Leland E Carmichael

Leland E Carmichael
Cornell University | CU · Department of Microbiology and Immunology

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235
Publications
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Publications

Publications (235)
Article
Fermilab's Superconducting RF Beam Test Facility currently under construction will produce electron beams capable of damaging the acceleration structures and the beam line vacuum chambers in the event of an aberrant accelerator pulse. The accelerator is being designed with the capability to operate with up to 3000 bunches per macro-pulse, 5Hz repet...
Article
When 10 kittens from 4 litters were dropped 10 times daily beginning the first day after birth, motion picture records showed that the first evidence of righting appeared at 20 days of age. Good righting did not appear until 44 days, although direct observation suggested it might appear at 33 days. Blindfolded kittens righted as well as seeing subj...
Article
This article reviews the current literature on the viral agents that cause reproductive failures in domestic carnivores (dogs and cats). A meaningful update is provided on the etiologic, clinical, pathologic, diagnostic, and prophylactic aspects of the viral infections impacting canine and feline reproduction as a consequence of either direct virus...
Article
Both egg- and cell-adapted canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccines are suspected to retain residual virulence, especially if administered to immuno-suppressed animals, very young pups or to highly susceptible animal species. In the early 1980s, post-vaccine encephalitis was reported in dogs from various parts of Britain after administration of a part...
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Alphatronlike (genogroup IV [GIV]) noroviruses (NoVs) have been recently identified in carnivores. By screening a collection of 183 fecal samples collected during 2007 from dogs with enteric signs, the overall NoV prevalence was found to be 2.2% (4/183). A unique strain, Bari/91/07/ITA, resembled GIV.2 NoVs in its ORF1 (polymerase complex), while i...
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We identified a novel calicivirus in a pup with enteritis. The isolate was related genetically (90.1% aa identity in the capsid protein) to a lion norovirus strain.
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We identified a novel calicivirus in a pup with enteritis. The isolate was related genetically (90.1% aa identity in the capsid protein) to a lion norovirus starin.
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CDV is a highly contagious viral pathogen causing a lethal systemic disease in dogs and other carnivores. Several lineages or genotypes of CDV exist that are variously distributed throughout several continents. Legal or uncontrolled trading of animals may modify the epidemiology of CDV, introducing novel strains in CDV-naïve areas or accounting for...
Article
Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a highly contagious viral pathogen causing lethal disease in dogs and other mammalians. A high degree of genetic variation is found between recent CDV strains and the old CDV isolates used in the vaccines and such genetic variation is regarded as a possible cause of the increasing number of CDV-related diseases in do...
Article
Numbers of lactobacilli, psychrotrophs and anaerobes in either vacuum- or nitrogen-packed pastrami increased significantly as storage temperature was increased above -4°C or duration extended beyond 7 days at 0, 3 and 7°C. Few significant differences observed in their numbers were attributed to types of packaging but numbers of yeasts and molds dec...
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In 2005, AAHA's Canine Vaccine Task Force met to reexamine and revise guidelines on the use of vaccines in dogs. The results of the Task Force's work are summarized and tabulated in this article and are published in their entirety on the AAHA website (www.aahanet.org). The 2006 AAHA Canine Vaccine Guidelines contain information on new technological...
Article
A brief annotated history of canine parvovirus-type 2 (CPV-2) and its variants is summarized with emphasis on the most significant contributions of individuals involved in the initial recognition of CPV-2 and subsequent discoveries that have advanced our knowledge of the nature and evolution of this novel canine virus. Time has obscured the observa...
Article
The sleep-wake cycle has been studied extensively in both adult and fetal mammalian species with emphasis in different areas. Fetal studies have focused on characterization of behavioral states and responses to challenges such as hypoxia, and there have been relatively fewer studies that have investigated the control of fetal behavioral state. The...
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The safety and the efficacy of a modified-live (ML) canine coronavirus (CCoV) vaccine strain 257/98-3c was evaluated in 14 dogs seronegative and virus negative for CCoV. For the safety test, four dogs were inoculated, two by intramuscular and two by oronasal route, with 10 times the vaccinal dose. During the observation period (28 days) all dogs di...
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This paper is an overview and assessment of new, commercially available veterinary vaccines placed in a historical context. The authors critically evaluate the current state of the field of veterinary vaccines in both food and companion animals and the promises for future vaccine development. The authors maintain that there is considerable variabil...
Article
The AAHA has undertaken the development of this document in an effort to inform veterinary practitioners, clarify misunderstandings held by veterinarians, and encourage practitioners to recognize that immunization of patients is a medical procedure. As such, it is bound by the same tenets that govern the recommendation of other medical procedures-p...
