Leslie C Morey

Leslie C Morey
Texas A&M University | TAMU · Department of Psychology

About

303
Publications
156,798
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21,530
Citations
Citations since 2017
57 Research Items
8839 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,500
201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,500
201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,500
Additional affiliations
September 1999 - present
Texas A&M University
Position
  • Abell Professor of Psychology

Publications

Publications (303)
Article
One barrier to fully understanding and treating the interpersonal difficulties associated with a variety of psychiatric disorders is a current lack of suitable methodology, which aligns with contemporary interpersonal theory and offers a comprehensive assessment of interpersonal judgment. Specifically, no standardized behavioral interpersonal asses...
Article
Full-text available
Background Identity disturbances are a common feature of personality pathology and BPD. The Self-Reference Effect paradigm is a method used to measure the impact of self-relevant processing on encoding/memory, whereby self-relevant information is typically advantaged in cognitive processes. We postulated that difficulties with identity might impede...
Article
Criterion A, as represented by Level of Personality Functioning (LPF), offers a means by which to conceptualize the core impairment in self and interpersonal functioning that distinguishes personality disorder (PD) from other forms of psychopathology. One of the most widely cited criticisms of the current Section II in Diagnostic and Statistical Ma...
Article
Mental disorder is widespread in correctional settings, as is the potential for suicide and self-harm among detained individuals. The ability of the Personality Assessment Screener (PAS) to identify potential mental health problems has been the focus of recent research in corrections, but few studies have examined the prediction of crisis events re...
Article
Full-text available
Background Numerous theories posit different core features to borderline personality disorder (BPD). Recent advances in network analysis provide a method of examining the relative centrality of BPD symptoms, as well as examine the replicability of findings across samples. Additionally, despite the increase in research supporting the validity of BPD...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: This study examined psychometric properties of the Polish adaptation of a Self-Report Form of the DSM-5 Level of Personality Functioning Scale (LPFS-SR). It is a scale designed to measure general impairment, jointly with a detailed assessment of distinguished components of personality functioning characterized in terms of disturbances in self...
Article
Full-text available
Past psychiatric diagnoses are central to patient case formulation and prognosis. Recently, alternative classification models such as the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) proposed to assess traits to predict clinically relevant outcomes. In the current study, we directly compared personality traits and past diagnoses as predictors o...
Chapter
s Psychopathy is an important construct for research and applied usage in forensic context. Rigorous assessment with suitable instruments is imperative for the evolution of research on etiology, risk assessment, prevention, and intervention. Since the construction of the Hare Psychopathic Scale and consequently revised versions, that are consider a...
Article
Structural models of personality traits, particularly the five-factor model (FFM), continue to inform ongoing debates regarding what personality attributes and trait domains are central to psychopathy. A growing body of literature has linked the constructs of the triarchic model of psychopathy (boldness, meanness, disinhibition) to the FFM. Recentl...
Article
The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) is an empirical-based classification of psychopathology. Detachment is one of the six spectra in the current HiTOP working model. The aim of this study was to develop preliminary scales for the HiTOP Detachment spectrum that can be used in the next phase of developing a comprehensive measure of H...
Article
The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) is a multiscale, standardized self-administered questionnaire designed to provide a comprehensive assessment of client personality and psychopathology. The measure demonstrates widespread use in clinical, research, and training settings, with practical applications across several assessment specialties, in...
Article
Two of the most widely used self-report measures of impulsivity are the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale and its shortened version, the SUPPS-P, which currently are limited by their inability to detect careless and/or random responding. The present study develops and cross-validates an inconsistency scale for use with the UPPS-P and SUPPS-P in order...
Article
Shortcomings of approaches to classifying psychopathology based on expert consensus have given rise to contemporary efforts to classify psychopathology quantitatively. In this paper, we review progress in achieving a quantitative and empirical classification of psychopathology. A substantial empirical literature indicates that psychopathology is ge...
