Leslie King

Leslie King
Independent Researcher · N/A

MSc, PhD

About

171
Publications
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Publications

Publications (171)
Article
In accepted theory, Hubble expansion only operates at the largest scales, i.e., the inter-galactic level. However, this is a theoretical conclusion, which can be rebutted with other theoretical considerations. More significantly, increasing observational data and other evidence, particularly within the Solar System, point to universal expansion ope...
Article
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Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) have become established drugs of abuse. They play an increasing role in drug therapy, where abstinence control testing is required. Differentiation between recent drug uptake and uptake in the distant past is important for drug therapy. This study aimed at evaluating the detection window of a metabolite commonly used as...
Article
An index of fatal toxicity for new psychoactive substances has been developed based solely on information provided on death certificates. An updated index of fatal toxicity (Tf), as first described in 2010, was calculated based on the ratio of deaths to prevalence and seizures for the original five substances (amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine/crack,...
Article
In the February 2015 issue of World Psychiatry, Schifano et al (1) gave an overview of novel psychoactive substances and their potentially harmful effects. They highlighted that in the last couple of years the number of drugs offered via Internet shops has increased dramatically and that benzodiazepines are often used to treat intoxications with th...
Chapter
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Clinical research is inhibited by the legal status of many potentially useful psychoactive substances. Thus drugs in Schedule 1 of the UK Misuse of Drugs Regulations (e.g. LSD [lysergide], MDMA [3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine] and psilocybin) are considered to have no medicinal use. Not only is there a considerable cost in obtaining suitable lic...
Article
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The concept of a 'derivative' is used widely in chemistry, where its precise meaning depends on the circumstances. However, numerous examples of derivative also occur in domestic drugs legislation, some of which stem from the 1961 United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. There is a commonly held view that only 'first-order' derivatives s...
Article
Sixteen phenethylamines are now included in Schedules I and II of the United Nations 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. Most of the ring-substituted compounds are in Schedule I, whereas 2C-B, amphetamine, and methamphetamine are listed in Schedule II. Substances in Schedule IV (e.g. benzphetamine) are now regarded as obsolete pharmaceutica...
Article
Since early 2009, over 80 illicitly produced synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists have been notified to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA). Yet more have been reported in other countries or offered for sale on websites. These cannabinoids typically act as agonists at CB1 receptors, and mimic the effects of Δ(9)...
Chapter
In recent years, the appearance on the illicit market of large numbers of novel psychoactive substances has created legislative problems for governments. Stemming from the international drug control treaties, a central principle is that harmful properties need to be demonstrated before a substance can be scheduled. Yet for many of these substances,...
Article
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Many psychoactive drugs are used recreationally, particularly by young people. This use and its perceived dangers have led to many different classes of drugs being banned under national laws and international conventions. Indeed, the possession of cannabis, 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA; also known as ecstasy) and psychedelics is str...
Article
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This article was first published in English as: 'Inside out: Notes on indoor cultivation of Passiflora', Passiflora Online Journal, Issue 3, 23-27 (2013).
Technical Report
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This text can be downloaded from the EMCDDA website. http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/thematic-papers/ews
Article
Due to its closed ring system, 2-aminoindane is a conformationally rigid analogue of amphetamine. Internet websites offering synthetic compounds as 'research chemicals' have recently been advertising 5,6-methylenedioxy-2-aminoindane (MDAI), 5, 6-methylenedioxy-N-methyl-2-aminoindane (MDMAI), 5-iodo-2-aminoindane (5-IAI), and 5-methoxy-6-methyl-2-am...
Article
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Proper assessment of the harms caused by the misuse of drugs can inform policy makers in health, policing, and social care. We aimed to apply multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) modelling to a range of drug harms in the UK. Method Members of the Independent Scientific Committee on Drugs, including two invited specialists, met in a 1-day interac...
Article
Full-text available
Proper assessment of the harms caused by the misuse of drugs can inform policy makers in health, policing, and social care. We aimed to apply multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) modelling to a range of drug harms in the UK. Members of the Independent Scientific Committee on Drugs, including two invited specialists, met in a 1-day interactive wor...
