Leonard A Jason

Leonard A Jason
DePaul University · Department of Psychology

Ph.D.

About

1,091
Publications
188,095
Reads
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18,459
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 1975 - December 2013
DePaul University
Education
September 1971 - June 1975
University of Rochester
Field of study
  • Clinical Psychology

Publications

Publications (1,091)
Article
The current study explored whether substance abuse recovery houses could be categorized into meaningful classes, which might be associated with house evictions as well as changes in individual-level recovery capital. A total of 602 individuals from 42 recovery homes were followed for up to 6 data collection periods over 2 years. House level latent...
Article
Metabolic pathways related to energy production, amino acids, nucleotides, nitrogen, lipids, and neurotransmitters in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) may contribute to the pathophysiology of ME/CFS. 4501 Northwestern University college students were enrolled in a prospective, longitudinal study. We collected data before...
Thesis
The benefits of social network activity within a recovery home are demonstrative through friendships that are manifested by abstinent individuals through their day-to-day interactions. The social network bonds that these residents build serve as motivating factors that prompt the engagement of pro-social behaviors while also discouraging destructiv...
Article
Objectives: Studies have demonstrated immune dysfunction in adolescents with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS); however, evidence is varied. The current study used network analysis to examine relationships between cytokines among a sample of pediatric participants with ME/CFS. Methods: 10,119 youth aged 5-17 in the Chicago...
Article
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Replications and the sharing of data with other researchers have become an essential part of the scientific process, and it is an aspect of the social sciences that has grown exponentially over the last few decades and is now required for most federally funded studies. Unfortunately, there are few guidelines or narratives for unexpected complicatio...
Article
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A core criterion for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) is a substantial reduction in functioning from pre-illness levels. Despite its ubiquity in diagnostic criteria, there is considerable debate regarding how to measure this domain. The current study assesses five distinct methods for measuring substantial reduction...
Article
This study aimed to contribute to the development of a research case definition for post-acute sequelae of SARS CoV-2 infection (PASC) using a PASC data set and experiences from case definitions developed for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). Our database included patients with PASC who provided self-report symptomology d...
Article
Purpose: Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is an illness characterized by a variety of symptoms including post-exertional malaise, unrefreshing sleep, and cognitive impairment. A variety of case definitions (e.g., the Canadian Consensus Criteria (CCC), the Myalgic Encephalomyelitis International Consensus Criteria (ME-ICC...
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Background: About 10% of individuals who contract infectious mononucleosis (IM) have symptoms 6 months later that meet criteria for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). Our study for the first time examined whether it is possible to predict who will develop ME/CFS following IM. Methods: We have reported on a prospectively...
Research
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Kwestionariusz Symptomow DePaul 2
Article
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It is estimated that nearly 20 million adults in the United States have a substance use disorder (SUD), and 8.4 million of those adults have a comorbid mental disorder. Roughly half of those adults with a SUD and a psychiatric comorbidity fail to receive adequate treatment for either the SUD or the mental disorder (combined or separately). However,...
Article
Background: Our study explored whether latent classes adequately represented the social capital recovery indicators at the resident level and whether latent class membership predicted subsequent exits from the recovery homes. Method: Our sample included about 600 residents in 42 recovery homes. Over a 2-year period of time, every 4months, data were...
Article
Those with substance use disorders living in recovery homes might be at-risk for Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) due to close living arrangements and past histories of substance use (as well as comorbid factors such as homelessness, psychiatric comorbidity, and chronic health conditions). This study compared COVID-19 infection and mortality rates fo...
Article
Background Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) involves severe fatigue, unrefreshing sleep, and cognitive impairment, leading to functional difficulties; prior studies have not evaluated risk factors with behavioral and immune data collected prior to developing ME/CFS.. Up to 5% of university students develop infectious mono...
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Purpose Few studies have examined parent-child discrepancies on self-report measures of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) symptomatology and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The aim of this study was to investigate parent-child reporting discrepancies between a pediatric sample of diagnosed patients with ME/CFS and...
Article
Some recovery homes have facilitating relationships and organizational characteristics, and there are also social capital differences among residents of these recovery homes. It is important to better understand the impact of protective and risk individual and house factors on recovery issues among residents of these community-based settings. Indiv...
