Leslie R Martin

Leslie R Martin
La Sierra University · Psychology

PhD

About

68
Publications
38,478
Reads
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3,688
Citations
Introduction
My research focuses on personality and psychosocial predictors of health and mortality risk; and on clinician-patient partnerships and their health-relevant sequelae.
Additional affiliations
June 2000 - present
University of California, Riverside
Position
  • Research Psychologist
September 1996 - present
La Sierra University
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (68)
Article
Full-text available
Patient nonadherence is widespread and costly. This paper provides a brief narrative review of research on (non)adherence and validates a clinically useful three-factor heuristic model to guide practitioners as they work with patients to improve adherence. This model is based on the most stable findings from meta-analyses and large-scale empirical...
Article
Full-text available
Religious people tend to live slightly longer lives (M. E. McCullough, W. T. Hoyt, D. B. Larson, H. G. Koenig, & C. E. Thoresen, 2000). On the basis of the principle of social investment (J. Lodi-Smith & B. W. Roberts, 2007), the authors sought to clarify this phenomenon with a study of religion and longevity that (a) incorporated measures of psych...
Article
Full-text available
This study addressed whether personality in childhood and personality in adulthood are independent predictors of mortality risk and the extent to which behavioral and other psychosocial factors can explain observed relationships between personality and mortality risk. This was a prospective longitudinal cohort study of 1,253 male and female Califor...
Article
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People with dementia have an increased risk of contracting severe forms of COVID-19. Although in worldwide vaccination programs priority has been given to older people, having taken the vaccine does not totally eliminate the risk of contracting COVID-19 when one is in close contact with unvaccinated people. Thus, family caregivers’ choices to remai...
Article
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The psychosocial impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on human life is well-known. Although vaccine protection represents an effective way to control the spread of the virus, vaccination hesitancy may decrease individuals' willingness to get vaccinated, including among cancer patients. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to e...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the massive volume of scientific evidence on the benefits of immunisation, vaccine hesitancy is still a global health threat and represents an obstacle to controlling the spread of viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 and its associated COVID-19. Thus, the present study aimed to adapt and validate an Italian version of the Vaccination Attitudes Exami...
Article
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Language discordance poses a barrier to effective physician-patient communication, and health care outcomes, such as patient satisfaction, can be associated with language barriers experienced by Spanish-speaking patients. This exploratory study assessed specific aspects of communication between 128 Spanish-speaking primary care patients and their p...
Article
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Perceived stress among university students is a prevalent health issue directly correlated with poor academic performance, poor sleep quality, hopelessness, compromised physical and mental health, high risk of substance abuse, and suicidal ideation. Tamarkoz, a Sufi meditation, may reduce the impact of stressors to prevent illness among students. T...
Article
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In January 2021, Israel started vaccinating healthcare workers (HCWs) and individuals older than 65 years with COVID-19 vaccines. Scientific literature points to vaccine hesitancy as being a major health concern. During time of pandemics, increased consciousness of health behaviors may be encountered. The current study aimed to assess attitudes to...
Article
Longevity has been linked to several personality traits – that is, the relatively stable patterns in thought, behavior, and motivation that serve to differentiate individuals from one another. The associations are complex, however, and more long‐term studies with multiple measured factors are needed to further expand understanding of personality‐lo...
Article
Howard S. Friedman is a pioneering scientist whose work spans three major areas of psychology: personality, social, and health. His work, both theoretical and applied, has shifted our thinking about personality and health in meaningful ways.
Article
Personality describes a relatively stable set of individual differences in patterns of attitude, motivation, and behavior. The idea that these personal characteristics might be relevant to health is not new, but the ways in which we examine these associations have become more sophisticated with time. We now know a great deal about the ways in which...
Article
Longevity has been linked to several personality traits – that is, the relatively stable patterns in thought, behavior, and motivation that serve to differentiate individuals from one another. The associations are complex, however, and more long‐term studies with multiple measured factors are needed to further expand understanding of personality‐lo...
