# Leonardo BanchiUniversity of Florence | UNIFI · Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia

Leonardo Banchi

Quantum Physics

## About

104

Publications

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3,201

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Introduction

Additional affiliations

October 2017 - present

June 2013 - September 2017

February 2012 - May 2013

Education

February 2009 - January 2012

## Publications

Publications (104)

We numerically study the implementation of a universal two-qubit gate set, composed of CNOT, Hadamard, phase and $\pi/8$ gates, for transmon-based systems. The control signals to implement such gates are obtained using the Chopped Random Basis optimal control technique, with a target gate infidelity of $10^{-2}$. During the optimization processes w...

Quantum sensing is a rapidly growing field of research which is already improving sensitivity in fundamental physics experiments. The ability to control quantum devices to measure physical quantities received a major boost from superconducting qubits and the improved capacity in engineering and fabricating this type of devices. The goal of the QUB-...

Controllable bosonic systems can provide post-classical computational power with sub-universal quantum computational capability. A network that consists of a number of bosons evolving through beam-splitters and phase-shifters between different modes, has been proposed and applied to demonstrate quantum advantages. While the network has been impleme...

Quantum technologies hold the promise to revolutionise our society with ground-breaking applications in secure communication, high-performance computing and ultra-precise sensing. One of the main features in scaling up quantum technologies is that the complexity of quantum systems scales exponentially with their size. This poses severe challenges i...

Linear ion trap chains are a promising platform for quantum computation and simulation. The XY model with long-range interactions can be implemented with a single side-band Molmer-Sorensen scheme, giving interactions that decay as $1/r^\alpha$, where $\alpha$ parameterises the interaction range. Lower $\alpha$ leads to longer range interactions, al...

We numerically study the implementation of a universal two-qubit gate set, composed of CNOT, Hadamard, phase and π/8 gates, for transmon-based systems. The control signals to implement such gates are obtained using the Chopped Random Basis optimal control technique, with a target gate infidelity of 10−2. During the optimization processes we account...

As random operations for quantum systems are intensively used in various quantum information tasks, a trustworthy measure of the randomness in quantum operations is highly demanded. The Haar measure of randomness is a useful tool with wide applications, such as boson sampling. Recently, a theoretical protocol was proposed to combine quantum control...

As random operations for quantum systems are intensively used in various quantum information tasks, a trustworthy measure of the randomness in quantum operations is highly demanded. The Haar measure of randomness is a useful tool with wide applications such as boson sampling. Recently, a theoretical protocol was proposed to combine quantum control...

Effective low-energy theories represent powerful theoretical tools to reduce the complexity in modeling interacting quantum many-particle systems. However, common theoretical methods rely on perturbation theory, which limits their applicability to weak interactions. Here we introduce the Variational Adiabatic Gauge Transformation (VAGT), a non-pert...

Quantum classification and hypothesis testing (state and channel discrimination) are two tightly related subjects, the main difference being that the former is data driven: how to assign to quantum states ρ(x) the corresponding class c (or hypothesis) is learnt from examples during training, where x can be either tunable experimental parameters or...

An important theorem in Gaussian quantum information tells us that we can diagonalise the covariance matrix of any Gaussian state via a symplectic transformation. Whilst the diagonal form is easy to find, the process for finding the diagonalising symplectic can be more difficult, and a common, existing method requires taking matrix powers, which ca...

Protocols for discriminating between a pair of channels or for estimating a channel parameter can often be aided by adaptivity or by entanglement between the probe states. For large numbers of channel uses, this can make it difficult to bound the best possible performance for such protocols. In this paper, we introduce a quantity that we call the r...

An important theorem in Gaussian quantum information tells us that we can diagonalise the covariance matrix of any Gaussian state via a symplectic transformation. Whilst the diagonal form is easy to find, the process for finding the diagonalising symplectic can be more difficult, and a common, existing method requires taking matrix powers, which ca...

Noisy-Intermediate-Scale-Quantum (NISQ) devices are nowadays starting to become available to the final user, hence potentially allowing to show the quantum speedups predicted by the quantum information theory. However, before implementing any quantum algorithm, it is crucial to have at least a partial or possibly full knowledge on the type and amou...

Continuous-time quantum walks can be used to solve the spatial search problem, which is an essential component for many quantum algorithms that run quadratically faster than their classical counterpart, in O(n) time for n entries. However, the capability of models found in nature is largely unexplored—e.g., in one dimension only nearest-neighbor Ha...