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Full-text available
Minute virus of canines (MVC), also known as canine parvovirus type 1, was initially believed to be a nonpathogenic agent, since it was first isolated from canine fecal specimens in the late 1960s. However, subsequent pathological as well as epidemiological studies suggested that MVC is a pathogen of neonatal puppies and is widely distributed among...
Article
We characterized the genome and proteins of the canine minute virus (the minute virus of canines (MVC)). The genome sequence showed MVC to be an autonomous parvovirus encoding a large nonstructural protein 1 gene, a smaller nonstructural protein, and overlapping VP1 and VP2 protein genes. The virus was most closely related to bovine parvovirus (BPV...
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The genetic trajectory leading to viral attenuation was studied in a canine parvovirus (CPV) strain grown on dog kidney cells for 115 transfers. Consensus sequences of viral populations at passages 0, 3, 30, 50, 80, and 115 were obtained from PCR products covering 86% of the genome; clones from each of the 80th and 115th passages were also sequence...
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Two isolates of canine parvovirus (CPV) were obtained from dogs affected with severe haemorrhagic diarrhoea. Type 2b antigenic specificity was predicted by both antigenic analysis with monoclonal antibodies and PCR characterization with type-specific primers. Nevertheless, sequence analysis of the capsid protein-encoding gene revealed two amino aci...
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A serological survey for antibodies to minute virus of canines (MVC) by use of a hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test was performed on sera collected from dogs in the Tokai area of Japan. Forty-one of 266 (15.4%) sera had positive titers of 1:40 or higher against the MVC. Results suggest that MVC may have been present in dogs in Japan since, at le...
Article
An outbreak of dual infection in dogs with canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1) and canine coronavirus (CCV) infection is reported in an animal shelter that comprised approximately 200 adults stray dogs and 30 puppies. Twenty puppies died 7-8 days after the onset of the clinical signs (severe enteritis, leucopoenia, respiratory distress and dehydration...
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Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV2) emerged in 1978 as causative agent of a new disease of dogs. New antigenic variants (biotypes), designated CPV2a and CPV2b, became widespread during 1979 to 1980 and 1984, respectively. At the present time the original CPV2 has disappeared in the dog population and has been replaced by the two new viruses. In the pre...
Article
This study attempted to determine the placental release of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) into the umbilical circulation, and the factors which affect it, by measuring venous and arterial levels for CRH across the umbilical circulation in labouring as well as non-labouring elective caesarean section patients. The relationship with measures...
Article
The most important canine viral infections are distemper and CPV-2. Problems of variable CD vaccine safety and efficacy persist, but CD vaccines have greatly reduced the prevalence of disease and cases in vaccinated dogs are now rare. Canine hepatitis (ICH, CAV-1 infection) also has been controlled well by vaccines for more than 35 years and it is...
Article
The seroprevalence of canine parvovirus (CPV), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus (CAV) and canine herpesvirus (CHV) infections in red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ) was determined in fox sera collected between 1991 and 1995. A total of 500 sera were selected and the seroprevalences were estimated to be 13% (65 of 500 sera) for CPV, 4·4% (17...
Article
To study the response to vaccination, an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) immunoblot method was developed and tested to assay canine distemper virus (CDV) IgG antibody in puppies and compared to a standard virus neutralization (VN) test (r2 = 0.748). Ten litters of four puppies each were used in a vaccination study. Seventy-six percent of...
Article
Fetal behavioural states, with similarities to adult sleep states, exist in both the human and ovine fetus near term. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of intracerebral administration of pharmacologic agents, known to affect sleep states in the adult, on fetal behavioural states and physiologic correlates using the chron...
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine whether activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and uteroplacental prostaglandin (PG) response occur before metabolic deterioration with a progressive decrease in fetal oxygenation. Twenty-one chronically catheterized fetal sheep were studied between 126 and 135 days' gestation during a...
Article
Objective:The purpose of this study was to determine whether activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and uteroplacental prostaglandin (PG) response occur before metabolic deterioration with a progressive decrease in fetal oxygenation.
Article
During an investigation of a late abortion in a Yorkshire terrier minute virus of canines (MVC) antigen could be demonstrated in fetal tissues by immunofluorescence. The bitch had a high specific anti-MVC serum titer when tested about four weeks after the abortion. Those results implicate an etiological role of MVC in this abortion and to our knowl...
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Interference caused by maternal antibodies is considered a major cause of canine parvovirus (CPV) vaccination failure. In this study, an immunoblot clinic-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was used to detect CPV antibodies in sera of pregnant bitches and their offspring to study the response of pups to vaccination. With a easil...
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine the cerebral, circulatory, and metabolic responses of the ovine fetus near term to umbilical cord compression with variable-type fetal heart rate decelerations. Nine fetal sheep, at 0.9 of gestation, were studied before, during, and after umbilical cord occlusion for 1-minute and again after repetitive 1-m...
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This is the first case of MVC infection reported outside the USA.
