Leon P M Lamers

Leon P M Lamers
Radboud University | RU · Institute for Water and Wetland Research

PhD

About

233
Publications
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Publications

Publications (233)
Article
Despite active seagrass restoration gaining traction as a tool to halt and reverse worldwide seagrass losses, overall success remains limited. Restoration strategies, through seeding or transplantation, face different environmental bottlenecks that limit restoration success. Choosing the most appropriate strategy of the two for a specific location,...
Article
Biogeomorphic wetlands cover 1% of Earth’s surface but store 20% of ecosystem organic carbon. This disproportional share is fueled by high carbon sequestration rates and effective storage in peatlands, mangroves, salt marshes, and seagrass meadows, which greatly exceed those of oceanic and forest ecosystems. Here, we review how feedbacks between ge...
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Purpose Paludiculture (crop cultivation in wet peatlands) can prevent carbon and nutrient losses while enabling biomass production. As vegetation in rewetted peatlands is often nitrogen (N) limited, input of N-rich water may promote biomass production and nutrient removal. However, it is unclear how N loading and soil characteristics affect biomass...
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Severe eutrophication threatens freshwater systems around the world. The application of aquatic buffer zones with plants, for example around agricultural lands, can increase nutrient retention and thereby reduce nutrient loading to downstream systems. However, not much is known about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from these buffer zones and how th...
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Growth and functioning of Sphagnum mosses are closely linked to water level and chemistry. Sphagnum mosses occur in wet, generally acidic conditions and when buffered, alkaline water is known to negatively impact Sphagnum. The effects of time, dosage and species‐specific responses of buffered, alkaline water on Sphagnum are largely unknown. We inve...
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Wetlands provide vital services on which human societies depend. As they have been rapidly degrading due to anthropogenic impacts worldwide, wetland restoration is increasingly applied. When a return to the original state of a wetland is constrained, forward-looking restoration can provide a new way to enhance an ecosystem's ecological integrity. H...
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Worldwide, coastal ecosystems are rapidly degrading in quality and extent. While novel restoration designs include facilitation to enhance restoration success in stressful environments, they typically focus on a single life-stage, even though many organisms go through multiple life-stages accompanied by different bottlenecks. A new approach – life...
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Veenbodems vormen de bakermat van Nederland. Met name wateronttrekking heeft sinds de middeleeuwen gezorgd voor een enorme bodemdaling. Tegenwoordig leidt dit tot een kostenpost van vele honderden miljoenen per jaar en een enorme uitstoot van CO2 en andere broeikasgassen. Water speelt nu een rol van betekenis in het stoppen en omkeren van de desast...
Article
Wetlands die worden gedomineerd door planten, zoals kwelderplanten, zeegras-sen en veenmossen, leveren belangrijke leefgebieden met een hoge biodiversiteit en veel belangrijke ecosysteemdiensten. Wereldwijd is het oppervlak van deze systemen afgelopen eeuw echter gehal-veerd door menselijke activiteiten zoals veranderd landgebruik, drainage of over...
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Aquatic ecosystems provide vital services, and macrophytes play a critical role in their functioning. Conceptual models indicate that in shallow lakes, plants with different growth strategies are expected to inhabit contrasting habitats. For shallow peat lakes, characterized by incohesive sediments, roles of growth forms, life-history strategies an...
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1. Ecosystems are increasingly managed to provide multiple benefits to humans, which often degrades their ecological integrity. This strongly applies to aquatic ecosystems, in which engineering can enhance flood protection, drinking water supply, fisheries and recreation. Although these activities typically increase ecosystem functionality to human...
Preprint
Full-text available
Purpose Paludiculture (crop cultivation in wet peatlands) can prevent carbon and nutrient losses while enabling biomass production. As vegetation in rewetted peatlands is often nitrogen (N) limited, input of N rich water may promote biomass production and nutrient removal. However, it is unclear how N loading and soil characteristics affect biomass...
