Leonard N. Reid

Leonard N. Reid
University of Georgia and Virginia Commonwealth University · Department of Advertising & PR, UGA and Robertson School of Media & Culture, VCU

Ph.D., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

About

140
Publications
48,719
Reads
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3,659
Citations
Citations since 2017
15 Research Items
1532 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
Additional affiliations
August 1980 - June 2012
University of Georgia
Position
  • Professor Emeritus of Advertising

Publications

Publications (140)
Article
Background Despite the prevalence of over-the-counter medicine advertising (OTCA) in electronic and print media, scholarly focus has tended to concentrate on direct-to-consumer prescription medicine advertising (DTCA). Objectives The purpose of this study is to examine the mechanisms through which attitudes toward OTCA in general and OTCA prompted...
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Fast food restaurants are increasing the number of healthier menu items to counter the criticism of promoting energy dense and nutritionally poor fast foods. However, relatively fewer studies have specifically investigated whether the promotion of healthier menu items will be positively perceived and trusted by consumers as intended. Building on pr...
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Guided by the theoretical frameworks of the “health halo effect” and consumer expertise, this research was undertaken to determine how two individual factors, health consciousness and health literacy, differentially influence evaluations of nutrient-content claimed messaging for an unhealthy food (i.e., chocolate) and whether such evaluations are m...
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The role of media context in advertising has been the subject of interest for marketers and media practitioners over the past 50 years. However, there remains a lack of clarity on the relationship between media context and advertising outcomes. To structure previous literature and facilitate knowledge development, this study meta-analytically exami...
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Media professionals and scholars have examined the influence of media context on advertising effectiveness for more than 50 years, but clarity regarding media-context effects remains lacking, amid an abundance of mixed results. This study used meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between media context and advertising memory in quantitative...
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Fast food restaurants have increasingly turned to healthier choices to counter criticisms of nutritionally poor menu offerings and to differentiate themselves from the competition. However, research has yet to specifically investigate how consumers respond to advertisements for these healthier foods. To address this knowledge gap, two experiments w...
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Highly creative advertisements are the end-products of creativity in advertising, and their creation is generally thought to be driven by strategic planning. Thus, 534 Clio-awarded advertisements from the years 2011–2014 were content-analyzed to determine whether implications of two popular planning frameworks, functional matching and the Foote, Co...
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Despite widespread theoretical and practical interest in advertising engagement, scholars and practitioners share little consensus as to what it is and how it can be measured. Guided by the theories of immersion and presence, this research investigates the experiential nature of advertising engagement in the television advertising context. Using su...
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Purpose The authors aimed to examine the presence and character of inter- and intra-approaches to replication studies published in five leading marketing journals ( Journal of Marketing , Journal of Marketing Research , Journal of Public Policy & Marketing , Marketing Science , Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science ) across four decade interv...
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This study examined the relationship between motivational conflict involving social media use and attitude formation in a brand crisis situation. An online experiment was conducted with 658 participants using a 2 (news-article valence: positive vs. negative) × 2 (situational cue valence: positive vs. negative) between-subjects design. During the ex...
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Guided by self- and functional-congruity theory, this experiment tested a model to determine (1) whether the effects of nutrient-claimed food advertisements are differentially predicted by self- and functional-congruities and (2) how identified predictive effects are moderated by health consciousness, an individual level factor, and perceived food...
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Do consumers avoid viewing over-the-counter (OTC) pharmaceutical advertisements? And, if so, why? The authors of the current study tested their proposed "Ad Avoidance Model" by surveying a nationally-representative sample of U.S. adults about their reactions to advertisements for OTC drugs (specifically analgesics). The researchers focused on how f...
Article
Given the importance of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs in the health care marketplace and lack of systematic research on OTC drug advertising (OTCA) effects, this study tested a theory-based, product category-specific OTCA effects model. Structural equation modeling analysis of data for 1 OTC drug category, analgesics, supported the proposed model, e...
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A 2 × 3 × 2 mixed factorial experimental design was used to examine how three message appeals (benefit-seeking vs. risk-avoidance vs. taste appeals), food healthiness (healthy vs. unhealthy foods), and consumer poverty status (poverty vs. nonpoverty groups) impact evaluative responses to nutrient-content claimed food advertisements. Subjects were p...
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This study analyzed replication in 1980 through 2012 issues of the Journal of Advertising, Journal of Advertising Research, International Journal of Advertising, and Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising following the replication logic of the positivistic perspective of quantitatively oriented social science research. The articles w...
