Leif A Strömwall

Leif A Strömwall
University of Gothenburg | GU · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

110
Publications
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3,980
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2001 - present
University of Gothenburg
Position
  • Göteborgs universitet

Publications

Publications (110)
Article
Full-text available
This study was an examination into whether the use of memory-enhancing techniques (mnemonics) in interviews can be helpful to distinguish truth tellers from liars. In the previous study (Izotovas et al., 2018), it was found that when mnemonic techniques were used in the interview immediately after the event, truth-tellers reported more details than...
Book
Handbok i rättspsykologi presenterar nationell och internationell vetenskaplig kunskap i ett lättillgängligt format. Boken är skriven av sjutton författare som alla är aktiva forskare och lärare inom rättspsykologi eller angränsande områden. Den inleds med en introduktion till det rättspsykologiska området och det svenska rättsväsendet. Därefter be...
Article
Full-text available
Memory enhancing techniques, or mnemonics, are typically recommended in evidence-based investigative interviewing guidelines. In the current study, the use of a sketch mnemonic and its effect on the responses of truth tellers and liars was examined. Participants (n = 49) watched a mock intelligence operation video. They were instructed to tell the...
Article
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In this study, we examined how different types of interviewing (eliciting more complete vs. less complete accounts) used in an interview conducted shortly after an event affected truth tellers' and liars' responses when they were interviewed again after a two‐week delay. Participants (n = 80) were shown a mock intelligence operation video and told...
Article
Full-text available
Denault, V., Plusquellec, P., Jupe, L. M., St-Yves, M., Dunbar, N. E., Hartwig, M., … van Koppen, P. J. (2020). L’analyse de la communication non verbale: Les dangers de la pseudoscience en contextes de sécurité et de justice [The analysis of nonverbal communication: The dangers of pseudoscience in security and justice contexts]. Revue internationa...
Article
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Forensic interviewers often face witnesses who are unwilling to cooperate with the investigation. In this experimental study, we examined the extent to which cooperativeness instructions affect information disclosure in a witness investigative interview. One hundred and thirty‐six participants watched a recorded mock‐crime and were interviewed twic...
Article
Full-text available
Denault, V., Plusquellec, P., Jupe, L. M., St-Yves, M., Dunbar, N. E., Hartwig, M., … van Koppen, P. J. (2020). The analysis of nonverbal communication: The dangers of pseudoscience in security and justice contexts. Anuario de Psicología Jurídica, 30, 1-12. doi: 10.5093/apj2019a9
Article
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Para los profesionales de la seguridad y la justicia (policías, abogados, jueces), los miles de artículos revisados por pares sobre comunicación no verbal representan fuentes importantes de conocimiento. Sin embargo, a pesar del alcance del trabajo científico realizado sobre este tema, los profesionales pueden recurrir a programas, métodos y enfoqu...
Preprint
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With Study 1 (N=140), we aimed to examine how different ways of disclosing evidence during an interview would influence guilty suspects’ perception of interviewer’s prior knowledge and elicit statement-evidence inconsistencies. We predicted that interviews with evidence disclosed would elicit low statement-evidence inconsistencies whereas interview...
Article
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We experimentally investigated how different mnemonic techniques employed in an interview conducted immediately after an event affected truth tellers' and liars' responses when they were interviewed again after a 2‐week delay. We also compared how verbal accounts changed over time within truth tellers and liars, and how consistent both groups were....
Article
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We examined police officers’ (N = 71) perceptions of statement inconsistency types (within-statement, between-statement, statement-evidence, and within-group inconsistencies). Approximately half of the officers reported looking for statement inconsistency to detect deception. Officers generally associated contradictions and omissions with deception...
Method
Full-text available
This is a Supplemental Disclosure Statement to the following published article: Granhag, P.A., Strömwall, L.A., Willén, R.M., & Hartwig, M. (2013). Eliciting cues to deception by tactical disclosure of evidence: The first test of the Evidence Framing Matrix. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 18, 341-355.
Method
Full-text available
This is a Supplemental Disclosure Statement to the following published article: Willén, R.M., & Strömwall, L.A. (2012). Offenders' uncoerced false confessions: A new application of statement analysis? Legal and Criminological Psychology, 17, 346-359.
Method
Full-text available
This is a Supplemental Disclosure Statement to the following published article: Willén, R. M., Granhag, P. A., Strömwall, L. A., & Fisher, R. P. (2015). Facilitating particularisation of repeated similar events with context-specific cues. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 56, 28-37. DOI: 10.1111/sjop.12180
Article
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This study examines counter-interrogation strategies employed by liars giving false alibis. Participants (N = 144) visited a restaurant to buy a sandwich (truth-tellers) or to use it as a false alibi (liars). Half of the liars were informed they might be asked for a drawing of the alibi setting if interviewed (informed liars). Participants spent ei...
Conference Paper
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A survey study was conducted with the aim to gain knowledge concerning difficulties and possibilities in handlings of rape victims and rape cases among Swedish professionals. An online survey was taken by 237 police employees, prosecutors and healthcare personnel, who meet victims of rape in their daily work. The survey included questions concernin...
Article
Purpose The aim of this study was to assess statement consistency in pairs of deceptive and truth‐telling suspects when the Devil's Advocate approach is implemented. This approach involves asking suspects an ‘opinion‐eliciting’ question for arguments that support their opinions followed by a ‘devil's advocate’ question to elicit opposing arguments....
Article
