Leonor Calvo

Leonor Calvo
Universidad de León | UNILEON · Department of Biodiversity and Environment Management

Doctor
Full Professor in Ecology. University of León (Spain).

About

165
Publications
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Introduction
Leonor Calvo currently works at the Department of Biodiversity and Environment Management, Universidad de León. Leonor does research in Forestry and Ecology. Their current project is 'Herramientas multiescala para la gestión post-incendio de ecosistemas forestales propensos al fuego en el contexto de cambio global'.

Publications

Publications (165)
Article
Full-text available
The structural complexity of plant communities contributes to maintaining the ecosystem functioning in fire‐prone landscapes and plays a crucial role in driving ecological resilience to fire. The objective of this study was to evaluate the resilience to fire off several plant communities with reference to the temporal evolution of their vertical st...
Article
Livestock grazing abandonment entails important shifts on the overall ecosystem function, but the effects of this land-use change on specific bacterial taxa remain poorly understood in mountain grasslands. Moreover, we currently lack knowledge about the feedbacks between changes in ecosystem functions affected by livestock abandonment in mountain g...
Article
Full-text available
Severe wildfires cause important changes in vegetation and soil properties in Mediterranean ecosystems. The aim of this work was to evaluate ecosystem multifunctionality through the study of burn severity short-term effects on different ecosystem functions and services. We selected the Cabrera wildfire (2017) in northwest Spain. Burn severity was q...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Los incendios forestales ocasionan importantes alteraciones sobre los suelos, por lo que las acciones de protección post-incendio son fundamentales tanto para evitar la degradación del suelo como para protegerlo de la erosión y, por tanto, mantener su capacidad de producción de servicios. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto a corto pl...
Poster
Full-text available
Los incendios forestales ocasionan importantes alteraciones sobre los suelos, por lo que las acciones de protección post-incendio son fundamentales tanto para evitar la degradación del suelo como para protegerlo de la erosión y, por tanto, mantener su capacidad de producción de servicios. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto a corto pl...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Los pinares de Pinus pinaster de La Sierra del Teleno se han visto históricamente afectados por numerosos incendios de escasa extensión. Sin embargo, en los últimos años se ha incrementado la recurrencia y se han producido dos grandes incendios (en 1998 y 2012), probablemente consecuencia del cambio en las condiciones climáticas y en la gestión del...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la resiliencia ingenieril a corto plazo de diversas comunidades de matorral en función de su estrategia regenerativa y la severidad del fuego, dentro del perímetro de un mega-incendio ocurrido en verano de 2017 en el noroeste de la Península Ibérica. Se dispuso de una serie temporal de imágenes de satélite Se...
Article
Remote sensing techniques are of particular interest for monitoring wildfire effects on soil properties, which may be highly context-dependent in large and heterogeneous burned landscapes. Despite the physical sense of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) backscatter data for characterizing soil spatial variability in burned areas, this approach remains...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the effects of traditional livestock grazing abandonment on the ability of mountain grasslands to sustain multiple ecosystem functions (ecosystem multifunctionality; EMF) is crucial for implementing policies that promote grasslands conservation and the delivery of multiple ecosystem services. In this study, we evaluated the effect of...
Article
The Pliocene to Recent Caviahue – Copahue volcanic complex is located in the Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes. The Las Mellizas Ignimbrite is widely distributed in the intra-caldera region of the previously formed Caviahue caldera. Detailed field work led us to identify four facies associations for Las Mellizas Ignimbrite and to characterize the...
Article
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In burned landscapes, the recruitment success of the tree dominant species mainly depends on plant competition mechanisms operating at fine spatial scale, that may hinder resource availability during the former years after the disturbance. Data acquisition at very high spatial resolution from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have promoted new opportu...
Article
Full-text available
Background The characterization of surface and canopy fuel loadings in fire-prone pine ecosystems is critical for understanding fire behavior and anticipating the most harmful ecological effects of fire. Nevertheless, the joint consideration of both overstory and understory strata in burn severity assessments is often dismissed. The aim of this wor...
Article
Full-text available
The large environmental and socioeconomic impacts of wildfires in Southern Europe require the development of efficient generalizable tools for fire danger analysis and proactive environmental management. With this premise, we aimed to study the influence of different environmental variables on burn severity, as well as to develop accurate and gener...