Article
Background: Although recovery capital represents various resources for persons recovering from substance use disorders, measures of this construct examine components that might not necessarily reflect the recovery goals of individuals who base their recovery through involvement in 12-step groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anony...
Article
Oxford Houses (OHs) are a large network of selfrun community‐based settings for individuals with substance use disorders. This present study explored a model based on conceptualizing recovery home social systems as dynamic multirelational (multiplex) social networks. The model is developed from data obtained from 42 OH recovery homes in three parts...
Article
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Objective: The prevalence of pediatric Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) has been estimated from an ethnically and sociodemographically diverse community-based random sample of 10,119 youth aged 5–17. We assessed whether a salivary biomarker of fatigue could identify youth with ME/CFS. Study design: We examined the ratio...
Article
Myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) represents a significant public health challenge given the presence of many unexplained patient symptoms. Research has shown that many features in ME/CFS may result from a dysfunctional autonomic nervous system (ANS). We explored the role of the cortical autonomic network (CAN) involve...
Article
Recovery homes may facilitate individuals with substance use disorders re-integration back into community settings by providing friendship, resources, and advice. Participants of the current study were over 600 residents of 42 Oxford House recovery homes. Findings indicated that willingness to share resources in the form of loans was associated wit...
Article
Objectives Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is often reported to be caused by an infectious agent. However, it is unclear whether one infectious agent might be the cause or whether there might be many different infectious agents. The objective of this study was to identify self-reported infectious illnesses associated wit...
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Disparities in access and utilization of substance abuse treatment (SAT) among Latinxs, accentuated by this population's rapid growth, create a public health issue. Although substance abuse literature has given more consideration to environmental factors and social support concerning treatment outcomes, current substance abuse models fail to addres...
Article
Although social support is a resource that helps persons in their recovery from substance use disorders, it is not clear whether specific types buffer the effects of stress and optimize outcomes for those with psychiatric comorbidity. This investigation examined two types of social support in relation to lengths of stay to identify mechanisms relat...
Presentation
Despite increasing awareness of the embedded systemic racism in the United States, many Americans still possess challenges understanding the depth of racism, the history of racism in the United States, how race is a social construct, and the gravity of racism’s impact on everyday life for marginalized people. From the halls of the Executive, Judici...
Article
Recovery homes in the US provide stable housing for over 250,000 individuals with past histories of homelessness, psychiatric comorbidity and criminal justice involvement. We need to know more about how these settings help those who remain in recovery. Our study measured advice seeking and willingness-to-loan relationships, and operationalized them...
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Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is a chronic disease with the hallmark symptom of post-exertional malaise. Evidence for physiological causes is converging, however, currently no diagnostic test or biomarker is available. People with ME/CFS experience stigmatization, including the perception that the disease is psychosoma...
Article
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Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a debilitating disease of the central nervous system known to be associated with multiple behavioral symptoms (fatigue, low stamina, dizziness, etc.) combined with autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction, thus implicating the central autonomic network (CAN). Postexertional malaise (P...
Article
The purpose of the present study was to identify correlates of employment among men in substance use recovery, including recovery-related discrimination and social support. A cross-sectional sample of men (N ¼ 164) who lived in sober living homes located across the United States participated in the present study. Data were collected online and thro...
Article
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Background and Objective: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is a severe illness with the hallmark symptom of Post‐Exertional Malaise (PEM). Currently, no biomarkers or established diagnostic tests for ME/CFS exist. In Germany, it is estimated that over 300,000 people are affected by ME/CFS. Research from the United States...
Article
Substance abuse disorders (SUDs) create significant and pervasive health and economic burdens in the U.S. and the world. After primary treatment has ended, supportive social environments are critically important to prevent relapse and to sustain long-term sobriety. Although approaches to SUDs and treatment vary internationally, studies in the Unite...
Article
The Relational Theory of Addiction hypothesizes that women’s substance abuse SUD development and (SA) recovery experiences differ from men’s because of women’s tendency to form nested self-concepts and increased relative desire for close interpersonal connections. We suggest that these two differences may have a dynamic and complex influence on rec...
