Leigh Clark

Leigh Clark
Swansea University | SWAN · Department of Computer Science

PhD Computer Science

About

64
Publications
14,670
Reads
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856
Citations
Citations since 2016
62 Research Items
856 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
Additional affiliations
July 2012 - October 2012
York St John University
Position
  • Research Assistant
Education
September 2009 - July 2012
York St John University
Field of study
  • English Language and Linguistics

Publications

Publications (64)
Preprint
BACKGROUND Healthcare and wellbeing are two main interconnected application areas of conversational agents (CAs). There is a significant increase in research, development, and commercial implementations in this area. In parallel to the increasing interest, new challenges in designing and evaluating CAs have emerged. OBJECTIVE This study aims to id...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Health care and well-being are 2 main interconnected application areas of conversational agents (CAs). There is a significant increase in research, development, and commercial implementations in this area. In parallel to the increasing interest, new challenges in designing and evaluating CAs have emerged. Objective: This study aims to...
Article
The 6th edition of the Search-Oriented Conversational AI workshop (SCAI 2021) was organised as a discussion platform on conversational AI for intelligent information access. The workshop was designed to be multidisciplinary, bringing together researchers and practitioners across the fields of natural language processing (NLP), information retrieval...
Preprint
This work aims to connect the Automotive User Interfaces (Auto-UI) and Conversational User Interfaces (CUI) communities through discussion of their shared view of the future of automotive conversational user interfaces. The workshop aims to encourage creative consideration of optimistic and pessimistic futures, encouraging attendees to explore the...
Preprint
Full-text available
Video conferencing systems have long facilitated work-related conversations among remote teams. However, social distancing due to the COVID-19 pandemic has forced colleagues to use video conferencing platforms to additionally fulfil social needs. Social talk, or informal talk, is an important workplace practice that is used to build and maintain bo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Chatbots are popular machine partners for task-oriented and social interactions. Human-human computer-mediated communication research has explored how people express their gender and sexuality in online social interactions, but little is known about whether and in what way chatbots do the same. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 5 text-ba...
Article
Full-text available
The Future Conversations workshop at CHIIR'21 looked to the future of search, recommendation, and information interaction to ask: where are the opportunities for conversational interactions? What do we need to do to get there? Furthermore, who stands to benefit? The workshop was hands-on and interactive. Rather than a series of technical talks, we...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Perceptions of system competence and communicative ability, termed partner models, play a significant role in speech interface interaction. Yet we do not know what the core dimensions of this concept are. Taking a psycholexical approach, our paper is the first to identify the key dimensions that define partner models in speech agent interaction. Th...
Preprint
Full-text available
Perceptions of system competence and communicative ability, termed partner models, play a significant role in speech interface interaction. Yet we do not know what the core dimensions of this concept are. Taking a psycholexical approach, our paper is the first to identify the key dimensions that define partner models in speech agent interaction. Th...
Chapter
Interactions with speech interfaces are growing, helped by the advent of intelligent personal assistants like Amazon Alexa and Google Assistant. This software is utilised in hardware such as smart home devices (e.g. Amazon Echo and Google Home), smartphones and vehicles. Given the unprecedented level of spoken interactions with machines, it is impo...
Research
Full-text available
This special issue invites submissions that feature original research on designing, developing and evaluating CAs for healthcare and well-being. These CAs aim at improving healthcare outcomes and services, and satisfy unique application needs (e.g., safety, trust, and user experience). A suitable submission must also demonstrate its relevance to AC...
Preprint
Through proliferation on smartphones and smart speakers, intelligent personal assistants (IPAs) have made speech a common interaction modality. Yet, due to linguistic coverage and varying levels of functionality, many speakers engage with IPAs using a non-native language. This may impact the mental workload and pattern of language production displa...
Preprint
Limited linguistic coverage for Intelligent Personal Assistants (IPAs) means that many interact in a non-native language. Yet we know little about how IPAs currently support or hinder these users. Through native (L1) and non-native (L2) English speakers interacting with Google Assistant on a smartphone and smart speaker, we aim to understand this m...
Preprint