Article
Full-text available
A range of "Herbal High" products were tested for synthetic cannabinoids (cannabinomimetics) to qualitatively determine and compare their individual and relative content. Liquid chromatography-high resolution accurate mass spectrometry was used to rapidly screen samples for a range of cannabinomimetics using mono-isotopic masses derived from the el...
Article
To determine the lethal toxicity of five commonly-used illicit substances by relating the number of associated deaths to their availability. An index of toxicity was calculated for each of five drugs [heroin, cocaine/crack, ecstasy (MDMA), amphetamine and cannabis] as the ratio of the number of deaths associated with that substance to its availabil...
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The success of this project was only possible due to the enthusiasm and commitment of a large number of people. Thanks are due to David Potter, GW Pharmaceuticals Ltd. for providing photographs and useful discussions; Simon
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Drug misuse and abuse are major health problems. Harmful drugs are regulated according to classification systems that purport to relate to the harms and risks of each drug. However, the methodology and processes underlying classification systems are generally neither specified nor transparent, which reduces confidence in their accuracy and undermin...
Technical Report
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This report was subsequently incorporated (as Annex 1) with other information in: “Europol–EMCDDA Active Monitoring Report on a new psychoactive substance: 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP)”. That report is available at: http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_136859_EN_Europol-EMCDDA_Active_Monitoring_Report_mCPP_290307.pdf
Book
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This text can be downloaded from the EMCDDA website. http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/insights/cannabis-potency
Article
To examine the variation in the content of ecstasy tablets seized in the north-west of England during 2001 and to compare it to the UK average from 1991 to 2001. All tablets submitted to the Forensic Science Service in the north-west of England during 2001 were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD)...
Article
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It is proposed that the numerous hybrids of P. 'Amethyst' should be placed in a group. Although uncertainties remain about the origin of plants labelled as P. 'Lavender Lady' and P. 'Star of Mikan', they and their hybrids can still be assigned to the group based on their common features. The total group membership then extends to over forty cultiva...
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Article
This article first appeared as FSS Report No. RR815 (Accession No. 84500), February 2001. In 1997, the EU agreed a 'Joint Action' on new synthetic drugs (NSD). The purpose was to identify trends in the traffic and use of such drugs in the Member States and to examine the risks with a view to their possible control. This arose from a recognition tha...
Article
A solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure has been developed for impurity profiling of illicit tablets containing 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methyl-amphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy). Following initial comparison of liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction, SPE was found to be preferable because it afforded higher extraction efficiencies and shorter e...
Article
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This short report presents an attempt to assess the feasibility of predicting the country of origin of heroin based on the concentration of selected alkaloids and adulterants in seized material. The method used to classify the data was a multivariate statistical analysis, based on a linear discriminant function, which assigns the illicit samples to...
Conference Paper
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Designer drugs are sometimes known as controlled substance analogues, i.e. illicit substances produced with the sole objective of circumventing legal restrictions on possession and supply. However, these drugs may be produced for a variety of reasons, including the availability of less common precursor chemicals or because a different effect on the...
Conference Paper
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Phenethylamine designer drugs such as the hallucinogen Bromo-STP were occasionally reported in the UK during the 1960's. However, the modern period dates from the late 1980's when MDMA first appeared in substantial amounts. This ring- substituted amphetamine was followed by MDA in 1990 and MDEA in 1993. Subsequently, a wide variety of other 'amphet...
Article
This article first appeared as FSS Technical Note No. 780 (Accession No. 71900), January 1993. Information on the purity of illegal drugs is used for various purposes including: valuation for sentencing; profiling and sample comparison; and studies of the economics of the illicit market. The most commonly-used measure for powders is the arithmetic...