Article
Howard S. Friedman is a pioneering scientist whose work spans three major areas of psychology: personality, social, and health. His work, both theoretical and applied, has shifted our thinking about personality and health in meaningful ways.
Article
Personality describes a relatively stable set of individual differences in patterns of attitude, motivation, and behavior. The idea that these personal characteristics might be relevant to health is not new, but the ways in which we examine these associations have become more sophisticated with time. We now know a great deal about the ways in which...
Article
Objective Patients are likely to have individual preferences for learning about health, which may influence their comprehension and utilization of health information. Some patients may prefer visual health information, which can make complex health information easier to understand. Aligning health information presentation with preferences may incre...
Article
Full-text available
Medication adherence represents an inefficiency and ongoing challenge within medical care. The problem has been long-recognized—indeed, the research literature contains thousands of articles on the topic. Nonetheless, because of the complex nature of the problem, it still cannot be considered to be solved. Reasons for nonadherence are myriad but ps...
Chapter
Nocebo effects comprise two broad types: primary nocebo effects, in which overall treatment efficacy is reduced; and nocebo side effects, which result in the increased experience of unpleasant secondary side effects. An important factor in generating nocebo effects of both types is the patient's expectations of how well a treatment will work, and h...
Article
Background: Human papilloma virus vaccines are a safe and effective tool for reducing HPV infections that can cause cervical cancer. However, uptake of these vaccines has been suboptimal, with many people holding negative beliefs and misconceptions. Such beliefs have been linked with the experience of unpleasant side effects following medical trea...
Chapter
In Adherence Technologies and Treatment Engagement authors Martin and Haro delve into a meaningful discussion of factors related failure to engage in treatment. Use and influence of social media platforms, SMS text, remote video conferencing, telehealth, online support groups, and behavior-tracking applications are presented. Finally, the authors d...
Article
Background Anti-vaccination attitudes are important predictors of vaccination behavior. Existing measures of vaccination attitudes focus on specific age groups and/or particular vaccines; a more comprehensive measure would facilitate comparisons across studies. PurposeThe aim of this study was to develop a short measure of general vaccination attit...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Intimacy is an essential part of marital relationships, spiritual relationships, and is also a factor in well-being, but there is little research simultaneously examining the links among spiritual intimacy, marital intimacy, and well-being. Methods: Structural equation modeling was used to examine associations among the latent variabl...
Article
Full-text available
Religiosity, often measured as attendance at religious services, is linked to better physical health and longevity though the mechanisms linking the two are debated. Potential explanations include a healthier lifestyle, increased social support from congregational members, and/or more positive emotions. Thus far, these mechanisms have not been test...
Article
Objective: Empirical evidence demonstrates the comorbidity of asthma and mental illness, though limited studies have evaluated the patient and hospital outcomes associated with such conditions. As such, this study evaluated the burden of this comorbidity on health resource utilization and patient disposition among asthma hospitalizations. Methods:...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To investigate negative perceptions about generic medicines and evaluate the proportions of lay people, doctors and pharmacists who hold these perceptions. Design A systematic review of observational studies. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo and Scopus. Eligibility criteria Quantitative data from cross-sectional and prospective stud...
Article
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Objective: Branding medication with a known pharmaceutical company name or product name bestows on the drug an added assurance of authenticity and effectiveness compared to a generic preparation. This study examined the impact of brand name and generic labeling on medication effectiveness and side effects. Method: 87 undergraduate students with...
Conference Paper
Background: Current empirical evidence demonstrates the comorbidity of asthma and mental illness, though limited studies have evaluated the patient and hospital outcomes associated with such conditions. Objective: Evaluate the burden of this comorbidity on health resource utilization and patient disposition among asthma hospitalizations. Methods:...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Health literacy is a marker for how patients obtain, comprehend, communicate, and apply complex health information. Few studies exist on determinants of low health literacy among Asian-American and Pacific Islanders. The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify key determinants of low health literacy in this population using t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
When undergraduate students design independent research projects for a methodology class the compressed timeline encourages projects that are neither well-grounded in literature nor thoughtfully designed. To address this, a model has been developed in which faculty mentors work with students in small groups as they develop their literature reviews...