Quantum channel discrimination presents a fundamental task in quantum information theory, with critical applications in quantum reading, illumination, data readout, and more. The extension to multiple quantum channel discrimination has seen a recent focus to characterize potential quantum advantage associated with quantum-enhanced discriminatory pr...

Quantum machine learning is where nowadays machine learning (ML) meets quantum information science. In order to implement this new paradigm for novel quantum technologies, we still need a much deeper understanding of its underlying mechanisms, before proposing new algorithms to feasibly address real problems. In this context, quantum generative adv...

Protocols for discriminating between a pair of channels or for estimating a channel parameter can often be aided by adaptivity or by entanglement between the probe states. For large numbers of channel uses, this can make it difficult to bound the best possible performance for such protocols. In this paper, we introduce a quantity that we call the r...

Entanglement is a powerful tool for quantum sensing, and entangled states can greatly boost the discriminative power of protocols for quantum illumination, quantum metrology, or quantum reading. However, entangled state protocols generally require the retention of an idler state, to which the probes are entangled. Storing a quantum state is difficu...

We study the machine learning problem of generalization when quantum operations are used to classify either classical data or quantum channels, where in both cases the task is to learn from data how to assign a certain class $c$ to inputs $x$ via measurements on a quantum state $\rho(x)$. A trained quantum model generalizes when it is able to predi...

Hybrid quantum-classical optimization algorithms represent one of the most promising application for near-term quantum computers. In these algorithms the goal is to optimize an observable quantity with respect to some classical parameters, using feedback from measurements performed on the quantum device. Here we study the problem of estimating the...

Quantum Machine Learning is where nowadays machine learning meets quantum information science. In order to implement this new paradigm for novel quantum technologies, we still need a much deeper understanding of its underlying mechanisms, before proposing new algorithms to feasibly address real problems. In this context, quantum generative adversar...

A fundamental model of quantum computation is the programmable quantum gate array. This is a quantum processor that is fed by a program state that induces a corresponding quantum operation on input states. While being programmable, any finite-dimensional design of this model is known to be nonuniversal, meaning that the processor cannot perfectly s...

Variational hybrid quantum-classical optimization is one of the most promising avenues to show the advantages of noisy intermediate-scale quantum computers in solving hard problems, such as finding the minimum-energy state of a Hamiltonian or solving some machine-learning tasks. In these devices, noise is unavoidable and impossible to error correct...

Quantum hypothesis testing is one of the most fundamental problems in quantum information theory, with crucial implications in areas like quantum sensing, where it has been used to prove quantum advantage in a series of binary photonic protocols, e.g., for target detection or memory cell readout. In this work, we generalize this theoretical model t...

Quantum Channel Discrimination (QCD) presents a fundamental task in quantum information theory, with critical applications in quantum reading, illumination, data-readout and more. The extension to multiple quantum channel discrimination has seen a recent focus to characterise potential quantum advantage associated with quantum enhanced discriminato...

Entanglement is a powerful tool for quantum sensing, and entangled states can greatly boost the discriminative power of protocols for quantum illumination, quantum metrology, or quantum reading. However, entangled state protocols generally require the retention of an idler state, to which the probes are entangled. Storing a quantum state is difficu...

Variational hybrid quantum-classical optimization represents one the most promising avenue to show the advantage of nowadays noisy intermediate-scale quantum computers in solving hard problems, such as finding the minimum-energy state of a Hamiltonian or solving some machine-learning tasks. In these devices noise is unavoidable and impossible to er...

Continuous-time quantum walks can be used to solve the spatial search problem, which is an essential component for many quantum algorithms that run quadratically faster than their classical counterpart, in $\mathcal O(\sqrt n)$ time for $n$ entries. However the capability of models found in nature is largely unexplored -- e.g., in one dimension onl...

Quantum hypothesis testing is one of the most fundamental problems in quantum information theory, with crucial implications in areas like quantum sensing, where it has been used to prove quantum advantage in a series of binary photonic protocols, e.g., for target detection or memory cell readout. In this work, we generalize this theoretical model t...

Gaussian boson sampling (GBS) is a near-term platform for photonic quantum computing. Applications have been developed that rely on directly programming GBS devices, but the ability to train and optimize circuits has been a key missing ingredient for developing new algorithms. In this work, we derive analytical gradient formulas for the GBS distrib...