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Using consumer contamination theory and associative learning theory, this experiment investigated the moderating effects of negative celebrity information level (major vs. minor offense) and timing of exposure (recent vs. past news story about the offense) on consumer psychological responses to celebrity endorser advertising. The experiment found t...
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Using a model developed from the research literature, the authors compared consumers' attitudinal and behavioral responses to direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising (DCTA) and over-the-counter nonprescription drug advertising (OTCA) of drugs. Adults 18 years of age and older who had taken any prescription drugs in the past 6 months comple...
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The Korean-American market segment is distinct, economically powerful, and under-examined. This study compared perceived information utility of six direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) media for prescription drugs among Korean-Americans and Non-Hispanic White Americans. Results indicate that drug-brand Web sites were most useful for this segment,...
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The use of statistical techniques in data-based articles appearing in the International Journal of Advertising, Journal of Advertising, Journal of Advertising Research and Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising was analysed over four decade intervals (i.e., 1980s, 1990s, 2000s and 2010s) and by journal. Among the trends, the study foun...
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This article reflects on my time as the fifth editor of the Journal of Advertising, makes observations about the evolution of scholarship in the Journal over the past decades, offers suggestions for how JA might advance in the coming years, and provides some “words of wisdom” to advertising researchers. Because it is the first in an invited article...
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This study provides a longitudinal content analysis of advertising research articles in 17 top-tier advertising, marketing, and communication journals published over the past 30 years (1980–2010, n = 926). The study's purpose is to shed light on the direction and progression of advertising as an academic field by updating and extending Yale and Gil...
Article
Using the context of print advertising, this research examines how the effects of mood on altruistic behavior vary as a function of whether a promotion or prevention focus is involved in messaging for child sponsorship. The findings reveal that when an ad message is framed in promotion focus, a happy mood fosters more favorable attitude toward chil...
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Research directors with the largest 200 agencies and advertising executives with the largest 200 advertisers were surveyed to examine their views on the current state of TV commercial pretesting. One-hundred and one agency researchers and 89 ad executives returned completed questionnaires (adjusted response rates of 52% and 49.7%), which asked them...
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Advertising practitioners' opinions about newspaper advertising for national accounts are important to the newspaper industry. Since the mid-twentieth century, newspapers' revenues from national advertising accounts have declined steadily. The authors report the results of a survey examining what large-agency media specialists think of newspapers a...
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The article provides further phenomenological understanding of how brand props are interpreted within the everyday lived experience of the movie audience. Building on previous focus group research and on the grounded theory perspective of social science, the authors gathered first-person audiotaped accounts of experiences with brand props as interp...
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The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of advertising on brand images. One hundred and twenty female cat owners were divided into three equal treatment groups. Each group was given a specified shopping list and asked to describe the personality of the female shopper. Two leading national brands of canned cat food served as the test ite...
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Influential writings suggest that today's advertising is not as creative as it used to be. To explore this suggestion, the authors asked top-level agency creatives whether they believe creativity has improved, declined, or remained unchanged since they entered the advertising business. Respondents' opinions then were grouped and compared by agreeme...
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A content analysis of all 1977, 1978 and 1979 issues of the leading advertising, marketing and communication publications was conducted to determine the frequency of replication in advertising research. The results revealed that replications are seldom published in advertising research and, as a consequence, the possibility exists that empirical re...
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Despite the importance attributed to the headline by advertising professionals, research on the question of how the headline affects advertising effectiveness is limited, and the existing research evidence indicates that the headline does not enhance the effectiveness of either consumer or industrial ads. This investigation examines the question of...
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Published evidence questions the voter involvement explantion of promotional spending effects in high involvement elections. This study replicates and extends the Soley and Reid (20) study which showed that promotional expenditures have as great an effect on votes received in congressional elections as party affiliation and incumbency. Using an exp...
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The Federal Communications Commission and the National Association of Broadcasters are currently formulating rules and regulations to limit the amount of TV advertising directed at children. What has not been considered are potential secondary effects of these proposed rules and regulations.The apparent basis of this action is great faith in the po...
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This study empirically tested the assumption that the more creative alternatives generated, the better the chance of developing the most effective campaign creative strategy. A panel of four professional creative people from a branch of a “top-twenty” advertising agency judged positioning statements generated by four groups of advertising students....
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This investigation (1) identifies the variables which influence radio rate structure and (2) determines the extent to which these variables influence spot prices differently for stations with fixed rate cards and stations with grid rate cards. Regression analysis was employed to investigate the relationship between the independent variables (averag...