Article
Importance Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been identified as a strong risk factor for suicidal behavior, including suicide attempts. Delineating specific features that increase risk could inform interventions. Objective To examine factors associated with prospectively observed suicide attempts among participants in the Collaborative Lon...
Article
Full-text available
Differential diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among intellectually-able adults often presents a clinical challenge, particularly when individuals present in crisis without diagnostic history. The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) is a multiscale personality and psychopathology instrument utilized across clinical settings, but to dat...
Article
We critique Roy et al.'s (2020; this issue) approach to characterizing the item-level factor structure of the three scales of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM), in light of the manner in which the TriPM scales were developed, the purposes they were designed to serve, and the growing body of evidence supporting their construct validity. We f...
Article
Full-text available
The Levels of Personality Functioning Scale—Self-Report (LPFS-SR) is a freely available self-report instrument that corresponds directly in content to the DSM-5 Alternative Model of Personality Disorders (AMPD) Criterion A, which assesses global pathology of personality functioning. The present study translated the LPFS-SR into Persian and examined...
Preprint
Objective: The DSM-5 Alternative Model of Personality Disorders distinguishes core personality dysfunction common to all personality pathology from maladaptive traits that are specific variants of disorder. Previous research shows convergence between maladaptive and normal range trait domains as well as substantial correlations between maladaptive...
Article
Objective The DSM‐5 Alternative Model of Personality Disorders distinguishes core personality dysfunction common to all personality pathology from maladaptive traits that are specific variants of disorder. Previous research shows convergence between maladaptive and normal range trait domains as well as substantial correlations between maladaptive t...
Chapter
This chapter describes the emergence of dimensional models for the classification and diagnosis of personality pathology. Broad personality traits underlie the meta-structure of psychopathology in general and describe the myriad manifestations of personality disorders (PDs) specifically. Domains of personality functioning distinguish personality st...
Article
Much of the research on identifying feigning in psychological assessment has focused on adults with less attention to adolescents. The purpose of the present study is to expand the limited literature on detecting feigning in adolescents using the Personality Assessment Inventory – Adolescent. The study included 114 nonclinical adolescents (ages 15...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the ability of several Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) validity indicators to detect feigning of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Participants included 491 individuals recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTURK): 44 participants were asked to feign PTSD, 25 participants carried a diagnosis of PTSD and demonstra...
Article
Objective: Diagnosis is a cornerstone of clinical practice for mental health care providers, yet traditional diagnostic systems have well-known shortcomings, including inadequate reliability, high comorbidity, and marked within-diagnosis heterogeneity. The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) is a data-driven, hierarchically based alte...
Article
Converging lines of evidence suggest that personality pathology comprises shared and unique impairments. We leveraged a large clinical sample ( N = 505) and a person-centered statistical approach, ipsative change analysis, to decompose individuals’ multidimensional profiles at two time points into a metric that captures change in the elevation of t...
Article
Sleep, Lynam, Widiger, Crowe, and Miller (2019) discuss a number of concerns previously raised with respect to the distinction between impairment and trait in the Alternative Model of Personality Disorders (AMPD). In particular, they cite issues of overlap between the 2 as raising concerns about parsimony of representation. In this response, I brie...
Article
In a recent article, Sleep, Lynam, Widiger, Crowe, and Miller (2019) examined various properties of measures of Criterion A and Criterion B of the Alternative Model for Personality Disorders presented in DSM-5. This commentary discusses the suitability of certain indicators of factor structure, discriminant validity, and incremental validity as eva...
Article
Full-text available
Although the Personality Assessment Screener (PAS; Morey, 1997) has garnered substantial research interest, the measure's temporal stability and sensitivity to change have remained largely uninvestigated. The present study employs a dynamic approach to investigating the convergent and discriminant validity of the PAS by examining relationships betw...
Article
The categorical model of personality disorder classification in the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM–5]; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) is highly and fundamentally problematic. Proposed for DSM–5 and provided within Section III (for Emerging Measures and Models) was the...