Book
Each year, millions of people resolve to take better care of their health and almost a billion medical visits take place. Yet as many as half of these visits result in patient nonadherence, and most people who successfully begin necessary health behavior changes fail to maintain them. Healthcare professionals often struggle to provide their patient...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was the development of a rating instrument to assess the use of humor in physician- patient interactions, and to compare humor use as a function of patients' socioeconomic status. The 46-item Physician-Patient Humor Rating Scale (PPHRS) was used to rate 246 audiotaped primary care interactions. Four subscales were reliable...
Article
Full-text available
OBJECTIVE: This longitudinal study of American veterans investigated the mortality risks of five World War II military experiences (i.e., combat exposure) and their variation among veterans in the post-war years. METHODS: The male subjects (N=854) are members of the Stanford-Terman study, and 38 percent served in World War II. Cox models (proportio...
Article
Full-text available
Markers of executive functioning, such as prudent planning for the future and impulse control, are related to conscientiousness and may be central to both occupational success and health outcomes. The aim of the study was to examine relations among conscientiousness, career success, and mortality risk across a 65-year period. Using data derived fro...
Article
This study explored pre-bereavement personality traits and gender as predictors of post-widowhood mortality risk, using newly derived life span data for participants originally recruited for Lewis Terman's classic study of the gifted. Personality traits measured in 1940 were used to predict mortality risk from 1940 through 2004 for married particip...
Article
Full-text available
Physical activity is associated with various health-relevant psychosocial and physiological processes, but activity stability across extended time periods is inadequately understood. This lifespan longitudinal cohort study examined activity levels of 723 males and 554 females. Associations across time were computed and structural equation modeling...
Article
This study prospectively addresses whether aspects of the childhood home environment (SES and parental divorce) and personality are predictive of smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity in middle adulthood. Subjects were 972 males and females who participated in the Terman Life-Cycle Study. Results of hierarchical regression analyses in...
Article
An archival prospective design was used to study mediating and moderating variables for the association between parental divorce and increased mortality risk, using a sub-group (n = 1183) of individuals from the US Terman Life Cycle Study covering the period 1921-2000. In childhood, both socioeconomic status (SES) and family psychosocial environmen...
Article
Full-text available
Quality healthcare outcomes depend upon patients' adherence to recommended treatment regimens. Patient nonadherence can be a pervasive threat to health and wellbeing and carry an appreciable economic burden as well. In some disease conditions, more than 40% of patients sustain significant risks by misunderstanding, forgetting, or ignoring healthcar...
Article
Patient participation in medical care and in decision-making is generally viewed as a precursor to positive health outcomes. Patient participation is not always possible or desirable, however, and not all patients want to take an active part in their own medical care. This study examines the degree to which physician-patient congruence in preferenc...
Article
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The authors surveyed 128 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (1) to evaluate the congruence between patients' and observers' perceptions of physicians' facilitation of patients' involvement in care and (2) to identify which physician behaviors were most closely related to patients' perceptions that their doctors encouraged them to be involved in...
Article
There is little doubt that personality and psychosocial factors play a role in the etiology and progression of disease; what remain murky are the causal pathways through which these variables exert their influence. Lewis Terman began, in the early 1920s, to gather data on a group of more than 1500 bright boys and girls in CA, USA. Data collection h...
Article
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Under some conditions, cheerfulness promotes health, but cheerfulness also has been associated with unfavorable health outcomes. This study follows up the inverse relation between childhood cheerfulness and longevity found among 1,215 men and women first assessed as children by Lewis Terman in 1922. Risky hobbies, smoking, drinking, and obesity, as...