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Even if advertising educators cannot teach students to be creative, they can guide and encourage those students with creative talent to enter the creative areas of advertising. Comparing advertising educators' judgments of their students' creative talent with measures of each student's associative creative ability at two major state universities, t...
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This study examined Korean Americans' prescription drug information seeking, evaluation and use of different information sources, and communication with physicians, and compared the findings with those from the White American population. The results suggest that although Korean and White Americans were similar in extent of drug information seeking,...
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Despite extensive interdisciplinary research, trust has been the subject of little systematic study in advertising, though investigations have incorporated and measured the construct. This study was conducted to develop a reliable and valid measure of the trust-in-advertising construct, using a three-stage, nine-step research design. The design pro...
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This experiment examined the interaction effects of message framing and counterfactual thinking on attitudes toward binge drinking and behavioral intentions. Data from a 2 (message framing: gain vs. loss) × 2 (counterfactual thinking priming: additive vs. subtractive) between-subjects factorial design showed that a gain-framed message resulted in l...
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This study examined Korean Americans’ evaluation and use of online advertising and non-advertising sources of prescription drug information and compared the findings to those of white Americans. A mail survey was conducted with a disproportionate stratified sample of 600 adults (300 general population and 300 Korean Americans) who have ever taken o...
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A multi-method study was conducted to, first, establish the prevalence of types of health- and nutrition-related (HNR) claims (nutrient content, structure/function and health claims) with benefit-seeking and risk-avoidance appeals in food advertisements appearing in magazines with large female audiences and, second, determine the effects of the two...
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This study investigates, in the context of professionalization theory, advertising agency practitioners' attempts to cope with what they perceive as legitimation problems of advertising work. While practitioners may not think of the sociological concept of professionalization frequently, the in-depth interviews reported in this article uncover agen...
Article
Building on previously published research, a multi-stage study of large agency media specialists was conducted to document the importance of nineteen selection factors used to evaluate media for national advertising accounts. In Stage 1, indepth interviews were conducted to identify relevant media selection factors; in Stages 2 & 3, a questionnaire...
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This paper addresses the suspicion that the substitution of mock-up magazine advertisements for actual magazine advertisements introduces surrogate stimuli error in advertising experiments. Two experiments were conducted to test for evaluative response differences. No statistically significant differences between the mock-up and actual advertisemen...
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To date, only one study has provided a data-based description of how campaign decisions are made within the advertising agency. This study employs decision systems analysis (DSA) to augment the previous study.
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This study was conducted to answer the question of whether the number or the type of information in advertising affects the perception of advertising informativeness. A sample of Ad-Chart-scored industrial magazine advertisements were content analyzed using the Resnik-Stern classification system. The coded information cues were selected to represen...
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A telephone survey was conducted to assess the relative value of six mass media types as sources of advertising information. National and retail advertising within each medium were rated separately. Results suggest that perceived informativeness varies as a function of the national-retail dichotomy and is mediated by audience characteristics.
Article
Few researchers have sought answers to questions of anti-drinking and driving public service announcement (PSA) effects, even though there is an ever-increasing, widespread public concern about youthful drinking drivers on the nation's highways. Building upon the general body of research on fear and persuasion, this experiment was undertaken to add...
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A comparative treatments experiment designed to test the relative effects of product puffery in a print advertisement against the effects of accurate and understated print advertisements in a product trial situation was executed. The results indicate that the use of puffery leads to several negative effects. The use of puffery was found to produce...
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Using the Foote, Cone and Belding (FCB) grid model and functional matching effects as theoretical frameworks, this study analyzed 1356 primetime TV commercials to assess the extent to which there is a functional match-up between think and feel product types and utilitarian and value expressive message appeals in contemporary TV advertising. Additio...
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This study examines frequencies and types of promotion techniques featured in five decades of cigarette advertising relative to five major smoking eras. Analysis of 1,133 cigarette advertisements collected through multistage sampling of 1954 through 2003 issues of three youth-oriented magazines found that 7.6% of the analyzed ads featured at least...
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This study documents the presence and prevalence of visual sexual imagery in advertising for different product categories through an analysis of 3,232 ads in six mainstream magazines from the years 1983, 1993, and 2003. Ads were coded for sexual imagery on two visual dimensions, model dress and physical contact, and for product category using the R...
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Dietary supplement advertising is an important, yet neglected, advertising research subject. This article overviews the US dietary supplement industry, describes advertising practices for dietary supplement products, and reviews the existing research on the topic. Based on the literature review, we offer a research agenda for advertising researcher...