Article
This exploratory study aimed to understand how veterans' social identity influenced their experiences living in Oxford Houses (OH)-the largest network of substance use recovery homes in the United States. We conducted three focus groups, with 20 veterans who were current or former OH residents. Thematic analysis revealed several ways in which parti...
Article
Recovery homes are a widespread community resource that might be utilized by some individuals with substance use disorders (SUD) and COVID-19. A growing collection of empirical literature suggests that housing can act as a low-cost recovery support system which could be effective in helping those with SUD sustain their recovery. Such settings could...
Article
There is a need to better understand improved recovery supportive services for those on Medication Assisted Treatment (MAT) for opioid use disorder (OUD) and, at the same time, enhance the available treatment interventions and positive long-term outcomes for this vulnerable population. A growing empirical literature supports the assertion that impr...
Article
African American adolescents living in neighborhoods with concentrated economic disadvantage are disproportionately exposed to community violence. This study builds upon previous research and examines patterns, severity, and chronicity of violence exposure, within a sample of African American adolescents living in low-resourced, urban neighborhoods...
Article
According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, roughly 65% of the US prison population is diagnosed with a substance use disorder (SUD) and over 600,000 individuals are released from incarceration yearly. Thus, it is important to better understand the factors that allow individuals recovering from SUD to reintegrate into communities after incar...
Article
This study examines the effects that substance-using family members have on those working to maintain recovery from substance use disorder. Participants (N = 229) were recruited from Oxford Houses (OH) across North Carolina, Texas, and Oregon. A stepwise linear regression with variables including abstinence self-efficacy, gender, substance use, att...
Article
There is a need to better understand the extent to which social capital (reflected in social networks tapping friendship, financial support, advice/informational support) can aid recovery for those residents living in abstinence-based recovery homes. Social network characteristics of 42 recovery homes (Oxford Houses) were examined, including friend...
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Adult patients affected by myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) are at an increased risk of death by suicide. Based on the scientific literature and our clinical/research experiences, we identify risk and protective factors and provide a guide to assessing and managing suicidality in an outpatient medical setting. A clinical...
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Living in neighborhoods with lower incomes, lower education/occupational levels, and/or higher crime increases one’s risk of developing chronic health problems including cardiovascular disease risk factors and stroke. These cardiovascular health problems are known to contribute to cognitive decline and dementia. The purpose of this study was to det...
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Introduction: Our objective was to determine which symptoms among long-hauler COVID-19 patients change over time, and how their symptoms compare to another chronic illness group. Methods: 278 long-haulers completed two symptom questionnaires at one time point, with one recounting experiences during the first two weeks of their illness, an average...
Article
The current qualitative study recruited 10 first-time Oxford House residents to participate in semi-structured interviews to explore their needs and factors affecting their length of stay. Interviews were analyzed using the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) approach. Findings suggest lower-resourced residents are more likely than highe...
Article
We followed college students before, during, and after infectious mononucleosis (IM) for the development of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). We used network analysis to study relationships between pre-illness cytokine data amongst three groups of participants: those 30 who went on to develop ME/CFS following IM (and met...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between psychiatric severity and stress among persons utilizing medication assisted treatment (MAT), and there is a need to identify resources that promote resilience against these risk factors. Although recovery homes might complement pharmacological interventions for persons using M...
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Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) are debilitating conditions found globally. Yet, most studies on these illnesses include patients from the United States (U.S) and the United Kingdom (U.K.). The current study compares impairment levels of 124 patients living in Japan with 210 patients from the U.S. All patients are...
Article
Various community recovery support services help sustain positive behavior change for individuals with alcohol and drug use disorders. This article reviews the rationale, origins, emergence, prevalence, and empirical research on a variety of recovery support services in U.S. communities that may influence the likelihood of sustained recovery. The c...
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Full-text available
Various community recovery support services help sustain positive behavior change for individuals with alcohol and drug use disorders. This article reviews the rationale, origins, emergence, prevalence, and empirical research on a variety of recovery support services in U.S. communities that may influence the likelihood of sustained recovery. The c...
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College settings can be challenging environments for students recovering from substance use disorder. Collegiate Recovery Programs (CRP) have emerged on college campuses across the United States to help mitigate the risks recovering students face and to promote academic and recovery success. The current article describes the first collegiate recove...
