Leon N Schulte

Leon N Schulte
Philipps University of Marburg | PUM · Institute for Lung Research

PhD

About

37
Publications
15,405
Reads
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1,353
Citations
Introduction
My group studies regulatory non-coding RNAs in the human immune system. Our particular focus is on the protein interactors and subcellular localization patterns of lncRNAs in blood-derived and tissue-resident macrophages. We use a variety of established approaches, ranging from RNA-Seq to genome editing and RNA-affinity purification, and develop new tools to dissect the mechanistic contributions of lncRNAs to innate immunity.
Additional affiliations
July 2017 - present
Philipps University of Marburg
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Non-coding RNA in innate immunity of the lung
June 2015 - June 2017
Philipps University of Marburg
Position
  • Young Investigator
Description
  • Non-coding RNA in innate immunity of the lung
October 2012 - May 2015
University of Wuerzburg
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Description
  • long non-coding RNAs in innate immunity
Education
January 2013 - January 2013
Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
Field of study
  • Molecular Biology
April 2004 - October 2007
Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
Field of study
  • Genetics, Physiology, Parasitology
October 2001 - March 2004

Publications

Publications (37)
Article
Full-text available
The systemic immune response to viral infection is shaped by master transcription factors, such as NF-κB, STAT1, or PU.1. Although long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been suggested as important regulators of transcription factor activity, their contributions to the systemic immunopathologies observed during SARS-CoV-2 infection have remained unknow...
Preprint
Full-text available
The systemic immune response to viral infection is shaped by master transcription factors such as NFκB or PU.1. Although long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been suggested as important regulators of transcription factor activity, their contributions to the systemic immunopathologies observed during SARS-CoV-2 infection have remained unknown. Here,...
Article
The cover image is based on the Advanced Review Long noncoding RNAs in bacterial infection by Nils Schmerer and Leon N. Schulte https://doi.org/10.1002/wrna.1664.
Article
Full-text available
Infectious and inflammatory diseases remain major causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. To combat bacterial infections, the mammalian immune system employs a myriad of regulators, which secure the effective initiation of inflammatory responses while preventing pathologies due to overshooting immunity. Recently, the human genome has been show...
Article
Full-text available
Apart from the constitutive proteasome, the immunoproteasome that comprises the three proteolytic subunits LMP2, MECL-1, and LMP7 is expressed in most immune cells. In this study, we describe opposing roles for immunoproteasomes in regulating the tumor microenvironment. During chronic inflammation, immunoproteasomes modulated the expression of pro-...
Article
A persisting obstacle in human immunology is that blood-derived leukocytes are notoriously difficult to manipulate at the RNA level. Therefore, our knowledge about immune-regulatory RNA-networks is largely based on tumour cell-line and rodent knockout models, which do not fully mimic human leukocyte biology. Here, we exploit straightforward cell pe...
Article
Full-text available
The classic understanding of molecular disease-mechanisms is largely based on protein-centric models. During the past decade however, genetic studies have identified numerous disease-loci in the human genome that do not encode proteins. Such non-coding DNA variants increasingly gain attention in diagnostics and personalized medicine. Of particular...
Article
The innate immune system relies on a germ-line-encoded repertoire of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), activated by deeply conserved pathogen signatures, such as bacterial cell wall components or foreign nucleic acids. To enable effective defence against invading pathogens and prevent from deleterious inflammation, PRR-driven immune responses a...
Article
Full-text available
While the important functions of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in nuclear organization are well documented, their orchestrating and architectural roles in the cytoplasmic environment have long been underestimated. However, recently developed fractionation and proximity labelling approaches have shown that a considerable proportion of cellular lncRN...
Article
P-glycoprotein (P-gp) associated multidrug resistance (MDR) represents a major failure in cancer treatment. The overexpression of P-gp is responsible for ATP-dependent efflux of drugs that decrease their intracellular accumulation. An effective downregulation of MDR1 gene using small interfering RNA (siRNA) is one of the safe and effective tools to...
Article
Full-text available
Infections of the lung are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Despite the preactivation of innate defense programs during viral infection, secondary bacterial infection substantially elevates morbidity and mortality rates. Particularly problematic are co-infections with influenza A virus (IAV) and the major bacterial pathogen Streptococcu...
Article
Full-text available
The RNA helicase RIG-I plays a key role in sensing pathogen-derived RNA. Double-stranded RNA structures bearing 5'-tri- or diphosphates are commonly referred to as activating RIG-I ligands. However, endogenous RNA fragments generated during viral infection via RNase L also activate RIG-I. Of note, RNase-digested RNA fragments bear a 5'-hydroxyl gro...
Article
Full-text available
The ‘cancer cell fusion’ theory is controversial due to the lack of methods available to identify hybrid cells and to follow the phenomenon in patients. However, it seems to be one of the best explanations for both the origin and metastasis of primary tumors. Herein, we co-cultured lung cancer stem cells with human monocytes and analyzed the dynami...
Article
RNA has been proposed as an important scaffolding factor in the nucleus, aiding protein complex assembly in the dense intracellular milieu. Architectural contributions of RNA to cytosolic signaling pathways, however, remain largely unknown. Here, we devised a multidimensional gradient approach, which systematically locates RNA components within cel...
Article
Full-text available
Cases of Legionella pneumophila pneumonia occur worldwide, with potentially fatal outcome. When causing human disease, Legionella injects a plethora of virulence factors to reprogram macrophages to circumvent immune defense and create a replication niche. By analyzing Legionella -induced changes in miRNA expression and genomewide chromatin modifica...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT: A major obstacle in infection biology is the limited ability to recapitu-late human disease trajectories in traditional cell culture and animal models, which impedes the translation of basic research into clinics. Here, we introduce a three-dimensional (3D) intestinal tissue model to study human enteric infections at a level of detail th...
