉻鐵礦則形成了綠色的含鉻鈣鋁榴石。最後一期的熱液活動以形成方解石脈為主,且切穿透輝石與斜黝簾石岩。此外,由透輝石液包體研究與方解石的叢同位素分析,可分別推測礦物的形成溫度。整體而言,閃玉及其伴隨的礦物,形成的順序為:閃玉、透輝石、含鉻鈣鋁榴石、方解石。 Taiwan nephrite with foliation has been considered to...
Article
Full-text available
Experimental results demonstrate that amorphous materials can be generated by frictional sliding at a wide range of conditions and that once formed the frictional strength of the fault is reduced. Nevertheless, amorphous materials have not been described in many natural faults, and their importance in natural systems is not well understood. We have...
Article
Full-text available
Serpentinites play a key role in controlling fault rheology in a wide range of geodynamic settings, from oceanic and continental rift zones to subduction zones. The global distribution of nephrites which were originated from serpentinites mostly coincides with the locations of the (ancient) subduction zones. Both point at that the formation of neph...
Article
Full-text available
During seismic slip, the elastic strain energy released by the wall rocks drives grain fragmentation and flash heating in the slipping zone, resulting in formation of (nano)powders and melt droplets, which lower the fault resistance. With progressive seismic slip, the frictional melt covers the slip surface and behaves as a lubricant reducing the c...
Article
In recent studies on the recognition of graphitized gouges within the principal slip zone (PSZ) of the Longmenshan fault in China, we proposed that the presence of graphite might be evidence of fault slip. Here, we characterized the clay-and carbonaceous-rich gouges of the active fault zone of the Longmenshan fault belt using samples collected from...
Article
Full-text available
In recent works on the determination of graphitization of carbonaceous materials (CM) within the principal slip zone (PSZ) of the Longmenshan fault (China), we demonstrated that the formation of graphite, resulted from strain and frictional heating, could be evidence of past seismic slip. Here we utilize Raman Spectroscopy of CM (RSCM) on the CM-be...
Article
Full-text available
Graphitization of carbonaceous materials (CM) has been experimentally demonstrated as potential evidence of seismic slip within a fault gouge. The southern segment of the Longmenshan fault, a CM-rich-gouge fault, accommodated coseismic slip during the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake and potentially preserves a record of processes that occurred on t...
Poster
Faults accommodate deformation by aseismic (slip rates << 0.1 mm/s) and seismic (average slip rate ~1 m/s) slip. The frictional dissipation during seismic slip, especially for moderate to large in magnitude (M > 6) earthquakes, should result in bulk temperature increase of the fault slipping zone. One moderate to large magnitude earthquake (M>6) nu...
Poster
Full-text available
Faults accommodate deformation by aseismic (slip rates << 0.1 mm/s) and seismic (average slip rate ~1 m/s) slip. The frictional dissipation during seismic slip, especially for moderate to large in magnitude (M > 6) earthquakes, should result in bulk temperature increase of the fault slipping zone. One moderate to large magnitude earthquake (M>6) nu...
Article
Full-text available
One moderate- to large-magnitude earthquake (M > 6) nucleates in Earth's crust every three days n average, but the geological record of ancient fault slip at meters-per-second seismic velocities (as opposed to subseismic slow-slip creep) remains debated because of the lack of established fault-zone evidence of seismic slip. Here we show that the ir...
Article
Full-text available
Fault mirrors (FMs) are naturally polished and glossy fault-slip surfaces that can record seismic deformation at shallow depths. They are important for investigating the processes controlling dynamic fault slip. We characterize FMs in borehole samples from the hanging-wall damage zone of the active Hsiaotungshi reverse fault, Taiwan. Here we report...
Article
Full-text available
After the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, questions as to how earthquakes occur and when the next large earthquake happens have been asked. These questions are involved in the scientific questions which have been unsolved by geologists and geophysicists, for examples, how do faults rupture? How do faults heal in preparation for the next earthquake? The a...
Data
Direct observations of the physical structures of the seismogenic zones of active faults are rare, due to the dif-ficulty in reaching the fault zone at depth. Current geological evidences, mostly from the surface, suggest that principal slip zone (PSZ) accommodated most shear displacement and was the place where physico-chemical processes occurred...