Article
Objective: This study extends upon the investigation of the influence of response format on the convergence between performance-based and self-report assessments of similar mental health constructs, to further examine the role of method variance in poor heteromethod convergence. Methods: An online sample of 455 participants (57% male; mean age =...
Article
The present study was intended to assess the reliability of clinician judgments, with a particular interest in how such judgments vary by the gender of the case vignette and clinician. A national sample of 123 mental health professionals (57.7% male) provided clinical judgments on 12 case vignettes primarily representing personality pathology; two...
Article
The authors asked 361 personality disorder experts to rank order their preferences for a categorical, dimensional, or mixed/hybrid approach to personality disorder diagnosis in manuals such as the DSM and ICD. Respondents reported a general preference for the mixed/hybrid approach over a purely dimensional approach, and a clear preference against a...
Article
This study examined the interdiagnostician reliability and potential gender bias of the DSM-IV/DSM-5 Section II and DSM-5 Alternative Model definitions of borderline personality disorder. A national sample of 123 mental health professionals provided diagnostic judgments on 12 case vignettes selected to represent a range of personality pathology. Tw...
Preprint
Converging lines of evidence suggest that personality pathology is comprised of shared and unique impairments. The current study leveraged a large clinical sample (N=505) and a person-centered statistical approach, ipsative change analysis, to decompose individuals’ multidimensional profiles at two time points into a metric which captures change in...
Article
Objective This study presents an examination of the influence of response format on convergence between performance‐based and self‐report assessments of similar mental health constructs, to determine if such method variance might account for prior findings of lack of relationship. Methods An online sample of 455 participants (57% male; average age...
Article
Full-text available
Shortcomings of approaches to classifying psychopathology based on expert consensus have given rise to contemporary efforts to classify psychopathology quantitatively. In this paper, we review progress in achieving a quantitative and empirical classification of psychopathology. A substantial empirical literature indicates that psychopathology is ge...
Article
The Continuous Assessment of Interpersonal Dynamics (CAID) is a method in which trained observers continuously code the dominance and warmth of individuals who interact with one another in dyads. This method has significant promise for assessing dynamic interpersonal processes. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of individual sex,...
Method
Full-text available
Questionnaire items and scoring instructions for the Level of Personality Functioning Scale - Self Report questionnaire from Morey, L.C. (2017). Development and initial evaluation of a self-report form of the DSM-5 Level of Personality Functioning Scale. Psychological Assessment, 29, 1302-1308. DOI: 10.1037/pas0000450.supp
Article
Borderline personality disorder (PD) has historically been cast as an unabating condition. Longitudinal data, however, support a more variable time course marked by remission and relapse. In the present study, we tested the possibility that borderline PD has both stable (i.e., consistently present across time and situation, as modern diagnostic sys...
Article
This study set out to create measures of the five personality disorder trait domains outlined in Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) from the Personality Assessment Inventory items (Morey, 2007). Rasch rating scale model analyses and classical test theory a...
Article
As the research literature on the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) has expanded, several supplemental indicators have been introduced to aid in the interpretation of PAI results for the purpose of addressing particular assessment questions, such as protocol validity or treatment-related considerations. However, many of these indi...
Preprint
Examines impacts of familiarity, conflict, and sex on continuously assessed behavior in dyadic interactions using the Continuous Assessment of Interpersonal Dynamics across several samples. Establishes norms and basic psychometrics for CAID while also informing factors that influence interpersonal behavior.
Article
The categorical model of personality disorder classification in the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM–5]; American Psychiatric Association, 2013 American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psyc...
Article
As online data collection services such as Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk) gain popularity, the quality and representativeness of such data sources have gained research attention. To date, the majority of existing studies have compared MTurk workers with undergraduate samples, localized community samples, or other Internet-based samples, and thus,...