Article
Salient features of brucellosis in dogs caused by Brucella canis are briefly reviewed, with emphasis on problems and pitfalls in the serodiagnosis of the disease. Procedures available to veterinarians for the diagnosis of canine brucellosis are discussed from the point of view of test sensitivity and specificity. The serodiagnosis of the disease po...
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The purpose of this study was to establish a continuous measure of cerebral blood flow in the ovine fetus with a transit time flow probe. Seven chronically catheterized fetal sheep were studied near term with placement of a 3R Transonic flow probe on the external carotid artery, just proximal to the internal maxillary artery. Blood flow changes wer...
Article
Objective:The purpose of this study was to establish a continuous measure of cerebral blood flow in the ovine fetus with a transit time flow probe.
Article
Full-text available
This is the first case of MVC infection reported outside the USA.
Article
Sequential changes in cerebral blood flow and regional distribution were studied in nine chronically catheterized fetal sheep during the transition to the low-voltage ECOG (REM) state to determine the time course for blood flow change within the brain and whether executive centres for REM state generation might thus be identified. Blood flows were...
Article
Minute virus of canines (MVC, canine parvovirus type-1) caused inapparent to severe illness in neonatal specific-pathogen-free pups exposed by the oronasal route. The experimental disease was generally mild. Four of 21 infected pups had clinical signs of respiratory illness, but only 2 pups, not euthanized during the early postinoculation period, d...
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of sustained hypoxia with resulting metabolic acidosis on cerebral metabolism in the preterm ovine fetus. Twelve fetal sheep were studied at 0.75 of gestation during a normoxic control period, after 1 and 8 hours of sustained hypoxemia, and again after a 1-hour recovery period. Cerebral arteriov...
Article
To examine the possibility of repeated reactivation of canine herpesvirus (CHV), 2 serial treatments with the corticosteroid drug prednisolone (PD) were given at different periods following oral-nasal infection of pups and adult dogs. CHV was not recovered from infected, untreated dogs or from uninfected, treated controls. Viral reactivation of CHV...
Article
Experiments were conducted in 14 pregnant sheep to determine the effect of a 1-h maternal infusion of ethanol (1 g/kg maternal body wt) on placental efflux of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), umbilical blood flow (Qum), and carbohydrate metabolism at 123-130 days gestation. This ethanol dosage regimen produced peak ethanol concentrations in fetal and mater...
Article
Virologic and pathologic investigations were done on prednisolone-treated bitches with a history of canine herpesvirus (CHV) infection. Reactivation of CHV was demonstrated in 5 Beagle bitches after daily administration of 600 mg of prednisolone for 5 days. The reactivation was confirmed in 4 of 5 bitches. Canine herpesvirus was recovered from nasa...
Article
Cerebral oxidative metabolism and associated circulatory responses were determined in 14 unanesthetized fetal sheep near term, during a normoxic control period and subsequently, during four days of prolonged and graded hypoxemia induced by progressively lowering maternal inspired oxygen concentration with 1-2% CO2 added; first day 18%, second day 1...
Article
The purpose of our study was to examine the effects of induced hypoxia on endocrine, cardiovascular, and biophysical measurements of the ovine fetus at 0.6 (83 to 93 days) of gestation and to compare the fetal responses at this earlier gestation with those reported near term. Fourteen fetal sheep were studied (9 in the hypoxia group and 5 in the co...
Article
Our objective was to determine the effect of a prolonged and graded reduction in fetal arterial oxygen saturation on electrocortical activity and associated biophysical variables. Fourteen unanesthetized fetal sheep were studied between 126 and 135 days' gestation with continuous monitoring of electrocortical and electroocular activity and breathin...
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Full-text available
The VP-2 genes of canine parvovirus (CPV) and a recombinant consisting of CPV and feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) sequences were cloned into baculovirus expression vectors, fused to the baculovirus polyhedrin promoter. Recombinant baculoviruses were prepared and the properties of the parvovirus proteins expressed in insect cells examined. The prot...
Article
Thirteen cases of a previously undescribed parvoviral infection affecting puppies ranging in age from 5 to 21 days is described. The cases were originally thought to represent an unusual pathologic manifestation of canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2) infection. However, failure to confirm CPV-2 infection in any of the cases suggested a different parvovirus...
Article
A study was performed to examine the role of prostaglandins (PGs) in the mechanism of the ethanol-induced suppression of FBM, in which the objective was to test the hypothesis that fetal administration of PGE2 can suppress the incidence of FBM following reversal of ethanol-induced suppression of FBM by indomethacin, a fatty acid cyclooxygenase inhi...
Article
Minute Virus of Canines (MVC) was shown to cause transplacental infections with embryo resorptions, especially in dams given parenteral inoculations prior to gestational day 30. Responses to oral-nasal inocula were inconsistent. Direct exposures of embryos or fetuses to MVC via the amniotic sac, however, resulted in their deaths after an incubation...
