Lennart T Mars

Lennart T Mars
French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Inserm · Lille Neuroscience & Cognition

PhD

About

45
Publications
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2,051
Citations
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January 2009 - August 2014
French Institute of Health and Medical Research
Position
  • Researcher

Publications

Publications (45)
Article
Full-text available
The key role of B cells in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) is supported by the presence of oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid, by the association of meningeal ectopic B cell follicles with demyelination, axonal loss and reduction of astrocytes, as well as by the high efficacy of B lymphocyte depletion in controlling inflamm...
Article
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The long serum t1/2 of IgGs is ensured by their interaction with the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), which salvages IgG from intracellular degradation. Fc glycosylation is thought not to influence FcRn binding and IgG longevity in vivo. In this article, we demonstrate that hypersialylation of asparagine 297 (N297) enhances IgG serum persistence. This...
Article
The genetic predisposition to multiple sclerosis (MS) is most strongly conveyed by MHC class II haplotypes, possibly by shaping the autoimmune CD4 T cell repertoire. Whether Ag-processing enzymes contribute to MS susceptibility by editing the peptide repertoire presented by these MHC haplotypes is unclear. Thymus-specific serine protease (TSSP) is...
Article
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T-cell polyspecificity, predicting that individual T cells recognize a continuum of related ligands, implies that multiple antigens can tolerize T cells specific for a given self-antigen. We previously showed in C57BL/6 mice that part of the CD4(+) T-cell repertoire specific for myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) 35-55 also recognizes the ne...
Article
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View largeDownload slide What drives the progression of CNS autoimmunity? Ramadan et al. show that in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, disease is initiated by T cells that react to myelin, while disease progression depends on cross-reactive T cells that also recognise neuronal antigens. View largeDownload slide What drives the progression of...
Article
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The recognition of multiple ligands by a single TCR is an intrinsic feature of T cell biology, with important consequences for physiological and pathological processes. Polyspecific T cells targeting distinct self-antigens have been identified in healthy individuals as well as in the context of autoimmunity. We have previously shown that the 2D2 TC...
Article
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Invariant NKT cells are innate lymphocytes with a broad tissue distribution. Here we demonstrate that iNKT cells reside in the central nervous system (CNS) in the absence of inflammation. Their presence in the CNS dramatically augments following inoculation of C57Bl/6 mice with the neurotropic Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV). At the...
Article
To determine the pathophysiologic features of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) associated with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (PML-IRIS) in HIV-infected patients. In a cross-sectional study, we retrospectively analyzed 11 HIV-infected patients with a firm diagnosis of PML-IRIS. Brain biopsies were collected from 5 patie...
Article
An increase in IL-17-producing CD8(+) T (Tc17) cells has been reported in the peripheral blood of children with recent onset type 1 diabetes (T1D), but their contribution to disease pathogenesis is still unknown. To directly study the pathogenic potential of β cell-specific Tc17 cells, we used an experimental model of T1D based on the expression of...
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The pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis requires the participation of effector neuroantigen-specific T cells. Thus, T cell targeting has been proposed as a promising therapeutic strategy. However, the mechanism underlying effective disease prevention following T cell targeting remains incompletely known. We found, using several TCR-transgenic strain...
Article
The immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is an important clinical complication in HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy. This review focuses on the latest literature pertaining to the pathogenesis of IRIS. The clinical manifestations of IRIS are heterogeneous due to the variety of opportunistic infections that are as...
Article
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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system leading to demyelination and axonal/neuronal loss. Cumulating evidence points to a key role for CD8 T cells in this disabling disease. Oligoclonal CD8 T cells reside in demyelinating plaques where they are likely to contribute to tissue destruction. Histopathologica...
Article
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Anti-retroviral therapy partially restores the immune function of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus, thereby drastically reducing morbidity and mortality. However, the clinical condition of a subset of patients on anti-retroviral therapy secondarily deteriorates due to an inflammatory process termed immune reconstitution inflammat...
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The tyrosine kinase 2 variant rs34536443 has been established as a genetic risk factor for multiple sclerosis in a variety of populations. However, the functional effect of this variant on disease pathogenesis remains unclear. This study replicated the genetic association of tyrosine kinase 2 with multiple sclerosis in a cohort of 1366 French patie...
Article
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by multi-focal demyelination, axonal loss, and immune cell infiltration. Numerous immune mediators are detected within MS lesions, including CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes suggesting that they participate in the related pathogenesis. Although CD4(+...
Article
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS) and a frequent cause of neurological disability in young adults. Multifocal inflammatory lesions in the CNS white matter, demyelination, oligodendrocyte loss, axonal damage, as well as astrogliosis represent the histological hallmarks of the...
Article
It has been suggested that mast cells might serve, under certain circumstances, as antigen-presenting cells (APCs) for T cells. However, whether cognate interactions between mast cells and class II-restricted CD4(+) T cells actually occur is still an open question. We addressed this question by using peritoneal cell-derived mast cells (PCMCs) and f...
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We describe here the paradoxical development of spontaneous experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in transgenic mice expressing a myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-specific T cell antigen receptor (TCR) in the absence of MOG. We report that in Mog-deficient mice (Mog-/-), the autoimmune response by transgenic T cells is redirected...
Article
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Interferon-gamma plays a key role in the immune response against intracellular pathogens. Its gene is located inside a cluster of cytokines from the interleukin-10 family. A comparison of the coding sequences in the mammalian Glire lineage indicates a possible action of positive Darwinian selection promoting rapid amino-acid changes in the branch l...