Article
Full-text available
Direct observations of the physical structures of the seismogenic zones of active faults are rare, due to the difficulty in reaching the fault zone at depth. Current geological evidences, mostly from the surface, suggest that principal slip zone (PSZ) accommodated most shear displacement and was the place where physico-chemical processes occurred d...
Chapter
Full-text available
Direct observations of physical structures and chemical composition of the seismogenic zones of active faults are rare, due to the difficulty in reaching the fault zone at depth. Thus, the physico-chemical processes, triggered by energies released from coseismic faulting, remain largely unknown. The Chelungpu thrust fault was northward ruptured as...
Article
Scientific drilling in active faults after a large earthquake is ideal to study earthquake mechanisms. The Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project (WFSD) is an extremely rapid response to the 2008 Ms 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake, which happened along the Longmenshan fault, eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. In order to better understan...
Article
Full-text available
The Chelungpu fault, with northward propagating ruptures, was ruptured as a result of the Mw 7.6 earthquake which struck Central Taiwan on 21st September 1999. To understand the consequences of clays in fault gouges, we examined the clay mineralogy and major element geochemistry of the "host rocks" of the Chelungpu fault from four outcrops, shallow...
Article
Full-text available
During an earthquake, the physical and the chemical transformations along a slip zone lead to an intense deformation within the gouge layer of a mature fault zone. Because the gouge contains ferromagnetic minerals, it has the capacity to behave as a magnetic recorder during an earthquake. This constitutes a conceivable way to identify earthquake sl...
Conference Paper
The 1999 M7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake on the Chelungpu fault in Taiwan is especially well characterized. Therefore we have investigated the frictional behavior of the Chelungpu fault during seismic slip, using high-velocity friction tests conducted on clay-rich fault gouges from cores obtained from the Taiwan Chelungpu fault Drilling Project. Rotary fri...
Article
Frictional melts generated along seismic faults theoretically may act either as a lubricant or as a viscous brake. Present geological and geophysical evidence supports melt-lubrication, which is also in good agreement with extreme strength weakening in laboratory frictional experiments. On the contrary, the strengthening behavior of viscous melts a...
Article
Full-text available
To investigate the coseismic frictional temperature in seismogenic fault zones, we examine the characteristics of clays in the Chelungpu-fault zones with isothermal heating experiments, scanning electron microscope coupled to an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM/EDX), and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). In the TCDP case (Taiwan Chelungpu fault D...
Article
We present a mineralogical and geochemical study of core MD012404, retrieved from the central Okinawa Trough (OT) of the East China Sea. Our studies reveal that the sediment sources of the core have been changed through time during the past 100 ka. Our mineralogical proxies indicate that the sediments source from the Yangtze River correlates well s...
Article
Yingxiu-Beichuan fault is the central fault of the Longmenshan fault system. In the Wenchuan earthquake (Ms8.0) of 12 May 2008, a steep surface rupture zone about 270 km-long developed along the Yingxiu-beichuan fault. The first hole completed through the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (WFSD-1) is oblique, 1201.15 m deep, with an angle of about 79 degree....
Article
To investigate the thermal history in a fault zone during an earthquake, we examine the clayey characteristics in the fault zone and compare those with host rocks closed to the primary slip zone of Chelungpu fault by performing the isothermal heating experiments. The microstructure of natural and experimental sample surface are also observed with S...
Article
The Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP) Hole-A recovered continuous core samples across the rupture zone of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw7.6). Studying in-situ chemical properties sequentially from fresh-fault-zone materials of the Chelungpu fault provides insight into possible faulting mechanisms. Distinct anomalies of mineral assembl...
Article
Full-text available
Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP) was initiated to understand the physical mechanisms involved in the large displacements of the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake. Continuous measurements of cores (including laboratory work) and a suite of geophysical downhole logs, including P- and S-wave sonic velocity, gamma ray, electrical resistivity...
Article
Full-text available
The Taiwan Chelungpu Drilling Project (TCDP) has provided an un-precedented opportunity to reveal a terrestrial subsurface microbial eco-system that has possibly experienced continuous disturbance by the arc-continental collision since 5 Ma. The drilling penetrated Pliocene-Pleistocene sedimentary rocks to a depth of 2000 meters below the land surf...
Article
Full-text available
The main objective of the Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP) was to conduct an in-depth probe into a fault zone of recent major activity so as to gain a better understanding of and more insight into the physical, mechanical and chemical properties involved. By the end of 2004, with the completion of the drilling of Hole-A, cuttings from...