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Heroin isn't just heroin anymore. Over the last two decades, there has been diversification in the forms and ‘brands’ of heroin which exist in both the domestic as well as international marketplaces. Closer examination reveals important differences between these ‘brands’. Black market heroin may now be obtained in either the form of salt (hydrochlo...
Article
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EDITOR,—A Richard Green and Guy M Goodwin emphasise the potential long term neurotoxicity associated with the use of ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine).1 Small studies of clinical populations have already given a clue to the possible functional impact of this drug on the human nervous system by showing a wide range of psychopathology assoc...
Article
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EDITOR,—There is increasing concern over the toxic1 and neurodegenerative2 effects of ecstasy, and further research is clearly required. Potential hazards can also, however, arise through use of tablets sold as ecstasy that contain substances other than ecstasy, such as ketamine. Ketamine is an anaesthetic agent with a rapid action that has medical...
Article
This article first appeared (as 'Alpha-Phenethylamines: A New Series of Illicit Drugs?) as FSS Report No. TN799 (Accession No. 73000), July 1994, and was extended for later publication. Since 1993 many seizures of 1-phenylethylamine have been made in several European countries. It was originally thought that 1-phenylethylamine had been made in erro...
Conference Paper
Seizures of amphetamine and various of its derivatives are increasing at a faster rate than other illicit drugs. Impurity profiling has enabled the major sources of amphetamine to be identified. Introduction of increasingly strict precursor controls has forced most production overseas, but around fifteen clandestine laboratories are found each year...
Article
In this paper it is proposed that the ratio of the amounts of a particular illicit drug seized by Customs to those seized by the Police in a particular year is linearly related to the proportion of total consumption which is imported. In the model proposed, the constant for the linear relationship is calculated for drugs known to be almost complete...
Technical Report
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This report provides an index to 191 cannabis resin brandmarks notified over the period 1987 - 1994. Simple impressions (typical of N African resin) and gold leaf impressions (normally SW Asian resin) were seen in almost equal numbers, but unlike the situation in the early 1980's, marks on linen bags (characteristic of Lebanese resin) were much les...
Article
Samples of illicit amphetamine seized by Police and Customs in England and Wales are routinely submitted to the Drugs Intelligence Laboratory at Aldermaston. Solvent extraction is used to separate synthetic impurities from the amphetamine and common cutting agents. The gas chromatogram provides an impurity profile. Around 4000 samples have been ana...
Article
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Technical Report
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Police seizures of ketamine have progressively increased since it came to notice in 1990. Abuse of tiletamine first occurred in 1992, and is more widespread than ketamine. However, it is believed that all of the tiletamine originated in a series of thefts from a pharmaceutical company.
Conference Paper
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Amphetamine is a major drug of abuse in the United Kingdom (UK) and is second only to cannabis in terms of police seizures. By contrast, methylamphetamine represents less than 1% of amphetamine. Some of the early work on the synthetic impurities in illicit amphetamine was carried out by the Drugs Intelligence Laboratory (DIL), but for the past few...
Technical Report
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This meeting was the third in a series devoted to the characterisation of illicit drugs. Previous meetings were held in Hong Kong (1977) and Vienna (1982). Discussions in 1992 focussed on heroin, cocaine and amphetamine, and covered analytical and interpretation issues for both intelligence and comparison profiling. The former could be described as...
Technical Report
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The synthesis and analytical properties of 3,4-methylenedioxy-N,N-dimethylamphetamine (MDDMA) are described. This compound is a homologue of the common 'Ecstasy' drugs MDA, MDMA and MDEA. Although it has not appeared on the illicit market in the UK, MDDMA has been encountered in the USA. It is one of a large number of compounds based on phenethylam...
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A cosmological model is proposed which contains features of both the big-bang and steady-state theories but avoids many of their problems. In a universe that starts from zero mass, creation occurs at discrete sites which eventually form the galaxies. The universe shows symmetry between both matter and antimatter and between real matter and virtual...
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Conference Paper
(Abstract of Poster) This poster demonstrates the application of Expert System computing techniques to the identification of solid dose forms. TICTAC (The Identification Computer for Tablets and Capsules), in menu driven form, was developed in 1981 and is currently operated as a telephone service by the National Poisons Information Service of Guy's...