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T cells differentiate into functionally distinct effector subsets in response to pathogen encounter. Cells of the innate immune system direct this process; CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, for example, can either promote or inhibit Th(1) and Th(2) responses. Recently, a new subset of CD4(+) T helper cells, called Th(17), was...
Article
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Invariant NKT cells are CD1d-restricted T cells specific for glycolipid Ags. Their activation or transgenic enrichment abrogates the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Herein, we demonstrate that in NKT-enriched mice the protection from EAE is associated with the infiltration of NKT cells in the CNS and the local expres...
Article
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CD8 T cells are emerging as important players in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis, although their direct contribution to tissue damage is still debated. To assess whether autoreactive CD8 T cells can contribute to the pronounced loss of oligodendrocytes observed in MS plaques, we generated mice in which the model Ag influenza hemagglutinin is s...
Article
Full-text available
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating inflammatory disease of the CNS. Though originally believed to be CD4-mediated, additional immune effector mechanisms, including myelin-specific CD8(+) T cells, are now proposed to participate in the pathophysiology of MS. To study the immunologic and encephalitogenic behavior of HLA-A*0201-binding myelin-...
Article
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Immunotherapy by using multimerized self-peptides has demonstrated a clear protective effect on experimental models of autoimmune diseases. However, the mechanisms involved remain ill-defined. Here we have evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of multimerized self-peptides at the effector phase of autoimmune diabetes and examined their mechanisms of a...
Article
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Pertussis toxin (PTx) is a bacterial toxin used to enhance the severity of experimental autoimmune diseases such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. It is known to promote permeabilization of the blood-brain barrier, maturation of APC, activation of autoreactive lymphocytes and alteration of lymphocyte migration. In this study, we show th...
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Thymus-derived regulatory T cells (Tregs) expressing CD4, CD25, and the transcription factor Foxp3 play major roles in preventing autoimmunity. The Treg population is enriched in T cells expressing high-avidity self-reactive T cell receptors, and thymic epithelial cells expressing self-antigens (Ag) have been implicated in their induction and/or se...
Article
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Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an instructive model for the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis. Lewis (LEW) rats immunized with myelin-basic protein (MBP) develop EAE characterized by a single episode of paralysis, from which they recover spontaneously and become refractory to a second induction of disease. LF 15-019...
Article
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Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells have been implicated in the regulation of autoimmune diseases. In several models of type 1 diabetes, increasing the number of iNKT cells prevents the development of disease. Because CD8 T cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diabetes, we have investigated the influence of iNKT cells on diabetogenic CD8 T cells...
Article
Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells are a unique T cell subset that upon activation promptly produce copious amounts of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, thereby contributing to both innate and acquired immunity. Animal models of autoimmune diseases suggest that iNKT cells favor immune regulation because their absence enhances autoimmunity in some model...
Article
The fate of autoreactive CD4+T cells was investigated in HNT-TCR x GFAP-HA double transgenic mice, in which the majority of CD4+T cells is specific for a neo-selfantigen expressed under a glial cell-specific promoter. These mice do not develop any clinical or histological signs of central or enteric nervous system autoimmunity. Although HA is trans...
Article
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T cell tolerance can be experimentally induced through administration of self-peptides with single amino acid substitution (altered peptide ligands or APLs). However, little is known about the effects of APLs on already differentiated autoreactive CD8+ T cells that play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes. We generated a panel...
Article
Full-text available
We studied the immunological basis for the very potent encephalitogenicity of myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), a minor component of myelin in the CNS that is widely used to induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). For this purpose, we generated a mutant mouse lacking a functional mog gene. This MOG-deficient mouse presents...
Article
Full-text available
We studied the immunological basis for the very potent encephalitogenicity of myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), a minor component of myelin in the CNS that is widely used to induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). For this purpose, we generated a mutant mouse lacking a functional mog gene. This MOG-deficient mouse presents...
Article
Full-text available
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a T cell-dependent autoimmune disease induced in susceptible animals by a single immunization with myelin basic protein (MBP). LF 15-0195 is a novel immunosuppressor that has been shown to have a potent immunosuppressive effect in several pathological manifestations. The purpose of this study was t...
Article
Growing evidence suggests that mast cells (MCs) play a crucial role in the inflammatory process and the subsequent demyelination observed in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS). Although no consensus exists on the role of mast cells in multiple sclerosis, recent results from animal models clearly indicate that these cells act at multipl...
Article
The importance of CD8 T cells in the pathogenesis of organ-specific autoimmune diseases has not previously been well recognized. Recent evidence, however, indicates that autoreactive CD8 T cells can contribute substantially to tissue damage in both murine and human autoimmune disorders. As such, these T cells now become an attractive target for the...
Article
Full-text available
Although deficiencies in the NKT cell population have been observed in multiple sclerosis and mouse strains susceptible to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), little is known about the function of these cells in CNS autoimmunity. In this work we report that TCR Valpha14-Jalpha281 transgenic nonobese diabetic mice, which are enriched in...
Article
The use of agonistic monoclonal antibody against CD40 has emerged as one the most effective ways to boost immune responses against infectious agents or to fight cancer. Here, we report that the same monoclonal antibodies against CD40 (FGK45 and 3/23) previously used to elicit protective immune responses treated the autoimmune inflammatory process o...

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