Leon Feinstein

Leon Feinstein
University of Sussex · Rudd Centre

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88
Publications
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Publications

Publications (88)
Article
In this paper we explain some of the difficulties of providing forecasts of the financial benefits of early intervention programmes, focussing on those delivered during the early childhood period. We highlight the diversity of early intervention, and the complexity and multiplicity of outcomes. We summarise recent work at the Early Intervention Fou...
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Leon Feinstein gives his response to commentaries on his opening paper in the debate Social class differences in early cognitive development, published in the previous edition of this journal. © 2015, Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies. All rights reserved.
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In an opening paper Leon Feinstein reviews methodological criticism of his influential research into the relationship between early cognitive development and socioeconomic grades, based on UK 1970 Birth Cohort Study data. The points he raises are then debated in commentaries by John Jerrim and Anna Vignoles, Harvey Goldstein and Robert French, Eliz...
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This paper investigates whether the inter-generational benefits of parental adult education exist over and above the achievement of parental educational qualifications during schooling and whether returns to parental adult learning are greatest for children of parents with low levels of education. Using data from the UK Avon Longitudinal Study of P...
Article
This paper focuses on the links between inequality in academic performance and juvenile conviction rates for violent crime, stealing from another person, burglary in a dwelling and racially motivated offences. We use area-based aggregate data to model this relationship. Our results show that, above and beyond impacts of absolute access to resources...
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Difficulties with visual perception (VP) are often described in children with neurological or developmental problems. However, there are few data regarding the range of visual perceptual abilities in populations of normal children, or on the impact of these abilities on children's day-to-day functioning. Data were obtained for 4512 participants in...
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This study investigated trajectories of parenting behaviours and children’s development from infancy to early childhood, associations between parenting behaviours and children’s development and how these associations vary according to socioeconomic indicators. Mothers and children were examined from an ongoing longitudinal study of families residen...
Article
This article presents findings from a study of mature part‐time students and their reported benefits of study. It is based on data from a questionnaire survey of graduates from two major – but very different – providers of part‐time higher education: Birkbeck, University of London and the Open University. Response items were grouped within a ‘three...
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In the context of risk and resilience, the paper attempts to integrate three strands of research: genetic and mental-health factors, the findings of cohort studies and those of other investigations of educational outcomes. A very wide range of factors, many of them related to disadvantage, bear on such outcomes, but none deterministically. Intellig...
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To empirically test the impact of dietary intake at several time points in childhood on children's school attainment and to investigate whether any differences in school attainment between children who ate packed lunches or school meals was due to who these children were, their pre-school dietary patterns, or to what they ate at school. Using longi...
Article
Why it is that success, deprivation or disadvantage are so often passed down intergenerationally? What part does education play? The educational achievement of parents is often reflected in that of their children and there are many underlying causes for such a relationship. Education and the Family argues that government policy has an important rol...
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To identify childhood and adolescent predictors of alcohol use and harmful drinking in adolescence and adulthood. Longitudinal data from childhood to mid-life from the National Child Development Study (NCDS) were used, including predictors collected at ages 7, 11, 16 years and alcohol outcomes collected at ages 16, 23, 33 and 42 years. The NCDS is...
Article
This paper describes a model and resulting simulations to assess the appropriate age structure of intervention in childhood on the theme: should we intervene early or late? We use asset theory approaches to construct a general model of state investment whose aim is to reduce inequality in human capital. We set out the key parameters of such a model...
Article
This paper evaluates the impacts on male juvenile burglary conviction rates of two UK government interventions, the Reducing Burglary Initiative and Educational Maintenance Allowances, only the former of which had crime reduction has an explicit objective. Using difference-in-differences estimation techniques, the paper shows that in areas where bo...
Article
This paper describes the characteristics of people who return to learning to achieve at least a level 2 qualification, drawing on the 1958 National Child Development Cohort Study. Results show that adults who gained level 2 were more likely than those who did not to have been engaged in a range of learning activities at earlier ages, including lear...
Article
This article uses data from the UK 1970 Birth Cohort (N= 10,000) to address the research questions: (a) Who in this cohort made the transition to higher education (HE), and (b) how are the benefits and risks of such participation distributed? We assess the way that the benefits and risks of participation differ according to family background and ch...
