Lesley A Stewart

Lesley A Stewart
The University of York · Centre for Reviews and Dissemination

BSc, MSc, PhD

About

253
Publications
94,149
Reads
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89,074
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2006 - present
The University of York
Position
  • Managing Director
December 1988 - August 2006
Medical Research Council (UK)
Position
  • Senior Scientist, Head of Group

Publications

Publications (253)
Article
Full-text available
An increasing prevalence of data-sharing models, aimed at making individual participant data (IPD) from clinical trials widely available, should facilitate the conduct of systematic reviews and meta-analyses based on IPD. We have assessed these different data-sharing approaches, from the perspective of experienced IPD reviewers, to examine their ut...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To examine the comparative efficacy and safety of cognitive enhancers by patient characteristics for managing Alzheimer's dementia (AD). Design: Systematic review and individual patient data (IPD) network meta-analysis (NMA) based on our previously published systematic review and aggregate data NMA. Data sources: MEDLINE, Embase, Co...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Chronic heart failure is a debilitating condition that accounts for an annual NHS spend of £2.3B. Low levels of endogenous coenzyme Q10 may exacerbate chronic heart failure. Coenzyme Q10 supplements might improve symptoms and slow progression. As statins are thought to block the production of coenzyme Q10, supplementation might be part...
Article
Uvod: Preporučene smjernice za izvještavanje u sustavnim pregledima i metaanalizama (engl. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses, PRISMA) prvi su put objavljene 2009. godine kako bi autorima sustavnih pregleda omogućile transparentno izvještavanje o predmetu istraživanja, korištenim metodama i dobivenim rezultatima. Tij...
Chapter
This chapter presents the preparatory phase of an individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis project and provides guidance for planning and initiation. It outlines the importance of carefully refining the research question to be addressed through development of a project scope, building the collaborative framework for the project, and establis...
Chapter
This chapter overviews those elements of an individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis project that differ from a conventional meta-analysis of aggregate data. It describes the advantages and challenges of the IPD approach. IPD meta-analysis projects follow many of the same principles and research processes as conventional systematic reviews a...
Chapter
The CheckMAP tool provides a list of signalling questions to consider when checking and appraising an individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis project, and answers of ‘yes’ to questions are indicative of higher quality. A summary of the CheckMAP assessment provides a useful overview of the quality of a particular IPD meta-analysis project. A...
Chapter
This chapter provides guidance on the preparations needed just prior to the collection of individual participant data (IPD) and how to go about establishing and maintaining collaboration with IPD providers. It discusses various aspects that should be considered when preparing to collect IPD. Negotiating and maintaining collaborations with trial inv...
Chapter
The main purpose of evidence synthesis within healthcare is to generate reliable research-based evidence to inform decisions that ultimately improve the health and care of individuals. This chapter outlines how to report the methods and findings of individual participant data (IPD) meta analysis projects in technical reports and journal articles, a...
Chapter
This chapter presents the differences between individual participant data (IPD) and aggregate data, and outline why IPD meta-analysis projects are increasingly needed. An IPD meta-analysis project, therefore, involves the collection, checking, harmonisation and synthesis of IPD from multiple studies to answer particular research questions. A conven...
Chapter
Obtaining individual participant data (IPD) can reduce many of the potential biases facing conventional meta-analyses of published aggregate data. This chapter describes how researchers can examine the potential impact of biases on IPD meta-analysis results by using sensitivity analyses, funnel plots, and a combination of IPD and aggregate data. Pu...
Article
Background: Funded health research is being published in journals that many regard as “predatory”, deceptive, and non-credible. We do not currently know whether funders provide guidance on how to select a journal in which to publish funded health research. Methods: We identified the largest 46 philanthropic, public, development assistance, public-p...
Article
Background: Funded health research is being published in journals that many regard as "predatory", deceptive, and non-credible. We do not currently know whether funders provide guidance on how to select a journal in which to publish funded health research. Methods: We identified the largest 46 philanthropic, public, development assistance, public-p...
Article
Full-text available
The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement, published in 2009, was designed to help systematic reviewers transparently report why the review was done, what the authors did, and what they found. Over the past decade, advances in systematic review methodology and terminology have necessitated an update t...
Article
Full-text available
The methods and results of systematic reviews should be reported in sufficient detail to allow users to assess the trustworthiness and applicability of the review findings. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement was developed to facilitate transparent and complete reporting of systematic reviews an...
Article
Full-text available
The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement, published in 2009, was designed to help systematic reviewers transparently report why the review was done, what the authors did, and what they found. Over the past decade, advances in systematic review methodology and terminology have necessitated an update t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Medical interventions may be more effective in some types of individuals than others and identifying characteristics that modify the effectiveness of an intervention is a cornerstone of precision or stratified medicine. The opportunity for detailed examination of treatment-covariate interactions can be an important driver for undertaking an individ...