The frequency with which people interact with technology means that users may develop interface habits, i.e. fast, automatic responses to stable interface cues. Design guidelines often assume that interface habits are beneficial. However, we lack quantitative evidence of how the development of habits actually affect user performance and an understa...
Article
The frequency with which people interact with technology means that users may develop interface habits, i.e. fast, automatic responses to stable interface cues. Design guidelines often assume that interface habits are beneficial. However, we lack quantitative evidence of how the development of habits actually affect user performance and an understa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Conversational agents have increasingly been deployed in healthcare applications. However, significant challenges remain in developing this technology. Recent research in this area has highlighted that: i) patient safety was rarely evaluated; ii) health outcomes were poorly measured, and iii) no standardised evaluation methods were employed. The co...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of this workshop is twofold. First, it aims to grow critical mass in Conversational User Interfaces (CUI) research by mapping the grand challenges in designing and researching these interactions. Second, this workshop is intended to further build the CUI community with these challenges in mind, whilst also growing CUI research presence at C...
Conference Paper
The assumptions we make about a dialogue partner's knowledge and communicative ability (i.e. our partner models) can influence our language choices. Although similar processes may operate in human-machine dialogue, the role of design in shaping these models, and their subsequent effects on interaction are not clearly understood. Focusing on synthes...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Intelligent personal assistants (IPAs) are supposed to help us multitask. Yet the impact of IPA use on multitasking is not clearly quantified, particularly in situations where primary tasks are also language based. Using a dual task paradigm, our study observes how IPA interactions impact two different types of writing primary tasks; copying and ge...
Preprint
Full-text available
Humanness is core to speech interface design. Yet little is known about how users conceptualise perceptions of humanness and how people define their interaction with speech interfaces through this. To map these perceptions n=21 participants held dialogues with a human and two speech interface based intelligent personal assistants, and then reflecte...
Preprint
The assumptions we make about a dialogue partner's knowledge and communicative ability (i.e. our partner models) can influence our language choices. Although similar processes may operate in human-machine dialogue, the role of design in shaping these models, and their subsequent effects on interaction are not clearly understood. Focusing on synthes...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper draws from literature and our experience of conducting Wizard-of-Oz (WoZ) studies using natural language, conversational user interfaces (CUIs) in the automotive domain. These studies have revealed positive effects of using in-vehicle CUIs on issues such as: cognitive demand/workload, passive task-related fatigue, trust, acceptance and e...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper draws from literature and our experiences over five years conducting Wizard-of-Oz (WoZ) studies with natural language, conversational interfaces (CUIs) in the automotive domain. These studies have revealed positive effects of using in-vehicle CUIs on issues such as: cognitive demand/workload, passive task-related fatigue, trust, acceptan...
Preprint
Full-text available
Intelligent personal assistants (IPAs) are supposed to help us multitask. Yet the impact of IPA use on multitasking is not clearly quantified, particularly in situations where primary tasks are also language based. Using a dual task paradigm, our study observes how IPA interactions impact two different types of writing primary tasks; copying and ge...
Article
Speech interfaces are growing in popularity. Through a review of 99 research papers this work maps the trends, themes, findings and methods of empirical research on speech interfaces in the field of human–computer interaction (HCI). We find that studies are usability/theory-focused or explore wider system experiences, evaluating Wizard of Oz, proto...
Conference Paper
The use of speech has been popularised as a human-vehicle interface in the automotive domain. While this is most often associated with alleviating concerns of driver distraction and cognitive load, the study explores whether the presence of ‘conversation’ could, in and of itself, engender trust in the technology. Thirty-four participants were trans...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Don't ignore this because its about speech technology. VUIs (voice user interfaces) won a best paper in CHI 2018. Did that get your attention? Good. Siri, Ivona, Google Home, and most speech synthesis systems have voices which are based on imitating a neutral citation style of speech and making it sound natural. But, in the real world, darling, peo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The use of speech as an interaction modality has grown considerably through the integration of Intelligent Personal Assistants (IPAs- e.g. Siri, Google Assistant) into smartphones and voice based devices (e.g. Amazon Echo). However, there remain significant gaps in using theoretical frameworks to understand user behaviours and choices and how they...