Chapter
Infectious diseases remain a major cause of mortality world-wide and with drug-resistant pathogen-strains on the rise, available therapies become increasingly ineffective. Looking for new intervention strategies, infection research over the recent years has uncovered a variety of cellular control mechanisms that determine the course of infection. B...
Article
Full-text available
Document recommendation systems for locating relevant literature have mostly relied on methods developed a decade ago. This is largely due to the lack of a large offline gold-standard benchmark of relevant documents that cover a variety of research fields such that newly developed literature search techniques can be compared, improved and translate...
Article
Influenza A viruses (IAV) and influenza B viruses (IBV) cause significant morbidity and mortality during seasonal outbreaks. Cleavage of the viral surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) by host proteases is a prerequisite for membrane fusion and essential for virus infectivity. Inhibition of relevant proteases provides a promising therapeutic appr...
Chapter
Inflammatory and infectious diseases are among the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Inflammation is central to maintenance of organismal homeostasis upon infection, tissue damage, and malignancy. It occurs transiently in response to diverse stimuli (e.g., physical, radioactive, infective, pro-allergenic, or toxic), and in some case...
Article
Brief summary: miR-17-5p was found to be upregulated in extracellular vesicles from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with influenza virus-induced ARDS and in vesicles of infected
Article
Transgene expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) has facilitated the spatio‐temporal investigation of host‐pathogen interactions; however, introduction of the GFP gene remains challenging in drug‐resistant bacteria. Herein, we report a novel far‐red fluorescent nucleic acid stain, 6‐TramTO‐3, which efficiently labels bacteria through a DNA b...
Article
Transgene expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) has facilitated the spatio‐temporal investigation of host‐pathogen interactions; however, introduction of the GFP gene remains challenging in drug‐resistant bacteria. Herein, we report a novel far‐red fluorescent nucleic acid stain, 6‐TramTO‐3, which efficiently labels bacteria through a DNA b...
Article
Full-text available
CRISPR/Cas9-based approaches have greatly facilitated targeted genomic deletions. Contrary to coding genes however, which can be functionally knocked out by frame-shift mutagenesis, non-coding RNA (ncRNA) gene knockouts have remained challenging. Here we present a universal ncRNA knockout approach guided by epigenetic hallmarks, which enables robus...
Method
This protocol describes how to knockout mammalian non-coding RNA genes through excision of an epigenetic transcriptional start site (TSS) signature. To this end two guideRNAs are cloned onto the pX458 CRISPR vector to induce DNA cleavage right up- and downstream of the TSS element. The protocol describes how to generate homozygous knockout cell cl...
Article
Full-text available
Immune response in the lung has to protect the huge alveolar surface against pathogens while securing the delicate lung structure. Macrophages and alveolar epithelial cells constitute the first line of defense and together orchestrate the initial steps of host defense. In this study, we analysed the influence of macrophages on type II alveolar epit...
Article
Intracellular bacterial pathogens can exhibit large heterogeneity in growth rate inside host cells, with major consequences for the infection outcome. If and how the host responds to this heterogeneity remains poorly understood. Here, we combined a fluorescent reporter of bacterial cell division with single-cell RNA-sequencing analysis to study the...
Article
Bacteria express many small RNAs for which the regulatory roles in pathogenesis have remained poorly understood due to a paucity of robust phenotypes in standard virulence assays. Here we use a generic ‘dual RNA-seq’ approach to profile RNA expression simultaneously in pathogen and host during Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection and r...
Thesis
Full-text available
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of approx. 22 nt long non-coding RNAs that interfere with mRNA translation and stability. Using high-throughput sequencing the present study investigated miRNA expression changes after infection of cultured host cells with the microbial model pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. In macrophages, which play...
Article
Full-text available
Many microRNAs (miRNAs) are co-regulated during the same physiological process but the underlying cellular logic is often little understood. The con-served, immunomodulatory miRNAs miR-146 and miR-155, for instance, are co-induced in many cell types in response to microbial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to feedback-repress LPS signalling through Toll-li...
Article
MicroRNAs are small RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate eukaryotic gene expression. In addition to their involvement in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes, including viral infections, microRNAs are increasingly implicated in the eukaryotic response to bacterial pathogens. Recent studies have characterized changes in host...
Article
Full-text available
MicroRNAs have well-established roles in eukaryotic host responses to viruses and extracellular bacterial pathogens. In contrast, microRNA responses to invasive bacteria have remained unknown. Here, we report cell type-dependent microRNA regulations upon infection of mammalian cells with the enteroinvasive pathogen, Salmonella Typhimurium. Murine m...
Article
Full-text available
The main mediator of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) response in macrophages is activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). This generates interferon-beta (INF-beta) production that stimulates increased expression of the RNA editing enzyme ADAR1. To determine if there is an increase in RNA editing in mature miRNA in response to TLR4 activation upon Sal...

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Projects

Projects (2)
Project
This project will systematically map regulatory and essential RNAs in human immunity. Using innovative high-throughput methods and classic RNA biochemistry, the dependencies of non-coding RNAs on signaling pathways, their subcellular localization and interaction with protein machineries, and their mechanistic implications in the immune system and in inflammatory diseases are to be uncovered.
Project
Documentation of the cross-species RNA networks, which illusitrate the mutual adaptation of host and pathogen, and identification of bottlenecks, which the pathogen must overcome for successful colonization.