Article
Background Preterm birth is a global health priority. Using a progestogen during high-risk pregnancy could reduce preterm birth and adverse neonatal outcomes. Methods We did a systematic review of randomised trials comparing vaginal progesterone, intramuscular 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHPC), or oral progesterone with control, or with ea...
Article
The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement, published in 2009, was designed to help systematic reviewers transparently report why the review was done, what the authors did, and what they found. Over the past decade, advances in systematic review methodology and terminology have necessitated an update t...
Article
Full-text available
The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement, published in 2009, was designed to help systematic reviewers transparently report why the review was done, what the authors did, and what they found. Over the past decade, advances in systematic review methodology and terminology have necessitated an update t...
Article
Background: Funded health research is being published in journals that many regard as “predatory”, deceptive, and non-credible. We do not currently know whether funders provide guidance on how to select a journal in which to publish funded health research. Methods: We identified the largest 46 philanthropic, public, development assistance, public-p...
Article
Full-text available
Lay abstract: Early intensive applied behaviour analysis-based interventions are designed to support young autistic children's learning and development. Unfortunately, the available evidence about the effectiveness of these interventions remains unclear. Several reviews have focused on the published findings rather than contacting the authors to c...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To characterise and analyse the experiences of trial researchers of if and how conflicts of interest had unduly influenced clinical trials they had worked on, what management strategies they had used to minimise any potential influence, and their experiences and views on conflicts of interest more generally. Design Qualitative interview...
Preprint
Background: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement, published in 2009, was designed to help systematic reviewers transparently report why the review was done, what the authors did and what they found. Over the last decade, there have been many advances in systematic review methodology and terminolo...
Preprint
The methods and results of systematic reviews should be reported in sufficient detail to allow users to assess the trustworthiness and applicability of the review findings. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement was developed to facilitate transparent and complete reporting of systematic reviews an...
Article
Full-text available
Background As production of rapid reviews (RRs) increases in healthcare, knowing how to efficiently convey RR evidence to various end-users is important given they are often intended to directly inform decision-making. Little is known about how often RRs are produced in the published or unpublished domains, and what and how information is structure...
Article
Full-text available
Background Early intensive applied behaviour analysis-based interventions are intensive interventions for autistic children that are often delivered on a one-to-one basis for 20–50 hours per week. Objectives To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of early intensive applied behaviour analysis-based interventions for autistic...
Article
Introduction: Reducing treatment intensity for pediatric low risk febrile neutropenia may improve quality of life, and reduce hospital-acquired infections and costs. Key stakeholders' attitudes toward early discharge regimens are unknown. This study explored perceptions of reduced therapy regimens in the United Kingdom. Materials and methods: Th...
Article
Full-text available
Background It remains unclear when standard systematic reviews and meta-analyses that rely on published aggregate data (AD) can provide robust clinical conclusions. We aimed to compare the results from a large cohort of systematic reviews and meta-analyses based on individual participant data (IPD) with meta-analyses of published AD, to establish w...
Article
Objective: To identify and summarise 1) appraisal tools and other guides which address conflicts of interest in medical research studies; and 2) top journals with policies on managing conflicts of interest in journal papers. Study design and setting: Systematic review. We searched bibliographic databases, other sources and websites of 30 top med...
Book
Full-text available
The revised edition of the Handbook offers the only guide on how to conduct, report and maintain a Cochrane Review. The second edition of The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions contains essential guidance for preparing and maintaining Cochrane Reviews of the effects of health interventions. Designed to be an accessible resou...
Article
Assessment of risk of bias is regarded as an essential component of a systematic review on the effects of an intervention. The most commonly used tool for randomised trials is the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. We updated the tool to respond to developments in understanding how bias arises in randomised trials, and to address user feedback on and limi...
Article
Objectives: The aim of the study was to examine the effect of providing a financial incentive to authors of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) to obtain individual patient data (IPD). Study design and setting: Parallel-group RCT with authors identified in the RCTs eligible for two systematic reviews. The authors were randomly allocated to the int...
Article
Full-text available
The journal recently celebrated its fifth anniversary. Like systematic reviews themselves, the journal is thriving and publishing a variety of protocols, reviews, and methods papers. We have also had success in publishing-themed series.
Article
Full-text available