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Studies of cultural and subcultural differences among consumers are important for advancing knowledge on direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising (DTCA). This study investigates and compares scepticism towards DTCA between Korean and Caucasian Americans and the relationship of cultural values (collectivism vs individualism) and acculturatio...
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Newspaper journalists and ad directors were surveyed to update and extend research on advertising pressure on newspapers. Results reveal that: (1) advertiser pressure is a widespread phenomenon in newspapers; however, despite economic threats to withdraw advertising, the extent and frequency of advertisers succeeding with their influence attempts i...
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This study investigates source selection in prescription drug information seeking and influencing factors on selection and seeking behaviors applying a modified Comprehensive Model of Information Seeking in an American context. Survey results suggest consumers engage in prescription drug information search before and after visiting a doctor, but se...
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This article examines the state of newspapers and consumer magazine print advertising as reflected in the public research literature over the past fifty years. Its purpose is not to present a scientific and in-depth analysis of every research article on newspaper and magazine advertising published since 1960, but (1) to identify key findings that a...
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Tobacco studies indicate that health-related information in cigarette advertising leads consumers to underestimate the detrimental health effects of smoking and contributes to their smoking-related perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes. This study examined the frequencies and kinds of implicit health information in cigarette advertising across five d...
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Purpose The over‐the‐counter (OTC) drug market is highly competitive, and consumer advertising is a prominent influence in OTC drug purchase and consumption. Given current marketplace conditions, it is important to summarize OTC drug advertising research. This paper aims to review the state of the public research literature on OTC drug advertising...
Article
Cosmetic surgery advertisements largely were banned from the mass media until the 1982 Bates Supreme Court decision. Today, advertising is one of the major marketing drivers of cosmetic surgery procedures. Yet, little is known about the content properties of cosmetic surgery advertising, a sometimes controversial and increasingly competitive field....
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Direct-to-consumer advertising has changed the way prescription drugs are marketed in the United States. This article traces the history of direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription and over-the-counter medications and describes how drug advertising is regulated and by whom. It also discusses the controversies that surround direct-to-consumer...
Article
This survey was conducted to determine and compare how Anglo and Hispanic Americans evaluate and use interpersonal, advertising, and mediated sources of prescription drug information. Findings suggest the following: (1) Hispanics rely on doctors, Internet advertising sources, and direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA), while Anglos frequently use he...
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This study investigates advertising skepticism in the context of consumers' prescription drug information seeking behavior. Results of a telephone survey found that: (a) the overall level of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) skepticism among consumers was neutral; (b) DTCA skepticism was unrelated to age, positively related to education and inc...
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In-depth interviews with senior level agency practitioners (creative, planning and account directors) were conducted to explore their thoughts about how advertising works. The study seeks to add to the understanding of the academician-practitioner gap in advertising, by uncovering practitioners’ hypothesized knowledge autonomy, in the context of th...
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Research on practitioner theories of advertising uncovered that agency practitioners not only have definite theoretical beliefs about how advertising works, they also have meta-theoretical beliefs, fundamental presuppositions about the nature and possibility of knowledge in advertising. The meta-theoretical belief in creativity and its dictum of “n...
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This article explores the second-person effect in direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising. The authors examine the conceptual and operational definitions of the second-person effect, empirically testing Neuwirth and Frederick's operational definition of the second-person effect (the additive term); determine predictors of the second-person...
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This study was conducted to explore (1) whether consumers believe that the credibility of advertising is negatively affected when placed in proximity to news perceived as biased; (2) if consumers believe that the credibility of news is negatively affected when advertising is distrusted; and (3) whether consumers' rub-off beliefs about news and adve...
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Trust has been investigated by behavioral and social scientists from different disciplines. Despite the interdisciplinary research, studies of advertising trust are not abundant in the literature, though both academic and trade investigations have incorporated and measured the construct. This study was conducted to examine consumer trust in differe...
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Purpose To determine how seniors evaluate, compare, and use prescription drug information sources, provide insight on perceptions of the credibility, trustworthiness, and value of these sources, and capture verbatim comments for translation into scalar statements in future surveys. Design/methodology/approach A total of 25 in‐depth interviews were...
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A series of in-depth interviews was conducted to examine older adults' perceptions of the effects of direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertising on themselves and others. Results give empirical voice to published survey findings and provide additional evidence to support the third-person effect in DTC advertising. Findings indicate that...
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The existence of the academician--practitioner gap is readily acknowledged and widely discussed in the marketing/advertising literature. This paper analyses key writings on the nature of the academician--practitioner rift and proposes a new approach complementing the literature. The review identifies five prevailing explanations why miscommunicatio...