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Substance use recovery homes represent the largest residential, community-based post-treatment option for those with substance use disorders in the United States. It is still unclear what unique factors predict relapse after residents leave such homes. This study presents results of a longitudinal study of 497 residents who departed from 42 Oxford...
Article
Suicide is one of the most devastating, yet preventable, health disparities for African American adolescents. African American adolescent suicidal ideation and behavior may have different manifestations and risk factors relative to those of adolescents from other ethnic backgrounds that impact prevention efforts. For example, in addition to more co...
Chapter
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) affect approximately 1 million Americans ( Jason , Richman, Rademaker, Jordan, Plioplys, Taylor, et al., 1999a ); while some individuals believe that CFS and ME refer to the same illness, others characterize ME as a more severe, neurological disorder that is discrete from CFS (Twisk,...
Article
Full-text available
Post-exertional malaise, or a variation of this term, is a key symptom of myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome, as this symptom is mentioned in almost all myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome case definitions. Until now there has not been a comprehensive questionnaire to assess post-exertional malaise. To rectify...
Article
Full-text available
Post-exertional malaise, or a variation of this term, is a key symptom of myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome, as this symptom is mentioned in almost all myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome case definitions. Until now there has not been a comprehensive questionnaire to assess post-exertional malaise. To rectify...
Article
Behavioral community psychology emerged in the 1970s, during a time when many psychologists and mental health professionals were becoming more skeptical of an exclusively person-focused, primarily psychodynamic paradigm. Behavioral approaches brought the advantages of a focus on tangible and quantifiable phenomena and an appreciation of setting inf...
Article
We update the US prevalence and economic impact estimates of the 2015 National Academy of Medicine report on myalgic encephalomyelitis / chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), taking into account growth in population, economic inflation, and inclusion of children. We find a rough doubling of the ME/CFS prevalence and economic impact figures in the US,...
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Full-text available
Persons living with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) vary widely in terms of the severity of their illness. It is estimated that of those living with ME/CFS in the United States, about 385,000 are homebound. There is a need to know more about different degrees of being homebound within this severely affected group. The cu...
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Objective Recovery community centers (RCCs) have expanded across the U.S., serving as social “recovery hubs” that increase recovery capital (e.g., employment, housing) by providing resources that clinical care does not provide. While research supports RCCs' general utility, little is known about new participants' characteristics, predictors of enga...
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Background: Recovery homes provide supportive settings for thousands of individuals with substance use disorders each year. However, not all residents of recovery homes improve in these settings, and the reasons for both improvement and lack of improvement are still unclear. It is possible that those low in recovery might benefit when they are in...
Article
An important step in reducing health disparities among racial and ethnic minorities with substance use disorders involves identifying interventions that lead to successful recovery outcomes for this population. The current study evaluated outcomes of a community-based recovery support program for those with substance use disorders. Participants inc...
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The need for housing is an important concern for most women about to be released from prison, especially by those that need substance use treatment. This study explored the association between housing settings, relationships, and substance use. Two hundred adult females that had endorsed previous incarceration within the past 2 years participated i...
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The purpose of this study is to contribute to the literature on the prediction of substance use relapse, using sophisticated systems’ approaches to individuals and their contexts. In the current study of 42 recovery homes, we investigated the construct of social capital from the perspective of both recovery home residents and the house level. A con...
Article
Objective: We sought to identify the general health of college students. Participants: A total of 4402 university freshmen and sophomores were recruited to report their general health through an online questionnaire. Methods: Responses from the DePaul Symptom Questionnaire were analyzed. We then conducted latent class analyses to evaluate 54 diff...
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Background: Past research has found high rates of hyperventilation in patients with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/ Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS), but hyperventilation can be influenced by psychological factors. Clinical respiratory rates have been less frequently assessed. Aim: This study aimed to identify the predictors of rapid respiratory rates...
Research
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Cuestionario de Sintomas DePaul (DSQ)
Article
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Chronic illness is a risk factor for suicide but is often explained with depression. Research has shown an increased suicide rate in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome, but specific risk factors have been unexplored. We qualitatively analyzed responses from 29 patients who endorsed suicidal ideation but did not mee...