Article
Full-text available
The degree to which burn severity influences the recovery of aboveground carbon density (ACD) of live pools in shrublands remains unclear. Multitemporal LiDAR data was used to evaluate ACD recovery three years after fire in shrubland ecosystems as a function of burn severity immediately after fire across an environmental and productivity gradient i...
Article
En los últimos años, los incendios forestales se han convertido en un grave riesgo para la conservación de los ecosistemas debido a las modificaciones en el régimen de los mismos, que están condicionadas por el cambio climático y el cambio en los usos del suelo. En el contexto de cambio global actual, el fuego en la cuenca mediterránea -y en partic...
Poster
Full-text available
The evaluation of soil burn severity at fine scale is one of the main challenges in fire ecology. The innovative technology of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) provides highly detailed spatial information that could be used to characterize accurately different attributes of burned areas. The main purpose of this study was to assess the ability of ver...
Poster
Full-text available
Communities of bacteria present in soil play a critical role in regulating biogeochemical cycles of soil. They are fundamental in ecosystem recovery after any type of disturbance, included wildfires. These communities have traditionally been evaluated by indirect measures, such as carbon or microbial enzyme activities. However, at present the metag...
Article
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Resilience is a key concept in the study of the recovery of ecosystems affected by disturbances. Currently, there are numerous indices to measure resilience, but many of them do not show the accuracy of the resilience value or the behaviour of ecological parameters in the face of disturbances. New approaches and technologies enable large amounts of...
Poster
Full-text available
Fire is an important ecological element in the Mediterranean Basin. However, increases in fire frequency, burned area and burn severity may have relevant implications for these ecosystems. In fact, burn severity is one of the most significant factors affecting plant communities, since it has important effects on post-fire vegetation recovery. In ad...
Poster
Full-text available
Los incendios forestales son perturbaciones muy frecuentes en la Cuenca Mediterránea, los cuales han actuado a lo largo del tiempo como importantes agentes ecológicos. Esto ha influido en la capacidad de regeneración de muchas especies y, de este modo, en la resiliencia de los ecosistemas Mediterráneos. Sin embargo, el régimen actual de incendios e...
Chapter
Current predictions of global change effects in the Mediterranean Basin include an increase in the number, severity and recurrence of wildfires that will affect post-fire recovery of forest ecosystems, altering the provision of public goods and services on which many local populations depend. Mediterranean pine forests have been greatly affected by...
Presentation
Full-text available
In Mediterranean forest ecosystems affected by wildfires, the degree of soil damage is a critical factor controlling post-fire regeneration. The soil compartment shows a huge diversity in its environmental characteristics, therefore the effects of burn severity at local scales are extremely heterogeneous and complex. A rapidly knowing about fire im...
Article
Alterations generated by intensified wildfire regimes are leading to unprecedented impacts in the supply of ecosystem services (ES). We investigated how a large wildfire affected the components of ES delivery (capacity, flow, and demand) in a fire-prone landscape. We selected a set of socio-ecologically and economically important provisioning ES an...
Poster
Full-text available
Fire effects on soil, in the medium and long term, are linked to the resilience of biological communities. The study of the resilience of the bacterial community, through the analysis of the OTUs (Operational taxonomic units, similar to species in bacterial communities) and the main taxonomic groups (MTG), helps to understand the underlying process...
Poster
Full-text available
Soils play a key role regulating the global carbon cycle being the most important sink in terrestrial ecosystems. Nowadays, soils store around 680,000 million tons of carbon, mainly as organic form. However, disturbances such as wildfires release large quantities into the atmosphere, decrease soil C stocks in the forest floor layer and produce a va...
Article
Full-text available
Non‐forest ecosystems, dominated by shrubs, grasses and herbaceous plants, provide ecosystem services including carbon sequestration and forage for grazing, and are highly sensitive to climatic changes. Yet these ecosystems are poorly represented in remotely sensed biomass products and are undersampled by in situ monitoring. Current global change t...
Article
The design and implementation of pre-fire management strategies in heterogeneous landscapes requires the identification of the ecological conditions contributing to the most adverse effects of wildfires. This study evaluates which features of pre-fire vegetation structure, estimated through broadband land surface albedo and Light Detection and Rang...