Article
This paper focuses on the links between educational inequality and juvenile conviction rates for violent crime, stealing from another person, burglary in a dwelling and racially motivated offences. We use area-based data on conviction rates, educational attainment and educational inequality for three cohorts of young people and employ mixed-effect...
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In this overview of Volume 64, Issue 1, of the Journal of Social Issues, we describe why it is important to consider the diversity of student pathways through time and in context and why it is important to focus particularly on youth who defy predictions. We describe the ways in which expectations are formed in statistical analysis and also in real...
Article
This study considers the influence of one form of relative deprivation on crime, namely educational inequality. This is examined through an area-based analysis of the relationship between juvenile conviction rates for a range of offences and educational inequality based on maths Key Stage 3 scores in English local education authorities (LEAs). Usin...
Article
To investigate whether permanent and transitory income effects mask the impact of unobservable factors on the uptake of health check-ups in Britain. We used a secondary data representative of the British population, the British Household Panel Survey. Outcome variables included uptake of dental health check-ups, eyesight tests, blood pressure check...
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Reports an error in "School readiness and later achievement" by Greg J. Duncan, Chantelle J. Dowsett, Amy Claessens, Katherine Magnuson, Aletha C. Huston, Pamela Klebanov, Linda S. Pagani, Leon Feinstein, Mimi Engel, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Holly Sexton, Kathryn Duckworth and Crista Japel (Developmental Psychology, 2007[Nov], Vol 43[6], 1428-1446). The...
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This study investigates pupil and school effects on children’s well-being between the ages of 8 and 10. We found that most children experience positive well-being in primary school. However, one in five children suffers from either declining or consistently low well-being during these years. This subset is most likely to be male, low achieving, and...
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Evidence shows education positively impacts cognitive ability. However, researchers have given little attention to the potential impact of adult education on cognitive ability, still malleable in midlife. The primary study aim was to examine whether there were continuing effects of education over the life course on midlife cognitive ability. This s...
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Using 6 longitudinal data sets, the authors estimate links between three key elements of school readiness--school-entry academic, attention, and socioemotional skills--and later school reading and math achievement. In an effort to isolate the effects of these school-entry skills, the authors ensured that most of their regression models control for...
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This report explores how young people in two inner-city multicultural secondary schools develop their sense of school belonging, attitudes to diversity and their supportive and close relationships to others. The results are based on analysis of quantitative survey data collected from more than 1500 students in our two schools and qualitative interv...
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Mental illness is associated with large costs to individuals and society. Education improves various health outcomes but little work has been done on mental illness. To obtain unbiased estimates of the effect of education on mental health, we rely on a rich longitudinal dataset that contains health information from childhood to adulthood and thus a...
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This study investigated how children and parenting behaviours change from infancy to early childhood, how parenting influences concurrent and future child development, and whether parenting itself is affected by and responsive to child development. We also investigated whether individual indicators of socioeconomic status moderate (i.e., strengthen...
Article
The commitment of the government to improving the education of the workforce has been emphasized both in the Five Year Strategy for Children and Learners of the Department for Education and Skills (DFES, 2004) and in the recently published Leitch Review, which calls for the UK to be a "world leader in skills". However, our understanding of the char...
Article
The commitment of the government to improving the education of the workforce has been emphasized both in the Five Year Strategy for Children and Learners of the Department for Education and Skills (DfES, 2004) - now Department for Children Schools and Families (DCSF) - and in the recently published Leitch Review, which calls for the UK to be a “wor...
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This report explores how young people in two inner-city multicultural secondary schools develop their sense of school belonging, attitudes to diversity and their supportive and close relationships to others. The results are based on analysis of quantitative survey data collected from more than 1500 students in our two schools and qualitative interv...
Article
Early development of children’s intellectual, social and physical abilities has the potential to affect their long term achievement, beyond the initial introduction to the classroom, through their school lives and into adulthood. A greater understanding of the processes at work in these early years and their role in later success is therefore impor...