Article
Nearly 90% of vitamin C in the human diet is obtained from fruits and vegetables as ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acids. However, these compounds are sensitive to light and oxygen and may decompose under normal transport and storage conditions, resulting in reduction of the nutritional value of the foodstuffs. In this work, the effect of various com...
Article
The DNA from equine sarcoid samples from New York State and Switzerland was isolated and probed with bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) to determine if BPV genomes were present. Twelve of 13 sarcoids from New York State and 17/20 sarcoids from Switzerland contained DNA that hybridized to the BPV-1 probe. Restriction enzyme analysis of the positiv...
Article
The effect of maternal administration of ethanol on fetal and maternal plasma prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentrations and fetal breathing movement was determined in the near-term pregnant ewe. Six conscious instrumented pregnant ewes (between 129 and 134 days of gestation; term, 147 days) were studied on two successive days (day 1 and day 2). On eac...
Article
The effects of indomethacin on the ethanol-induced suppression of fetal breathing movements and fetal arterial plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) PGE2 concentrations and maternal arterial plasma PGE2 concentration were determined in the near-term fetal lamb. Eight conscious instrumented pregnant ewes (between 130 and 133 days of gestation; term,...
Article
To investigate the fetal ability to compensate for a sustained reduction in O2 delivery (DO2; umbilical blood flow X umbilical venous O2 content), studies were carried out on eight chronically instrumented fetal lambs made hypoxemic for 7.8 +/- 0.8 (+/- SE) h by lowering maternal inspired O2 concentration to 9-10%. After 1.7 h of hypoxemia, fetal a...
Article
To examine the fetal cardiovascular responses to a sustained reduction in O2 delivery (DO2), studies were conducted on 13 chronically instrumented fetal lambs (128-138 days gestation) made hypoxemic for 7.9 +/- 0.5 h by lowering maternal inspired O2 concentration to 9-10%. Fetal descending aortic PO2 fell initially from 18.0 +/- 1.0 to 10.7 +/- 0.6...
Article
Episodic spontaneous breathing movements have been observed to increase in incidence in the healthy human fetus from a low at 10 weeks to a stabilized peak from 30 weeks' gestation onwards. To determine the effects of carbon dioxide in such fetal breathing movements, the authors studied 30 pregnant patients with uncomplicated pregnancies divided in...
Article
Cerebral oxidative metabolism and regional blood flow were studied, with changes in behavioral state over the immediate perinatal period, to determine the change in cerebral metabolism at birth and the relationship to behavioral activity. Nine unanesthetized fetal sheep (139-142 days gestation) were each studied during a period of high-voltage and...
Article
The microbiological quality of goat milk collected at Quebec farms was observed over a one-year period. Microbial counts increased during the summer period. Only one farm had a total aerobic count of >105 CFU/ml in >50% of samples taken from storage tanks. Coliform counts were <103/ml even when the total aerobic count was 106/ml. No relationship be...
Article
The effect of indomethacin on the ethanol-induced suppression of fetal breathing movements, low-voltage electrocortical (ECoG) activity, and electro-ocular (EOG) activity was studied in the near-term fetal sheep. Ten conscious instrumented pregnant ewes (between 129 and 131 days of gestation; term, 147 days) received 1-h maternal intravenous infusi...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of ethanol on maternal and fetal blood gases and acid-base balance was determined in six conscious instrumented near-term pregnant ewes for maternal intravenous infusion of 3 g ethanol/kg total body weight administered as six doses of 0.5 g ethanol/kg total body weight over 8 h. Maternal and fetal blood ethanol concentrations, determined...
Article
Regional blood flow distribution was studied with a radioactive-labeled microsphere technique in 11 unanesthetized fetal sheep (139 to 143 days' gestation). After cesarean delivery each neonatal lamb was studied at 2 and 24 hours of age. Blood flow to the cerebral hemispheres and adrenal glands decreased progressively after birth and correlated inv...
Article
Although the changes in circulating concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, and progesterone are well established for the fetal and neonatal lamb, there is little information on these hormones in the immediate perinatal period. We have examined the relationship between these hormones and systemic blood gas tensions and substrate co...
Article
The cytoplasmic protein antigens (CPAg) of Brucella canis were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and analysis of 35S-labeled polypeptides. Approximate molecular weights of the immunoreactive polypeptides were determined by migration patterns of the immunoprecipitated polypeptides after SDS-PAGE or...
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The effect of induced maternal hypocapnia and hypercapnia on fetal breathing movements was studied in 30 healthy pregnant women between 24 and 34 weeks' gestation to determine whether gestational age influences the fetal respiratory response to alterations in carbon dioxide levels. The percent time of fetal breathing movements correlated significan...
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