Article
Full-text available
Forest managers demand reliable and cost-efficient methodologies to implement forest resilience concepts in post-fire decision-making at different spatio-temporal scales. In this paper, we developed a generalizable remote sensing-based tool to measure disturbance impact and engineering resilience at short-term in forest ecosystems affected by wildl...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
La aplicación de mulch de paja para evitar la erosión es una técnica habitual en la gestión post fuego en grandes incendios. Mientras que los efectos sobre la cobertura vegetal y la erosión están ampliamente estudiados, el efecto sobre las comunidades bacterianas todavía se desconoce en gran medida. En este estudio se muestra cómo esta técnica prov...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
La evaluación del efecto de la severidad en los suelos forestales es esencial para determinar el impacto de los incendios forestales. El principal objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la potencialidad de imágenes obtenidas por vehículos aéreos no tripulados (UAV) de muy alta resolución para identificar indicadores visuales de severidad capaces de r...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
El impacto causado por el fuego sobre los ecosistemas obliga a implementar medidas de restauración con el fin de recuperar su valor natural. En el presente estudio se evaluó el efecto de la restauración con mulch de paja sobre una serie de indicadores biológicos de calidad del suelo como el carbono de la biomasa microbiana y las actividades enzimát...
Poster
Full-text available
El impacto causado por el fuego sobre los ecosistemas obliga a implementar medidas de restauración con el fin de recuperar su valor natural. En el presente estudio se evaluó el efecto de la restauración con mulch de paja sobre una serie de indicadores biológicos de calidad del suelo como el carbono de la biomasa microbiana y las actividades enzimá...
Article
Full-text available
Heterogeneous and patchy landscapes where vegetation and abiotic factors vary at small spatial scale (fine-grained landscapes) represent a challenge for habitat diversity mapping using remote sensing imagery. In this context, techniques of spectral mixture analysis may have an advantage over traditional methods of land cover classification because...
Article
Full-text available
In forest landscapes affected by fire, the estimation of fractional vegetation cover (FVC) from remote sensing data using radiative transfer models (RTMs) enables to evaluate the ecological impact of such disturbance across plant communities at different spatio-temporal scales. Even though, when landscapes are highly heterogeneous, the fine-scale g...
Article
Full-text available
Background Wildfires are one of the major environmental concerns in Mediterranean ecosystems. Thus, many studies have addressed wildfire impacts on soil and vegetation in Mediterranean forests, but the linkages between these ecosystem compartments after fire are not well understood. The aim of this work is to analyze soil-vegetation relationships i...
Article
Full-text available
The evaluation of the effect of burn severity on forest soils is essential to determine the impact of wildfires on a range of key ecological processes, such as nutrient cycling and vegetation recovery. The main objective of this study was to assess the potentiality of different spectral products derived from RGB and multispectral imagery collected...
Article
Full-text available
In Mediterranean fire-prone ecosystems, plant functional traits and burn severity have decisive roles in post-fire vegetation recovery. These traits may reflect plant fitness to fire regimes in the Mediterranean Basin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of burn severity on post-fire vegetation regeneration through plant functional (ph...
Chapter
Climate tends toward drier conditions in most regions, particularly in the Mediterranean Basin. These changes may affect forest fire regime parameters, such as severity. Rainfall events also control postfire regeneration, mainly in the early stages, and water availability may lead to differential response of the vegetation and could induce changes...
Article
Full-text available
Los cambios en las condiciones climáticas y en el uso del suelo han provocado un aumento en la recurrencia y severidad de los incendios en zonas propensas al fuego como los ecosistemas mediterráneos dominados por pinos. Los pinares de La Sierra del Teleno (León) se han visto históricamente afectados por numerosos incendios, destacando por su extens...
Article
Severe fires associated to climate change and land cover changes are becoming more frequent in Mediterranean Europe. The influence of environmental drivers on fire severity, especially under different environmental conditions is still not fully understood. In this study we aim to determine the main environmental variables that control fire severity...
Article
Full-text available
Recent changes in fire regimes, with more frequent, extensive, and severe fires, are modifying soil characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of burn severity on the resistance of some physical, chemical, and biochemical soil properties in three different forest ecosystems affected by a wildfire in the northwest of the Iberi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Non-forest ecosystems, dominated by shrubs, grasses and herbaceous plants, provide ecosystem services including carbon sequestration and forage for grazing, yet are highly sensitive to climatic changes. Yet these ecosystems are poorly represented in remotely-sensed biomass products and are undersampled by in-situ monitoring. Current global change t...
Article
Full-text available
In Mediterranean fire-prone ecosystems, shifts in fire regime as a consequence of global change could modify the resilience of vegetation communities. In this paper, we aim to compare the efficiency of high and moderate spatial resolution satellite imagery in the evaluation of resilience in a fire-prone landscape under different fire regime categor...