Article
The evolution of designing interactive interfaces has been rather incremental over the past few decades, largely focused on graphical user interfaces (GUIs), even as these extended from the desktop, to mobile or to wearables. Only recently can we engage in ubiquitous, ambient, and seamless interactions, as afforded by voice user interfaces (VUIs) s...
Preprint
Full-text available
Conversational agents promise conversational interaction but fail to deliver. Efforts often emulate functional rules from human speech, without considering key characteristics that conversation must encapsulate. Given its potential in supporting long-term human-agent relationships, it is paramount that HCI focuses efforts on delivering this promise...
Preprint
Full-text available
*Please follow the link on https://lmhclark.com/publications/ to find the published version of this article. The information on metrics in particular differs from this preprint version* Speech interfaces are growing in popularity. Through a review of 68 research papers this work maps the trends, themes, findings and methods of empirical research o...
Preprint
Speech interfaces are growing in popularity. Through a review of 68 research papers this work maps the trends, themes, findings and methods of empirical research on speech interfaces in HCI. We find that most studies are usability/theory-focused or explore wider system experiences, evaluating Wizard of Oz, prototypes, or developed systems by using...
Conference Paper
As research on speech interfaces continues to grow in the field of HCI, there is a need to develop design guidelines that help solve usability and learnability issues that exist in hands-free speech interfaces. While several sets of established guidelines for GUIs exist, an equivalent set of principles for speech interfaces does not exist. This is...
Preprint
Full-text available
This position paper presents the view that there may be social boundaries in appropriate speech in HCI. While previous research has examined that humanlike voices may not always be appropriate for computers to use, the same may hold true for linguistic concepts that have noticeable interpersonal and social functions. This paper examines the social...
Preprint
Full-text available
Speech interfaces are becoming a more common dialogue partner. With the growth of intelligent personal assistants, pervasive and wearable computing and robot-based technologies, the level of spoken interactions with technology is unprecedented. However, while the technological challenges around the production of natural synthetic voices have been w...
Article
Full-text available
Sustained motivation is crucial to learning a second language (L2), and one way to support this can be through the mental visualisation of ideal L2 selves (Dörnyei & Kubanyiova, 2014). This paper reports on an exploratory study which investigated the possibility of using technology to create representations of language learners’ ideal L2 selves dig...
Article
Given the proliferation of ‘intelligent’ and ‘socially-aware’ digital assistants embodying everyday mobile technology – and the undeniable logic that utilising voice-activated controls and interfaces in cars reduces the visual and manual distraction of interacting with in-vehicle devices – it appears inevitable that next generation vehicles will be...
Article
Full-text available
This thesis addresses the linguistic phenomenon of vague language (VL) and its effect on the creation of identity in the emerging and developing field of human-agent interaction (HAI). Current research on VL has focused on human interaction, while similar existing literature on language in HAI has focused on politeness theory and facework. This the...
Article
Full-text available
The study of agent helpers using linguistic strategies such as vague language and politeness has often come across obstacles. One of these is the quality of the agent's voice and its lack of appropriate fit for using these strategies. The first approach of this article compares human vs. synthesised voices in agents using vague language. This appro...
Article
The study of agent helpers using linguistic strategies such as vague language and politeness has often come across obstacles. One of these is the quality of the agent's voice and its lack of appropriate fit for using these strategies. The first approach of this article compares human vs. synthesised voices in agents using vague language. This appro...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As we find greater potential for agent instructors, we must be aware of how their language use can affect the user and interaction as a whole. This study investigates the use of intentionally imprecise or vague language as a communicative strategy to mitigate the impact of instructions. We look at the effects it has on improving the perception of a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As we find greater potential for agent instructors, we must be aware of how their language use can affect the user and interaction as a whole. This study investigates the use of intentionally imprecise or vague language as a communicative strategy to mitigate the impact of instructions. We look at the effects it has on improving the perception of a...

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