Article
Leisure activity plays a significant role in identity formation during the teens, both reinforcing previous developmental trends and shaping new ones. The context for leisure activity—youth club, church club, sports club, and so on—is important in signifying the probable social mix and interactions of the young people participating. This paper summ...
Article
This paper reports findings on the relationship between education and the take-up of screening for cervical cancer, as an example of preventative health-care activity. Theoretically, education can enhance the demand for preventative health services by raising awareness of the importance of undertaking regular health check-ups and may also improve t...
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In recent times, the diet of children has risen to the top of the political agenda, not only for the potential health repercussions later in life, but also for its immediate effects on the physical and mental health of children and their consequent school experience and attainment. In this report we review the literature on the relationship between...
Article
There is an extensive body of research which shows that the children of parents with longer participation in education do better in standard tests of school attainment than those whose parents have had less education. One of the mechanisms put forward for explaining the intergenerational transmission of educational success is parenting. This report...
Article
This report concerns a two-part project about the importance for adult health and well-being of (1) broadly defined school success and (2) participation in adult learning. In the first part of the project we examine which aspects of schooling are markers for health and well-being in adulthood, using not only measures of attainment such as qualifica...
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It therefore seems likely that some of the intergenerational effects of education may be transmitted through parents' educational attitudes and behaviours. However, empirical research to date has not been robust enough to test whether there is a causal effect of education on such attitudes and behaviours. This report fills the gap by providing a ri...
Article
There is a large body of evidence pointing to the importance of the early years of life, in laying the foundations for later childhood development and adult outcomes. The early years – by which we mean the period from birth to age 5 – encompass infancy and the preschool period before kindergarten and formal schooling begin. It is a period of far gr...
Article
We use quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate the links between participation in adult learning and self-efficacy, particularly for the subgroup of adults who had low levels of achievement at school. We focus on self-efficacy because it translates into a range of wider benefits and because it may afford protection from depression and o...
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Although adult education leads to a moderation of racist or authoritarian attitudes amongst the general population, little is known concerning the impact of adult education on individuals with extremist racist–authoritarian views. In this paper we group individuals from the NCDS (National Child Development Study) into various racist–authoritarian c...
Article
This research has been undertaken by WBL for the government's Strategy Unit as part of the development of an evidence-base to inform government thinking on provision for young people. It examines the kinds of background and personal characteristics that predict participation. We look at which children are taking part in different types of age 16 le...
Article
This paper evaluates the impacts on male juvenile burglary conviction rates of two UK government interventions, the Reducing Burglary Initiative and Educational Maintenance Allowances. Using difference-in-differences estimation techniques, the paper shows that in areas where both initiatives were introduced convictions for 16 to 18 year olds for bu...
Article
Education is a potentially large influence on individual propensities to offend and possibly an important source of area-level variation in crime rates. Crime statistics for England indicate that crime rates are lower in areas with higher levels of education, which are also areas of higher per capita income and contain a higher proportion of famili...
Article
Low achievers tend to be more depressed individuals. This correlation may be the consequences of childhood characteristics and some unobservable characteristics explaining both educational attainment and mental health. We rely on a rich data set that allows us to control for depression at a young age and several estimation strategies to identify th...
Article
This study examined the extent to which continuities and discontinuities in cognitive performance between ages 5 and 10 predicted adult income, educational success, household worklessness, criminality, teen parenthood, smoking, and depression. Assessed were the degree of this change during middle childhood, the influence of socioeconomic status (SE...
Article
This research uses the National Child Development Study to investigate the effects of adult learning upon 12 outcomes that act as proxies for health and social capital. To minimise selection bias we consider changes in outcomes rather than levels. We find that adult learning plays an important role in contributing to the small shifts in attitudes a...
Article
This paper considers the extent of mobility in pupils' attainment relative to peers as they move through school. Considerable shifts in position are demonstrated using data from the 1958 and 1970 UK birth cohorts and from the National Pupil Database for 2002. These shifts in attainment in primary and secondary school are shown to relate strongly to...
Article
Previous literature on learning and attitude change suggests that there may be a role for adult education in changing attitudes, but there is little evidence to suggest how (or why) adult education may change a variety of opinions. Moreover, there is little rationale for the importance of changing norms in terms of their impact on behaviour. This r...