Article
Full-text available
Aim To evaluate the transferability between fire recurrence scenarios of post‐fire vegetation cover models calibrated with satellite imagery data at different spatial resolutions within two Mediterranean pine forest sites affected by large wildfires in 2012. Location Northwest and East of the Iberian Peninsula. Methods In each study site, we defi...
Article
Full-text available
Prescribed fires have been applied in many countries as a useful management tool to prevent large forest fires. Knowledge on burn severity is of great interest for predicting post-fire evolution in such burned areas and, therefore, for evaluating the efficacy of this type of action. In this research work, the severity of two prescribed fires that o...
Article
In recent years, the Mediterranean area has witnessed an increase of both the frequency and severity of large fires, which appears to be intimately associated with climate and land use changes. To measure the impact of wildfires on living organisms, diverse indicators have been proposed. These indicators of fire severity traditionally rely on quant...
Article
Full-text available
Global change is altering fire frequency and severity in many regions across the world. In this work, we studied the impact of different frequency and severity regimes on the soil biochemical properties in burned areas with different environmental conditions. We selected three sites dominated by pine ecosystems along a Mediterranean-Transition-Ocea...
Article
Changes in climate and land use are altering fire regimes in many regions across the globe. This work aims to study the influence of wildfire recurrence and burn severity on woody community structure and plant functional traits under different environmental conditions. We selected three study sites along a Mediterranean-Oceanic climatic gradient, w...
Article
Full-text available
Two drivers of global change that affect ecosystem function include wildland fire regimes characterised by frequent, severe fires and increased atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition. However, their combined effect on the post-fire recovery of Mediterranean forests is still little known. We assessed the interactive effects of two fire severities and N...
Article
Full-text available
Our study explores the relationship between land surface albedo (LSA) changes and burn severity, checking whether the LSA is an indicator of burn severity, in a large forest fire (117.75 km2, Spain). The LSA was obtained from Landsat data. In particular, we used an immediately-after-fire scene, a year-after-fire scene and a pre-fire one. The burn s...
Article
In the Mediterranean Basin, wildland fires are major drivers of forest ecosystem dynamics. In the current context of global change, these fires are becoming more severe and recurrent because of climatic conditions, land use changes and invasive species. In areas affected by mega-fires (burned area > 10,000 ha), the patterns of regeneration may be h...
Article
Full-text available
Forest managers demand reliable tools to evaluate post-fire vegetation and soil damage. In this study, we quantify wildfire damage to vegetation and soil based on the analysis of burn severity, using multitemporal and multispectral satellite data and species distribution models, particularly maximum entropy (MaxEnt). We studied a mega-wildfire (900...
Article
The development of improved spatial and spectral resolution sensors provides new opportunities to assess burn severity more accurately. This study evaluates the ability of remote sensing indices derived from three remote sensing sensors (i.e., Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS, Sentinel-2 MSI and Deimos-1 SLIM-6-22) to assess burn severity (site, vegetation and s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Los regímenes de incendios en la Cuenca Mediterránea se están modificando debido a cambios en el clima y en los usos del suelo. Estos cambios pueden comprometer la capacidad de la vegetación para recuperarse, por lo que su estudio es de gran interés. El objetivo de este trabajo es caracterizar los atributos del régimen de incendios (tiempo desde el...
Article
Fire frequency and burn severity may increase in pine forests in the Mediterranean Basin under the warmer and drier climate projected for this region. Our study aims to evaluate the role of fire frequency and burn severity in the post-fire recruitment and development of Mediterranean serotinous pines under different environmental conditions. Two pi...
Article
The increasing occurrence of large and severe fires in Mediterranean forest ecosystems produces major ecological and socio-economic damage. In this study, we aim to identify the main environmental factors driving fire severity in extreme fire events in Pinus fire prone ecosystems, providing management recommendations for reducing fire effects. The...
Article
Forest managers require reliable tools to evaluate post-fire recovery across different geographic/climatic contexts and define management actions at the landscape scale, which might be highly resource-consuming in terms of data collection. In this sense, remote sensing techniques allow for gathering environmental data over large areas with low coll...
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge on the relationships between species functional traits and environmental filters is key to understanding the mechanisms underlying the current patterns of biodiversity loss from a multi-taxa perspective. The aim of this study was to identify the main environmental factors driving the functional structure of a terrestrial vertebrate commun...