Article
Full-text available
Determining the seismic fracture energy during an earthquake and understanding the associated creation and development of a fault zone requires a combination of both seismological and geological field data. The actual thickness of the zone that slips during the rupture of a large earthquake is not known and is a key seismological parameter in under...
Article
The activity of Chelungpu fault, induced the 1999 destructive Chi-Chi earthquake with magnitude Mw = 7.7, caused a total surface rupture of about 80-90 km long and the largest measured vertical offsets reaching as much as 5-9 m in west-central Taiwan. It, thus, provide us an opportunity to examine the fresh materials occurred by a large displacemen...
Article
The 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw7.7) induced large ruptures at or near the surface and thus provides us a unique opportunity to study the thrust fault zone after a major earthquake. The materials in deep fault, recovered by the Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP) are less weathering by shallow or surface processes and enable us to determi...
Article
Full-text available
To evaluate potential monitoring sites as well as useful ions which are capable of serving as earthquake precursors, ten subsurface water bodies in different tectonic domains in southwestern, northern and northeastern Taiwan were selected. They included the deep circulation of hot springs, shallower artesian springs and groundwater. Most of the hot...
Article
Full-text available
Dissolution of the glasses with compositions of Na2O·CaO·nSiO2 (n=2.5–6) in 0.5M Na2CO3 solution was studied experimentally. The experiments were carried out with autoclaves under the conditions of the autogeneous pressure, 150°C, and durations from 16 hours to 60 days. Experimental results show that the dissolution rate is increased with the incre...
Article
The Chi-Chi earthquake (ML = 7.3 and 12 km focal depth) occurred on 21 September 1999 in central Taiwan resulting in deaths totaling over 2300. After the earthquake we collected commercialized bottled water (namely Chingjing water), pumped from wells at Puli, Nantou County, central Taiwan, about 10 km northeast of the epicenter of this earthquake....
Article
Taiwan is located in the orogenic belt, which the fault-related earthquakes were very common and severe in last few myrs. However, there are no any fault-related rocks have been reported until now. This research is the first article to report an unambiguous occurrence of pseudotachylyte and cataclasite in Taiwan. The fault-related rocks, including...

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Projects

Projects (2)
Archived project
Knowledge about fault deformation and its associated mechanism during the seismic cycle remains incomplete, due to the difficulty in deciphering the fault-zone rocks within fault core and damage zone, the consequence of both transient fault movement and long-term geomechanical response preserved in a fault. To this end, it is necessary to integrate geological evidence and laboratory work by which rocks were deformed, e.g., from slow to fast motion and from the slip plane to the surrounding host rock. By exploiting the current results of the Taiwan Chelungpu fault Drilling Project (TCDP) including well-documented seismically deformed materials within fault core and well-preserved borehole fault-zone cores, we focus on the topic of the contrast in deformation styles between the fault core and the damage zone throughout the seismic cycle through a group of interrelated sub-projects: (1) investigation of the transition in frictional properties of the fault-core material from coseismic to interseismic slip velocities, (2) examination of the bulk deformational behavior of damage-zone materials deformed at interseismic boundary conditions, and (3) measurement of the elastic stiffness of the damage-zone materials relevant to coseismic conditions. This field- and laboratory-based approach will likely (1) reconstruct a full spectrum of fault behavior during the seismic cycle, (2) reveal a new view of earthquake physics for a seismically active fault, and (3) expand our understanding of fault deformation together with significant applications to natural faults.
Archived project
Active faults accommodate consequential deformations from earthquakes lasting seconds to silent creep lasting millions of years. Multi-faceted processes of fluid flow, friction and rheology shape the fault rocks at all scales. Therefore, we focus on the topics of faulting, friction and weakening (or strengthening) of seismically active faults through a group of interrelated sub-projects: (1) quantification of the internal structure of seismic sources in fault-zone rocks and its comparison with high-resolution seismological data from active faults, and recognition of mineralogical and microstructural indicators of seismic ruptures within fault zones; (2) determination of frictional properties, processes and the associated microstructures from slow to fast motion with rock deformation experiments; and (3) estimation of earthquake source parameters such as dynamic fault strength and earthquake energy budgets. This field- and experimentally-based approach will both reveal a new view of earthquake physics and provide fundamental insight together with significant applications to earthquake hazard.