We present a general framework to tackle the problem of finding time-independent dynamics generating target unitary evolutions. We show that this problem is equivalently stated as a set of conditions over the spectrum of the time-independent gate generator, thus translating the task into an inverse eigenvalue problem. We illustrate our methodology...

Gaussian Boson Samplers are photonic quantum devices with the potential to perform intractable tasks for classical systems. As with other near-term quantum technologies, an outstanding challenge is to identify specific problems of practical interest where these devices can prove useful. Here, we show that Gaussian Boson Samplers can be used to pred...

Hybrid quantum-classical optimization algorithms represent one of the most promising application for near-term quantum computers. In these algorithms the goal is to optimize an observable quantity with respect to some classical parameters, using feedback from measurements performed on the quantum device. Here we study the problem of estimating the...

Gaussian Boson Sampling (GBS) is a near-term platform for photonic quantum computing. Applications have been developed which rely on directly programming GBS devices, but the ability to train and optimize circuits has been a key missing ingredient for developing new algorithms. In this work, we derive analytical gradient formulas for the GBS distri...

Quantum cryptography is arguably the fastest growing area in quantum information science. Novel theoretical protocols are designed on a regular basis, security proofs are constantly improving, and experiments are gradually moving from proof-of-principle lab demonstrations to in-field implementations and technological prototypes. In this review, we...

Port-based teleportation (PBT) is a teleportation protocol that employs a number of Bell pairs and a joint measurement to simulate an input-output identity channel. Replacing the Bell pairs with a generic multi-qubit resource state allows the PBT protocol to simulate qubit channels beyond the identity. In this work, we fully characterise the Choi m...

Variational hybrid quantum-classical optimization represents one the most promising avenue to show the advantage of nowadays noisy intermediate-scale quantum computers in solving hard problems, such as finding the minimum-energy state of a Hamiltonian or solving some machine-learning tasks. In these devices noise is unavoidable and impossible to er...

Upper bounds for private communication over quantum channels can be derived by adopting channel simulation, protocol stretching, and relative entropy of entanglement. All these ingredients have led to single-letter upper bounds to the secret-key capacity which can be directly computed over suitable resource states. For bosonic Gaussian channels, th...

Quantum fidelity is a measure to quantify the closeness between two quantum states. In an operational sense, it is defined as the minimal overlap between the probability distributions of measurement outcomes and the minimum is taken over all possible positive-operator valued measures (POVMs). Quantum fidelity has been investigated in various scient...

Quantum cryptography is arguably the fastest growing area in quantum information science. Novel theoretical protocols are designed on a regular basis, security proofs are constantly improving, and experiments are gradually moving from proof-of-principle lab demonstrations to in-field implementations and technological prototypes. In this review, we...

A programmable quantum processor is a fundamental model of quantum computation. In this model, any quantum channel can be approximated by applying a fixed universal quantum operation onto an input state and a quantum `program' state, whose role is to condition the operation performed by the processor. It is known that perfect channel simulation is...

A fundamental model of quantum computation is the programmable quantum gate array. This is a quantum processor which is fed by a program state that induces a corresponding quantum operation on input states. While being programmable, any finite-dimensional design of this model is known to be non-universal, meaning that the processor cannot perfectly...

We study the functional relationship between quantum control pulses in the idealized case and the pulses in the presence of an unwanted drift. We show that a class of artificial neural networks called LSTM is able to model this functional relationship with high efficiency, and hence the correction scheme required to counterbalance the effect of the...

Gaussian Boson Samplers are photonic quantum devices with the potential to perform tasks that are intractable for classical systems. As with other near-term quantum technologies, an outstanding challenge is to identify specific problems of practical interest where these quantum devices can prove useful. Here we show that Gaussian Boson Samplers can...

Quantum fidelity is a measure to quantify the closeness of two quantum states. In an operational sense, it is defined as the minimal overlap between the probability distributions of measurement outcomes and the minimum is taken over all possible positive-operator valued measures (POVMs). Quantum fidelity has been investigated in various scientific...

We propose a formal mapping between supervised quantum learning and the information theoretic notion of channel simulation. The mapping is exploited to define a universal learning machines that can learn from quantum data.

We propose a formal mapping between supervised quantum learning and the information theoretic notion of channel simulation. The mapping is exploited to define a universal learning machines that can learn from quantum data.