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Full-text available
Freshwater ecosystems are the largest natural source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4), with shallow lakes a particular hot spot. Eutrophication and warming generally increase lake CH4 emissions but their impacts on the sole biological methane sink—methane oxidation—and methane-oxidizer community dynamics are poorly understood. We used the world’...
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1. Ecosystems are degrading worldwide, with severe ecological and economic consequences. Restoration is becoming an important tool to regain ecosystem services and preserve biodiversity. However, in harsh ecosystems dominated by habitat‐modifying organisms, restoration is often expensive and failure prone. Establishment of such habitat‐modifiers of...
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Water hyacinth is able to sequester large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) in wetlands. At the same time, the high production of organic matter combined with the plant’s capacity to limit the diffusion of oxygen from the atmosphere into the water creates favorable conditions for the production of methane (CH4). The combination of these mechanisms ch...
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Chemical characteristics of Dutch poor and rich fens and effects of atmospheric nitrogen deposition The vegetation composition of Dutch poor and rich fens of terrestrialization peatlands can be divided into six groups, from mesotrophic brownmoss dominated rich fens to acidic sphagnum moss dominated poor fens. The porewater bicarbonate concentratio...
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The restoration of degraded ecosystems and landscapes is challenging, because returning to the original state is often socio-economically unfeasible. A novel approach is to construct new ecosystems to improve the functioning of degraded landscapes. However, the development of novel ecosystems is largely driven by the pre-construction hydrogeophysic...
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Globally, peatlands have been affected by drainage and peat extraction, with adverse effects on their functioning and services. To restore peat-forming vegetation, drained bogs are being rewetted on a large scale. Although this practice results in higher groundwater levels, unfortunately it often creates deep lakes in parts where peat was extracted...
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Degraded peatlands are often rewetted to prevent oxidation of the peat, which reduces CO2 emission. However, the created anoxic conditions will boost methane (CH4) production and thus emission. Here, we show that submerged Sphagnum peat mosses in rewetted-submerged peatlands can reduce CH4 emission from peatlands with 93%. We were able to mimic the...
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The large-scale storage and inundation of contaminated soils and sediments in deep waterlogged former sand pits or in lakes has become a fairly common practice in recent years. Decreasing water depth potentially promotes aquatic biodiversity, but it also poses a risk to water quality as was shown in a previous study on the impact on groundwater. To...
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The invasive Australian swamp stonecrop, Crassula helmsii, is a perennial amphibious herb originating from Australia and New Zealand. In freshwater wetlands of North-western Europe, this alien plant species is invasive due to its efficient colonization of empty niches. The establishment of dense C. helmsii growth is threatening native biodiversity...
Article
Water hyacinth is able to sequester large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO 2) in wetlands. At the same time, the high production of organic matter combined with the plant's capacity to limit the diffusion of oxygen from the atmosphere into the water creates favorable conditions for the production of methane (CH 4). The combination of these mechanisms...
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Mini-special over natuureiland Griend In het septembernummer van De Levende Natuur staat Griend in de schijnwerpers. De ongestoorde, centrale ligging in de Waddenzee, met hoogwatervluchtplaatsen en rondom foerageergronden, maakt van dit natuureiland een ideale stop-over voor trekvogels. In het broedseizoen broeden er bovendien 20 duizend paar kokme...
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Lang is gedacht dat aanvoer van zowel ijzerrijk als kalkrijk grondwater in veengebieden zou leiden tot een lage beschikbaarheid van fosfaat, wat goed is in tijden van hoge stikstofdepositie. Een studie in Nederlandse en Zweedse kalkmoerassen (H7230), trilvenen (H7140) en blauwgraslanden (H6410) laat echter zien dat de rol van ijzer en calcium niet...
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Newly constructed wetlands are created to provide a range of ecosystem services, including carbon sequestration. Our understanding of the initial factors leading to successful peat formation in such environments is, however, limited. In a new 100-ha wetland that was created north of Amsterdam (the Netherlands), we conducted an experiment to determi...
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The widespread wetland species Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. has the ability to transport gases through its stems via a pressurized flow. This results in a high oxygen (O2) transport to the rhizosphere, suppressing methane (CH4) production and stimulating CH4 oxidation. Simultaneously CH4 is transported in the opposite direction to th...