Scoping reviews, a type of knowledge synthesis, follow a systematic approach to map evidence on a topic and identify main concepts, theories, sources, and knowledge gaps. Although more scoping reviews are being done, their methodological and reporting quality need improvement. This document presents the PRISMA-ScR (Preferred Reporting Items for Sys...
Article
Full-text available
Reporting bias is a major threat to the validity and credibility of systematic reviews. This article outlines the rationale for accessing clinical study reports and other regulatory documents (regulatory data) as a means of addressing reporting bias and identifies factors that may help decide whether (or not) to include regulatory data in systemati...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Clinical study reports (CSRs) are produced for marketing authorisation applications. They often contain considerably more information about, and data from, clinical trials than corresponding journal publications. Use of data from CSRs might help circumvent reporting bias, but many researchers appear to be unaware of their existence or...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives A systematic review of paediatric low-risk febrile neutropenia found that outpatient care is safe, with low rates of treatment failure. However, this review, and a subsequent meta-ethnography, suggested that early discharge of these patients may not be acceptable to key stakeholders. This study aimed to explore experiences and perception...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose (stating the main purposes and research question): Many children have no significant sequelae of febrile neutropenia. A systematic review of clinical studies demonstrated patients at low risk of septic complications can be safely treated as outpatients using oral antibiotics with low rates of treatment failure. Introducing earlier discharg...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Preterm birth is the most common cause of death and harm to newborn babies. Babies that are born early may have difficulties at birth and experience health problems during early childhood. Despite extensive study, there is still uncertainty about the effectiveness of progestogen (medications that are similar to the natural hormone prog...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives The effective exploitation of what are often called big data is increasingly important. They provide the evidence in evidence-based health care and underpin scientific progress in many domains including social/economic policy. Typically, an optimal analysis involves working directly with microdata; i.e. the detailed data relating to each...
Article
Full-text available
Background It is uncertain whether the replication of systematic reviews, particularly those with the same objectives and resources, would employ similar methods and/or arrive at identical findings. We compared the results and conclusions of two concurrent systematic reviews undertaken by two independent research teams provided with the same object...
Article
Full-text available
A peer-reviewed journal would not survive without the generous time and insightful comments of the reviewers, whose efforts often go unrecognized. Although final decisions are always editorial, they are greatly facilitated by the deeper technical knowledge, scientific insights, understanding of social consequences, and passion that reviewers bring...
Article
Background: Risk-stratified management of febrile neutropenia (FN) allows intensive management of high-risk cases and early discharge of low-risk cases. Most risk stratification systems predicting severe infection from admission variables have been derived from childhood or adult populations and consequently their value in adolescents/young adults...
Article
Cancer-associated thromboembolism is a substantial problem in clinical practice. An increase in the level of fibrinopeptide A (a substance associated with hypercoagulable states) has been observed in humans exposed to fluorouracil. Anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab, which are now widely used in patients with metastatic color...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Reduced intensity therapy for children with low-risk febrile neutropenia may provide benefits to both patients and the health service. We have explored the safety of these regimens and the effect of timing of discharge. Methods: Multiple electronic databases, conference abstracts and reference lists were searched. Randomised controlled...
Article
The BJC is owned by Cancer Research UK, a charity dedicated to understanding the causes, prevention and treatment of cancer and to making sure that the best new treatments reach patients in the clinic as quickly as possible. The journal reflects these aims. It was founded more than fifty years ago and, from the start, its far-sighted mission was to...
Article
Objectives: To examine outcome reporting bias of systematic reviews registered in PROSPERO. Study design and setting: Retrospective cohort study. The primary outcomes from systematic review publications were compared with those reported in the corresponding PROSPERO records; discrepancies in the primary outcomes were assessed as upgrades, additi...
Article
Full-text available
Background Individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis is considered the “gold standard” for exploring the effectiveness of interventions in different subgroups of patients. However, obtaining IPD is time-consuming and contact with the researchers responsible for the original trials is usually required. To date, there are no studies evaluating diff...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Risk-stratified management of fever with neutropenia (FN), allows intensive management of high-risk cases and early discharge of low-risk cases. No single, internationally validated, prediction model of the risk of adverse outcomes exists for children and young people. An individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis was undertaken to de...
Article
Full-text available
Contributing reviewers A peer-reviewed journal would not survive without the generous time and insightful comments of the reviewers, whose efforts often go unrecognized. Although final decisions are always editorial, they are greatly facilitated by the deeper technical knowledge, scientific insights, understanding of social consequences, and passio...
Article
Full-text available
Jayne Tierney and colleagues offer guidance on how to spot a well-designed and well-conducted individual participant data meta-analysis.