We present a general framework to approach the problem of finding time-independent dynamics generating target unitary evolutions. More specifically, given a target unitary gate G over a set of qubits, and a parametrized Hamiltonian of the form H ( λ ) = ∑ i λ i σ i with σi Hermitian operators over the qubits, we want to find a set of values λ0 such...

Determining an unknown quantum state from an ensemble of identical systems is a fundamental, yet experimentally demanding, task in quantum science. Here we study the number of measurement bases needed to fully characterize an arbitrary multimode state containing a definite number of photons, or an arbitrary mixture of such states. We show this task...

Quantum systems interacting with an unknown environment are notoriously difficult to model, especially in presence of non-Markovian and non-perturbative effects. Here we introduce a neural network based approach, which has the mathematical simplicity of the Gorini-Kossakowski-Sudarshan-Lindblad master equation, but is able to model non-Markovian ef...

In this work we design a specific simulation tool for quantum channels which is based on the use of a control system. This allows us to simulate an average quantum channel which is expressed in terms of an ensemble of channels, even when these channel-components are not jointly teleportation-covariant. This design is also extended to asymptotic sim...

Entanglement not only plays a crucial role in quantum technologies, but is key to our understanding of quantum correlations in many-body systems. However, in an experiment, the only way of measuring entanglement in a generic mixed state is through reconstructive quantum tomography, requiring an exponential number of measurements in the system size....

We present strategies for the training of a qubit network aimed at the ancilla-assisted synthesis of multi-qubit gates based on a set of restricted resources. By assuming the availability of only time-independent single and two-qubit interactions, we introduce and describe a supervised learning strategy implemented through momentum-stochastic gradi...

Quantum systems interacting with an unknown environment are notoriously difficult to model, especially in presence of non-Markovian and non-perturbative effects. Here we introduce a neural network based approach, which has the mathematical simplicity of the Gorini-Kossakowski-Sudarshan-Lindblad master equation, but is able to model non-Markovian ef...

In this work we design a specific simulation tool for quantum channels which is based on the use of a control system. This allows us to simulate an average quantum channel which is expressed in terms of an ensemble of channels, even when these channel-components are not jointly teleportation-covariant. This design is also extended to asymptotic sim...

The while-you-wait computing paradigm combines elements of digital and analog quantum computation with the aim of minimizing the need of external control. In this architecture the computer is split into logic units, each continuously implementing a single recurring multigate operation via the unmodulated Hamiltonian evolution of a quantum many-body...

Determining an unknown quantum state from an ensemble of identical systems is a fundamental, yet experimentally demanding, task in quantum science. Here we study the resources needed to fully characterize an arbitrary multi-mode state containing a definite number of photons. We show this task can be achieved using only linear optics and photon coun...

We present a general framework to tackle the problem of finding time-independent dynamics generating target unitary evolutions. We show that this problem is equivalently stated as a set of conditions over the spectrum of the time-independent gate generator, thus transforming the task to an inverse eigenvalue problem. We illustrate our methodology b...

We clarify how a recent comment [Wilde, arXiv:1712.00145v1] to the review paper [Pirandola et al., arXiv:1711.09909v1] does not mitigate but further confirms the divergence problem in the derivations of the strong converse bound for the secret key capacity of the phase-insensitive Gaussian channels as presented in [WTB, arXiv:1602.08898v1]. These d...

We review recent results on the simulation of quantum channels, the reduction of adaptive protocols (teleportation stretching), and the derivation of converse bounds for quantum and private communication, as established in PLOB [Pirandola, Laurenza, Ottaviani, Banchi, arXiv:1510.08863]. We start by introducing a general weak converse bound for priv...

The time evolution of quantum many-body systems is one of the least understood frontiers of physics. The most curious feature of such dynamics is, generically, the growth of quantum entanglement with time to an amount proportional to the system size (volume law) even when the interactions are local. This phenomenon, unobserved to date, has great ra...

Entanglement not only plays a crucial role in quantum technologies, but is key to our understanding of quantum correlations in many-body systems. However, in an experiment, the only way of measuring entanglement in a generic mixed state is through reconstructive quantum tomography, requiring an exponential number of measurements in the system size....

We consider the simulation of a quantum channel by two parties who share a resource state and may apply local operations assisted by classical communication (LOCC). One specific type of such LOCC is standard teleportation, which is however limited to the simulation of Pauli channels. Here we show how we can easily enlarge this class by means of a m...