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Restoration is becoming a vital tool to counteract coastal ecosystem degradation. Modifying transplant designs of habitat-forming organisms from dispersed to clumped can amplify coastal restoration yields as it generates self-facilitation from emergent traits, i.e. traits not expressed by individuals or small clones, but that emerge in clumped indi...
Article
Paludiculture, sustainable and climate-smart land use of formerly drained, rewetted organic soils, can produce significant biomass in peatlands whilst potentially restoring several additional wetland services. However, the site conditions that allow maximum biomass production and nutrient removal by paludiculture crops have rarely been studied. We...
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_______________________________________________________________________________________ SUMMARY Worldwide, drainage-based water management is applied to facilitate agricultural use of coastal peatland areas, leading to large-scale peat oxidation and land subsidence. Meanwhile, there is a strong call for a more sustainable use and management of drai...
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Globally, large-scale land drainage has severely deteriorated the functioning and services of peatlands, making restoration plans of the utmost importance. Rewetting is essential for the restoration of drained peatlands, but the level of success including greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation largely depends on the soil microbiome interactions under the...
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Full-text available
The large-scale storage and inundation of contaminated soils and sediments in deep waterlogged former sand pits or in lakes have become a fairly common practice in recent years. Decreasing water depth potentially promotes aquatic biodiversity, but it also poses a risk to water quality as was shown in a previous study on the impact on groundwater. T...
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Full-text available
The future of formerly brackish peatlands: effects of salinization The last decades, Dutch former brackish peatlands have been heavily influenced by fresh surface water. The decrease in salinity led to a decrease of brackish water dependent species and Natura 2000 habitat types. Resalinization is currently considered. The present article summarizes...
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The agricultural use of drained peatlands leads to huge emissions of greenhouse gases and nutrients. A land-use alternative that allows rewetting of drained peatland while maintaining agricultural production is the cultivation of Sphagnum biomass as a renewable substitute for fossil peat in horticultural growing media (Sphagnum farming). We studied...
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Abstract Peatlands have acted as C-sinks for millennia, storing large amounts of carbon, of which a significant amount is yearly released as methane (CH4). Sphagnum mosses are a key genus in many peat ecosystems and these mosses live in close association with methane-oxidizing and nitrogen-fixing microorganisms. To disentangle mechanisms which may...
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Biological nitrogen (N) fixation is an important process supporting primary production in ecosystems, especially in those where N availability is limiting growth, such as peatlands and boreal forests. In many peatlands, peat mosses (genus Sphagnum) are the prime ecosystem engineers, and like feather mosses in boreal forests, they are associated wit...
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Aim To further unravel P availability in mineral-rich fens, and test whether high Fe in the soil would lead to low P availability to the vegetation. Methods Mesotrophic fens were selected over gradients in Ca and Fe in central Sweden and the Netherlands, to study characteristics of vegetation, pore water and peat soil, including inorganic and orga...
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Sod cutting has been used extensively as effective measure in removing excess N and restoring dwarf shrub dominance in heathlands affected by increased nitrogen deposition. However, recovery of other plant species is often very limited. One barrier is high soil acidity following sod cutting, which results in soil aluminium (Al3+) and ammonium (NH4+...
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The formation of a local vegetation mosaic may be attributed to local variation in abiotic environmental conditions. Recent research however, indicates that self‐facilitating organisms and negative species interactions may be a driving factor. In this study, we explore whether heterogeneous geohydrological conditions or vegetation feedbacks and int...
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The future of our peat meadow landscape. About rewetting, ‘optoppen’ (‘layering up’) and peat moss cultivation (Sphagnum farming) The cultivated peat meadow landscape is a characteristic Dutch landscape, but it also provokes serious problems. As a result of severe drainage, the peat soil becomes aerated and decomposes fast, resulting in the emissi...
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Sphagnum mosses are poikilohydric bryophytes, i.e. dependent on nearly-constant wet conditions. Exposure to mineral-enriched water has long been recognised as a threat to Sphagnum mosses and a driver of niche formation. Atrophy of Sphagnum is currently attributed to high pH in combination with high calcium concentration. Because the natural occurre...