Article
The relationship, across the life span, between sexual activity and subsequent mortality risk was examined using data from an archival prospective study begun in the 1920s by Lewis Terman [Terman, L. M. et al. (1925). Genetic studies of genius: mental and physical traits of a thousand gifted children, Vol. 1. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press...
Article
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The authors describe the development and validation of the Facilitation of Patient Involvement Scale, a 9-item measure of the degree to which patients perceive that their physicians actively facilitate or encourage them to be involved in their own healthcare. They first assessed the unidimensionality of the measure, conducting factor analysis in a...
Article
Full-text available
Data were collected, refined, and analyzed on 654 men and 210 women in Lewis Terman’s “gifted children” longitudinal study to examine links between masculinity and mortality. Masculinity measures included gender diagnosticity (GD) scores, measuring the male-or female-typicality of occupational preferences in 1940 and masculinity-femininity (M-F) sc...
Article
The goals of this study were: (a) to examine whether personality scales, meaningful in contemporary terms, could be derived from archival data; and (b) to use these scales to aid our understanding of the relation of personality to mortality. NEO PI-R data and a battery of archival items, taken from Terman's Life Cycle Study, were collected on two n...
Article
Full-text available
The relation of adult religiosity to longevity was studied in 993 participants from Terman's 70-year Life-Cycle Study. Key social and behavioral variables of physical health, psychological well-being, socioeconomic status, social support, and health behaviors were also considered. Results indicate that women who viewed themselves as more religious...
Article
Participants in the Terman Life-Cycle Study completed open-ended questionnaires in 1936 and 1940, and these responses were blindly scored for explanatory style by content analysis. Catastrophizing (attributing bad events to global causes) predicted mortality as of 1991, especially among males, and predicted accidental or violent deaths especially w...
Article
Full-text available
Using an archival prospective design, the authors studied associations among parental divorce occurring during participants' childhood, adult psychosocial mediators, and mortality over the life span of a subgroup of participants (N = 1,261) in the Terman Life Cycle Study (1921-1991). Children from divorced families grew up to show a higher risk of...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between mental health status and longevity was examined in an archival prospective cohort study (N = 1,103) derived from work begun by Lewis Terman in the 1920s. Degree of psychological maladjustment, cumulatively rated by Terman and his colleagues as of 1950, was found to be related to higher risk of all-cause mortality over a 4-d...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research showed that conscientiousness (social dependability) in childhood predicted longevity in an archival prospective cohort study of bright children first studied by Terman in the 1920s (H. S. Friedman et al., 1993). Possible behavioral mechanisms for this robust association are now examined by gathering cause of death information and...
Article
Full-text available
Models of the relations between contact with pets and better health are examined in an archival prospective study using data derived from the longitudinal study initiated by Terman in 1921 (current N = 343 men, 300 women). In survival analyses of documented longevity, playing with pets in 1977 (M age = 67 years) was not associated with mortality ri...
Article
Models of the relations between contact with pets and better health are examined in an archival prospective study using data derived from the longitudinal study initiated by Terman in 1921 ( current N = 343 men, 300 women). In survival analyses of documented longevity, playing with pets in 1977 (M age = 67 years) was not associated with mortality r...
Article
Full-text available
Impulsive, undercontrolled personalities and major family stresses are known predictors of impaired adjustment, but long-term health effects are unclear. In an archival prospective cohort design, we followed up on L. M. Terman's (Terman & Oden, 1947) sample of gifted children by collecting and coding death certificates for the half of the sample th...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reviews the literature on the nonverbal aspects of physician-patient interaction, focusing on how expectations about patient involvement are conveyed and negotiated by physicians and patients. Important outcomes of this process, such as satisfaction, adherence, and patient health, are examined. A model of physician-patient negotiation in...

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Project (1)
Project
This project involves several studies which aim to (1) better understand the reasons people may be vaccine-hesitant; (2) predict vaccination behaviors; and (3) identify the most effective ways to communicate about vaccines.