Article
In this study we examined the structure, reliability, and validity of the Levels of Personality Functioning Scale–Self Report (LPFS–SR) in 3 large community samples. The LPFS–SR is a questionnaire with content that corresponds directly to the DSM–5 alternative model of personality disorders, Criterion A. We found that the LPFS–SR was highly reliabl...
Article
This study examined the cross-cultural comparability of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI: Morey, 1991) in Vietnam, employing a sample of 128 nonclinical Vietnamese native speakers and 53 bilingual Vietnamese/English speakers. The Vietnamese version demonstrated comparable internal consistency to that obtained in the original PAI US standar...
Article
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a diagnosis of particular significance for college students, as when present it can significantly compromise academic achievement. However, because high-stakes decisions may be riding on the outcome of an ADHD evaluation (such as access to educational accommodations or stimulant medication), the di...
Preprint
Validation of the Levels of Personality Functioning Scale - Self-Report. Results suggest that the measure has a robust single dimension and that it correlates in a very general manner with a wide range of maladaptive personality variables, consistent with its purpose as a measure of non-specific personality pathology.
Article
One concern that has been expressed with the Alternative Model for Personality Disorders (AMPD) presented in DSM-5 is that the description of characteristic impairments in personality function uses concepts requiring considerable experience and clinical inference to apply. To examine this question, the individual indicators included in the AMPD's L...
Article
Against the background of a dearth of studies examining the properties of the scale scores of the Personality Assessment Inventory–Adolescent (PAI–A; Morey, 2007), this study was conducted to evaluate evidence of construct validity for the Anxiety (ANX) and Depression (DEP) scales of the PAI–A. Convergent and discriminant validity of the ANX and DE...
Article
Full-text available
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM–5) Section III Alternative Model for Personality Disorders (AMPD; APA, 2013) represents an innovative system for simultaneous psychiatric classification and psychological assessment of personality disorders (PD). The AMPD combines major paradigms of personality assessment...
Article
Full-text available
The reliability and validity of traditional taxonomies are limited by arbitrary boundaries between psychopathology and normality, often unclear boundaries between disorders, frequent disorder co-occurrence, heterogeneity within disorders, and diagnostic instability. These taxonomies went beyond evidence available on the structure of psychopathology...
Method
Questionnaire items and scoring instructions for the Level of Personality Functioning Scale - Self Report questionnaire from Morey, L.C. (2017). Development and initial evaluation of a self-report form of the DSM-5 Level of Personality Functioning Scale. Psychological Assessment, 29, 1302-1308.
Article
The DSM-5 presents an Alternative Model for Personality Disorder (AMPD) recommending the assessment of impairments in core personality functions as well as clinically relevant personality traits. Although a self-report assessment instrument has been provided corresponding to the trait model proposed in the AMPD, no comparable instrument provides a...
Article
A substantial amount of research has examined the developmental trajectory of antisocial behavior and, in particular, the relationship between antisocial behavior and maladaptive personality traits. However, research typically has not controlled for previous behavior (e.g., past violence) when examining the utility of personality measures, such as...
Article
Theorists have long argued that personality disorder (PD) is best understood in terms of general impairments shared across the disorders as well as more specific instantiations of pathology. A model based on this theoretical structure was proposed as part of the DSM–5 revision process. However, only recently has this structure been subjected to for...
Article
Individuals with a personality disorder (PD) tend to experience more negative life events (NLEs) than positive life events (PLEs). In community samples, the Five Factor Model of personality (FFM) predicts both positive and negative life events. The present research examined whether FFM normal personality traits were associated with positive and neg...
Article
Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-5]; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) contains an alternative model for the diagnosis of personality disorder involving the assessment of 25 traits and a global level of overall personality functioning. There is hope that this model will be increasingly use...
Article
In an initial investigation by Morey and Ochoa (1989), adherence to DSM-III personality disorder diagnostic criteria was examined as an agreement rate between clinician (global) diagnoses and diagnoses algorithmically generated from DSM-III criteria rules. Morey and Ochoa (1989) findings suggested significant clinician-criterion diagnostic incongru...