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Water hyacinth (WH), a large floating plant, plays an important role in the biogeochemistry and ecology of many freshwaters globally. Its biogeochemical impact on wetland functioning is strongly mediated by the microbiome associated with its roots. However, little is known about the structure and function of this WH rhizobiome and its relation to w...
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Foundation species are typically suggested to enhance community diversity non‐trophically by increasing habitat structure and mitigating physical stress, while their trophic role is considered of minor importance. Yet, there is little experimental evidence on the relative importance of trophic and non‐trophic effects and the interaction with patch...
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Coastal exploitation and human‐mediated modifications have markedly altered the community composition and functioning of coastal wetlands worldwide. Although recent work has shown that harnessing positive density‐dependent feedbacks can greatly enhance the recovery of habitat‐modifying species in degraded wetlands, the role of these intraspecific f...
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Lifeforms ranging from bacteria to humans employ specialized random movement patterns. Although effective as optimization strategies in many scientific fields, random walk application in biology has remained focused on search optimization by mobile organisms. Here, we report on the discovery that heavy-tailed random walks underlie the ability of cl...
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Foundation species often interact with each other and co-create habitat upon which other species depend. Whether the presence of these facilitated species feeds back to mediate the growth and resilience of the foundation species themselves, and influence the strength of their interactions, remains poorly understood. In a 16-month field experiment i...
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Small water systems are important hotspots of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, but estimates are poorly constrained as data are scarce. Small ponds are often constructed in urban areas, where they receive large amounts of nutrients and therefore tend to be highly productive. Here, we investigated GHG emissions, seasonal and diel variation, and net ec...
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Grazing can significantly impact spatial heterogeneity and conservation value of ecosystems. Earlier work revealed that overgrazing may stimulate persistent vegetation collapse in low‐productivity environments where vegetation survives by concentrating scarce resources within its local environment. However, it remains unclear whether grazer fluctua...
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Salt marshes suffered large‐scale degradation in recent decades. Extreme events such as hot and dry spells contributed significantly to this, and are predicted to increase not only in intensity, but also in frequency under future climate scenarios. Such repetitive extreme events may generate cumulative effects on ecosystem resilience. It is therefo...
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Worldwide, coastal freshwater wetlands are facing salinization at an increasing rate due to large-scale land use change, freshwater extraction, climate-driven sea level rise, droughts and land subsidence. Although it is known that increased surface water salinity does influence wetland functioning, effects on nutrient dynamics reported in literatur...
Preprint
Full-text available
Wetlands present the largest natural sources of methane (CH 4 ) and their potential CH 4 emissions greatly vary due to the activity of CH 4 -oxidizing bacteria associated with wetland plant species. In this study, the association of CH 4 -oxidizing bacteria with submerged Sphagnum peat mosses was studied, followed by the development of a novel meso...
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Wetlands present the largest natural sources of methane (CH_4) and their potential CH_4 emissions greatly vary due to the activity of CH_4-oxidizing bacteria associated with wetland plant species. In this study, the association of CH_4-oxidizing bacteria with submerged Sphagnum peat mosses was studied, followed by the development of a novel mesocos...
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Paludiculture, the cultivation of crops on wet or rewetted agricultural peatlands, sustainably integrates productive land use with the provision of multiple ecosystem services. Paludiculture crops thrive under waterlogged conditions that stimulate nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) removal from soil and water and convert serious drainage-induced carbo...
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• Globally, aquatic systems face increasing challenges with respect to increased greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, eutrophication and strongly altered fish community composition. Although it is known that benthivorous fish can influence sediment and water column biogeochemistry, studies showing causal relationships are largely lacking. • Here, we use...
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With the current risks caused by sea level rise and increased extreme weather events, the study of natural coastal systems has never been more important. Erosion and anthropogenic forcing led to disappeared of the majority of coastal bogs in Europe. Here, we report on case study of a unique bog remnant still under influence by seawater which floats...