Article
Education boosts individuals' productivity and wages. Yet many individuals leave school with minimal skills and qualifications. One way for these workers to catch up might be lifelong learning. We find that a particular form of lifelong learning, work related "training", does have a positive impact on earnings. However, firms tend only to train tho...
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The intergenerational transmission of educational success is a key driver of the persistence of social class differences and a barrier to equality of opportunity. This report provides a review of the role of parental education in this process. We examine theory and evidence on the key factors that impact on children's attainment and assess the ways...
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This paper reports fi ndings from research using the British Household Panel Survey on the relationship between education and the take-up of screening for cervical cancer, as an example of preventative healthcare activity. Theoretically, education can enhance the demand for preventative health services by raising awareness of the importance of unde...
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Full-text available
The research described in this report assesses the effects of adult learning on twelve health and social capital outcomes. Data from a national British cohort are used to track changes in people's lives between 33 and 42, and the links between these changes and adult learning are estimated. The findings suggest that adult learning has effects on a...
Article
This paper develops an index of development for British children in the 1970 cohort, assessed at 22 months, 42 months, 5 years and 10 years. The score at 22 months predicts educational qualifications at age 26 and is related to family background. The children of educated or wealthy parents who scored poorly in the early tests had a tendency to catc...
Article
In this article, I briefly reproduce earlier research that has demonstrated the strong and enduring effect of parental background on UK children's cognitive development. This makes the point that even if one accepts the good version of meritocracy, according to which individual 'merit' is of wider value to society and should earn a return in the la...
Technical Report
Full-text available
An earlier report presented preliminary findings on the wider benefits of higher education in England, drawing on data collected at age 33 from the National Child Development Study, based on a cohort born in 1958 and a sample of more than 16,000. This report updates the earlier conclusions through new findings from a more extensive analysis involvi...
Article
In this report, information from the latest sweeps of the UK national cohorts is used to estimate the magnitude of the effects of learning on depression and obesity. The estimated effects of education have then been linked to studies of the social costs of ill health, in order to make progress in the task of evaluating the health benefits of learni...
Article
The cost benefits of lifelong learning in the United Kingdom were estimated, based on quantitative evidence. Between 1975-1996, 43 police force areas in England and Wales were studied to determine the effect of wages on crime. It was found that a 10 percent rise in the average pay of those on low pay reduces the overall area property crime rate by...
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• The objective of this report is to provide information on the costs of current arrangements for the education of looked after children (LAC) and the benefits of improving their educational outcomes and other life chances • The report brings together evidence from published sources, research on the education of children in care and outcomes from...
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This paper makes use of the substantial information about the psychological and behavioural development of children by age ten in the 1970 Cohort to predict later, economic outcomes, namely qualifications, employment and earnings. It is found that this previously unobserved individual heterogeneity has very substantial implications for the labour m...
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Full-text available
This paper considers the effect of how children pass time before entrance to school on attainment in primary school. We find in National Child Developement Study data that Children perform marginally better at 7 and 11 if they spent time with their mother, or at a prre-school, rather than in informal care. This holds when one controls for parental...
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Full-text available
The authors estimate an education production function in which attainment depends upon parental inputs, peer group inputs, and schooling inputs. They find that parenting is much more important than schooling. The most powerful parental input is parental interest in education for which ordinary least squares does not give upward bias as B. H. Plowde...
Thesis
The thesis is concerned with human capital formation. The effects of different aspects of families and other institutions in the formation of human capital are assessed but human capital is studied in a more broad sense than hitherto in the economics literature. The first paper develops a time allocation model to see whether the attainments of chil...
Article
Full-text available
This paper considers the effect of how children pass time before entrance to school on attainment in primary school. We find in NCDS data that children perform marginally better at seven and eleven if they spent time with their mother, or at a pre-school, rather than in informal care. This holds when one controls for parental education, social clas...
Article
Full-text available
This paper considers the effect of how children pass time before entrance to school on attainment in primary school. We find in NCDS data that children perform marginally better at seven and eleven if they spent time with their mother, or at a pre-school, rather than in informal care. This holds when one controls for parental education, social clas...