Article
Background: Beginning with DSM-III, the inclusion of a "personality" axis was designed to encourage awareness of personality disorders and the treatment-related implications of individual differences, but since that time there is little accumulated evidence that the personality disorder categories provide substantial treatment-related guidance. Th...
Article
Full-text available
The present study is the first to investigate the Personality Assessment Screener, a brief self-report measure of risk for emotional and behavioral dysfunction, in relation to the informant report version of this instrument, the Personality Assessment Screener-Other. Among a sample of undergraduate roommate dyads (N = 174), self-report and informan...
Article
This case illustrates the utility of incorporating therapeutic assessment in a triage context that typically involves a focus on gathering information. A man referred to our clinic by a local mental health center was seen by our assessment team for a triage that includes the administration of a single psychological test, the Personality Assessment...
Article
Full-text available
A number of studies have evaluated the possibility of bias in the diagnostic criteria in borderline personality disorder as an explanation of gender differences in prevalence. Previous studies have used both regression and latent trait approaches but the results have been inconsistent. The current study extended prior investigations in testing diff...
Article
Full-text available
The DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group formulated a hybrid dimensional/categorical model that represented personality disorders as combinations of core impairments in personality functioning with specific configurations of problematic personality traits. Specific clusters of traits were selected to serve as indicators for six DS...
Article
Full-text available
Although originally developed to estimate the probability of winning percentage when two teams from the same league are matched, the log5 formula suggested by Bill James has often been applied to evaluate probabilities of events resulting from specific batter/pitcher matchups in baseball. However, this odds-ratio based formula may have biases of es...
Article
A Young Attorney Presents for Outpatient Treatment of Depression Ms.Bisa32-year-oldsingleCaucasianwomanwhowasreferred byafriend’spsychiatristformentalhealthtreatmentforthe first time after a 4-month period of depression. She reported persistent feelings of “emptiness” and “worthlessness,” increased sleeping with difficulty getting out of bed, impai...
Article
Research on borderline personality disorder (BPD) has consistently found that those with the disorder often experience volatile interpersonal interactions, and several areas of research have been dedicated to the understanding of the mechanisms behind these interpersonal struggles. One of the most common theories is that the emotional dysregulation...
Article
The literature on the prevalence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) across gender reveals multiple trends. A number of studies indicate that women have a higher prevalence. Others indicate no difference, and a few even reveal that men have a higher prevalence. Yet existing studies are plagued by sampling biases, use mainly self-reported infor...
Article
Objective: This report examines the relationship of DSM-IV borderline personality disorder (BPD) to anxiety disorders using data on the reciprocal effects of improvement or worsening of BPD and anxiety disorders over the course of 10 years. Method: We reliably and prospectively assessed borderline patients (n = 164) with DSM-IV-defined co-occurr...
Article
Full-text available
The current categorical classification of personality disorders, originally introduced in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III), has been found to suffer from numerous shortcomings that hamper its usefulness for research and for clinical application. The Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group for DSM-5 was ch...
Article
Full-text available
Past research has established strong psychometric properties of several indicators of response distortion on the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). However, to date, it has been unclear whether the response distortion indicators of the adolescent version of the PAI (PAI-A) operate in an equally valid manner. The current study sought to examine...
Article
Objective: To examine the relationship of borderline personality disorder (BPD) to mood disorders by using data from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study on the reciprocal interactions of BPD with both depressive and bipolar disorders over the course of 10 years. Method: The study included 223 BPD patients with DSM-IV-defin...
Article
This study compared the perceived clinical utility of DSM-IV-TR personality disorder diagnoses (retained in DSM-5) with the alternative model presented in DSM-5 Section III, using a national sample of clinicians applying both systems to their own patients. A sample of 337 mental health clinicians (26% psychiatrists, 63% psychologists, and 11% other...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Many treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) are based upon the hypothesis that gross distortion in perceptions and attributions related to self and others represent a core mechanism for the enduring difficulties displayed by such patients. However, available experimental evidence of such distortions provides equivocal res...