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In this paper, we present results of a survey designed to (1) explore older consumers' perceptions of direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising effects on themselves and others; (2) determine how those perceptions are influenced by respondent characteristics; and (3) examine how self/other effect perceptions are related to ad-prompted behaviors. The res...
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This study examined consumer attitudes toward two potential direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising regulatory options—prior approval of DTC ads and a total ban—and how those attitudes are influenced by perceived DTC ad effects and receiver-specific characteristics within the context of the third-person effect framework. Results suggest that (1) consu...
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This study was conducted to provide additional evidence on how consumers behave following direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising exposure and to determine if there are differences in ad-prompted acts (drug inquiry and drug requests) between different age groups (i.e., older, mature, and younger adults). The results suggest that younger, mature, and o...
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Despite growing concerns about the quality and accuracy of Internet-based prescription drug information, there has been very little empirical research on consumers' perceptions of the trustworthiness of on-line drug information. In this article, we report on a study modeled after that of Menon, Deshpande, Perri, and Zinkhan (2002) in Health Marketi...
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In a survey of businesses in a six-county region in a Southern state, 130 advertisers indicated that selection of local media is driven primarily by their ability to increase sales, followed by the ability to reach a target audience.
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In this article, we report the results of a survey designed to answer 6 questions on perceived media effectiveness and substitutability within the context of local advertising. Results from questionnaires completed by 130 local advertising decision makers reveal that (a) daily newspapers and radio are perceived as the most effective media for local...
Article
This study examined consumer perceptions of the information utility of direct-to-consumer advertising, focusing particularly on how older consumers respond to this unique form of advertising. Consumers are neutral, not positive, about the information utility of DTC ads, but perceptions vary by demographic and predispositional variables. Older consu...
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This study explored the third-person effect in the context of direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising. A survey of 264 adults examined perceptions of DTC ad effects and their relationship to support for DTC ad regulation. Results support the third-person-effect perceptual component. The study revealed that for DTC advertising, the third-person effect...
Article
Building on a previously published study of large-agency media specialists, the authors surveyed large-company advertising managers on their judgments of the importance of twenty selection criteria used to evaluate media for national advertising programs. The survey was designed and executed to complement and extend the media specialist study. Foll...
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In this article, we report the results of a study conducted to determine consumer perceptions of the media credibility and informativeness of direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising (DTC advertising) and to examine how those perceptions are influenced by consumer predispositions and demographic characteristics, especially consumer age. Thi...
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In this study, the authors explored young adults' autobiographical memories of their first consumption experiences with cigarettes using a form of life history. We collected and analyzed 276 first-person essays to discover the significance of conditions and factors associated with the first act of smoking. For the study's participants, the first-us...
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Building on a previous survey of large-agency media specialists' opinions on the sales effects of national newspaper advertising, we surveyed advertising managers with the nation's largest national advertisers to measure opinions on national newspaper advertising for (1) ad delivery effectiveness, (2) sales effects, and (3) creative properties of m...
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Although agency creatives see TV as the medium of choice for national ads, newspapers are effective when conveying complex messages, providing a quality environment and moving people to action.
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Intermedia battles for advertising dollars are waged on the assumption that mass media are interchangeable in media schedules. However, there are both practical and empirical reasons to suspect that media are not seen as completely interchangeable by advertising experts. This study utilized survey and interviewing methods to examine top-level adver...
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Nearly all agency media professionals surveyed rate television as the best national advertising medium. Results suggest a need for promotional and informational campaigns by the newspaper industry.
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This article compares model characterizations and activity portrayals of blacks and whites in modern cigarette and alcohol advertising. An analysis of 418 cigarette and alcohol ads appearing in eleven magazines from June 1990 through June 1991 revealed a world in which blacks and whites smoke and drink separately, seldom encountering one another. D...
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A comparative analysis of dominant themes and verbal claims appearing in 886 contemporary magazine ads for brands of cigarettes and alcohol beverages is presented in this article. Two types of comparisons were made: (1) between-product category comparisons of themes and claims in cigarette versus alcohol beverage ads and (2) within-category compari...
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This study provides a descriptive account of how the visually oriented content of cigarette ads changed over three health and smoking event eras: 1954–1970, the pre-broadcast ban era; 1971–1983, the post-broadcast ban era; and 1984–1986, the “anti-smoking ideology” era. In general, support was found for the hypothesized changes in visual imagery of...