Article
Full-text available
Although score reliability is a sample-dependent characteristic, researchers often only report reliability estimates from previous studies as justification for employing particular questionnaires in their research. The present study followed reliability generalization procedures to determine the mean score reliability of the Eating Disorder Invento...
Article
An alternative model for the diagnosis of personality disorders (PDs), based on assessments of impairments in personality functioning and of pathological personality traits, was intended for the official classification in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5), but was instead placed in Section III, "Emergi...
Article
Presents a rejoinder to comments by Silk (see record 2013-45025-005) and Zimmerman (see record 2013-45025-006) on the original article by Skodol et al. (see record 2013-45025-004) regarding personality disorders in the DSM-5. Here, Skodol et al. comment that many of the early decisions made by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorde...
Article
Full-text available
Researchers examining personality typologies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have consistently identified 3 groups: low pathology, internalizing, and externalizing. These groups have been found to predict functional severity and psychiatric comorbidity. In this study, we employed Latent Profile Analysis to compare this previously establishe...
Article
The authors sought to determine whether a 5-point global rating of personality dysfunction on the Level of Personality Functioning Scale proposed as a severity index for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), would be related to DSM-IV personality disorder diagnosis as well as to other key clinical judgments. Da...
Article
The validity of various indicators of response distortion on the Personality Assessment Inventory-Adolescent (PAI-A; Morey, 2007a) and its potential usefulness to detect malingering were evaluated by having 17- and 18-year-old students complete the PAI-A attempting to simulate Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) under coached or noncoac...
Article
Preliminary explorations of the trait model for personality disorders provided in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) Section III suggest that the factor structure of proposed traits includes 5 higher order factors that resemble other dimensional trait models of personality. These prior investigations have been ba...
Article
The criteria for personality disorders in Section II of DSM-5 have not changed from those in DSM-IV. Therefore, the diagnosis of Section II narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) will perpetuate all of the well-enumerated shortcomings associated with the diagnosis since DSM-III. In this article, we will briefly review problems associated with Sect...
Article
Objective: Research has demonstrated poor agreement between clinician-assigned personality disorder (PD) diagnoses and those generated by self-report questionnaires and semistructured diagnostic interviews. No research has compared prospectively the predictive validity of these methods. We investigated the convergence of these 3 diagnostic methods...
Article
The Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) recommended substantial revisions to the personality disorders (PDs) section of DSM-IV-TR, proposing a hybrid categorical-dimensional model that represented PDs as combinations of core personality dysfunctions an...
Article
Section 3 of the DSM-5 will include a pathological personality trait system rooted in the quantitative epistemology of personality and clinical psychology. This system has the potential to enhance the clinical utility of the diagnostic nosology by providing a means for the dimensional assessment of individuals with psychopathology. However, there i...
Article
The present study examined relationships among negative affect, borderline personality features, and eating behavior through the experimental manipulation of mood. Undergraduate women (N = 307) completed a baseline mood assessment, viewed a 39-minute sad film either with or without concurrent food presentation, then completed a second mood assessme...
Article
Stability is thought to be one of the major distinguishing features between personality disorders (PDs) and other forms of psychopathology. The development of more reliable PD assessments and the implementation of four major longitudinal studies on PD stability have provided critical data with which to evaluate the stability of PD features. Results...
Article
Full-text available
Although controversy surrounds the definition and measurement of narcissism, the claim that pathological grandiosity is central to the construct generates little disagreement. Yet representations of pathological grandiosity vary across measures of narcissism, leading to conceptual confusion in the literature. The validity of a DSM-based measure of...
Article
This cross-sectional study examined the associations between neighborhood-level socioeconomic-status (NSES), and psychosocial functioning and personality pathology among 335 adults drawn from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study. Participants belonged to four personality disorder (PD) diagnostic groups: Avoidant, Borderline, S...