Victims of multiple perpetrator rape (MPR) have been found to be an especially vulnerable group. This study examined effects of MPR and perpetrators’ use of force on attributions of victim and perpetrator blame. In two large experiments (total N = 2,928), Swedish community members read scenarios depicting an MPR and subsequently made several rating...
Presentation
Pitch presentation accepted to EAPL 2017 (European Association of Psychology and Law) in Mechelen, Belgium. Research examining the mnemonic consequences of witnesses’ cooperation style during investigative interviews.
Article
Full-text available
Are victim and perpetrator blame attributions affected more by situational-specific variables or observers’ basic motives and personal beliefs? In three experiments, varying the scenario setting, the effects of victim and participant age, participant gender, sympathy for the victim, trust in the justice system, belief in a just world, and acceptanc...
Article
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Memory for repeated events is relevant to legal investigations about repeated occurrences. We investigated how two measures of specificity (number of events referred to and amount of detail reported about the events) were influenced by interviewees' age, number of experienced events, interviewer, perceived unpleasantness, and memory rehearsal. Tran...
Article
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This study is the first to investigate police investigators’ adherence to, and the effectiveness of, a training program for detecting true and false intentions. Experienced police investigators (N = 53) were either trained or not trained in how to interview to discriminate between true and false intentions. All investigators interviewed mock suspec...
Article
We examined how police officers planned to interview suspects in a situation where they lacked information about a critical phase of a crime (i.e., the time during which the crime took place) but possessed information about less critical phases of the crime (i.e., the time before and/or after the crime took place). The main focus was the officers'...
Conference Paper
Two important aspects that have been more or less neglected in previous research within the field of attributed blame are multiple perpetrator rape cases and the level of force used by the perpetrator(s). According to Swedish legislation, a rape situation with more than one perpetrator is to be considered an aggravated crime, irrespective of the le...
Article
This study examined interview techniques for eliciting admissions from perpetrators of a crime. Two techniques derived from the Strategic Use of Evidence (SUE) framework (SUE-Confrontation and SUE-Confrontation/Explain) were compared to an Early Disclosure of Evidence technique. Participants (N = 75) performed a mock criminal task divided into thre...
Article
Between-statement consistency is regarded as an important cue to deceit. However, research indicates that liars can be as consistent as truth tellers. The consistency of statements of intent in two mock security settings was examined. Truth tellers spoke honestly of their intentions. Liars provided a cover story to mask their criminal intentions. P...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Substantial research has been conducted in the field of victim blaming, but still we do not fully understand the complexity of how and why people tend to blame rape victims. Two aspects that have been neglected in previous research are age differences and acquaintance rape. Since the risk of victimization is higher among young adults, we conducted...
Article
This study investigates the combined effect of the Cognitive Interview (CI) and the unanticipated questions approach on the magnitude of the elicited cues to true and false intentions. The participants (N = 125) planned for either a mock crime or a non-criminal event, half of them were interviewed with a standard interview (SI) and half with the CI...
Article
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Previous research has consistently shown that rape victims may be blamed for the assault but little is known about victim blaming in other sexual crimes. In the present experiment, we examined blame attributions for sexual assault and online sexual harassment. The study also investigated the effects of victim behavior, participants' belief in a jus...
Article
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In this article we introduce a novel interviewing tactic to elicit admissions from guilty suspects. By influencing the suspects' perception of the amount of evidence the interviewer holds against them, we aimed to shift the suspects' counterinterrogation strategies from less to more forthcoming. The proposed tactic (SUE-Confrontation) is a developm...
Article
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Crime victims may respond emotionally to victimization in a multitude of ways. However, little is known about how people use victims’ emotional expressions to draw inferences about their psychological status and needs. In two experiments (total N = 340), participants were presented with a victim who reacted to a crime with either anger or sadness....
Article
Crime victims may respond emotionally to victimization in a multitude of ways. However, little is known about how people use victims' emotional expressions to draw inferences about their psychological status and needs. In two experiments (total N = 340), participants were presented with a victim who reacted to a crime with either anger or sadness....
Article
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The objective was to compare the efficacy of the Scharff technique (conceptualized as 5 tactics) with the direct approach (open and direct questions) as a means of eliciting intelligence from human sources. The interview techniques were used with 4 different types of sources varying in their levels of both cooperation and capability to provide info...
Article
Ninety-five dental care patients participated in a quasi-experiment in which they were interviewed twice about dental visits they had made during the past ten years. Objective truth was established by analysing their dental records. The main purpose of the study was to investigate to what extent context-specific cues could facilitate particularisat...
Article
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Tanto los hechos de la vida real como la investigación muestran que a las víctimas de violación a veces se las acusa de victimización. Apenas se ha estudiado el efecto de las características del autor en la culpabili- zación de las víctimas. En un experimento con una muestra comunitaria (N = 161) utilizando una metodo- logía de viñetas investigamos...
Article
PurposeDespite high potential value for real-life situations, detecting true and false intentions by groups of suspects have not been previously investigated.Method The experimental study had a set-up in which participants (N = 232), half in dyads and half in quartets, planned for either a mock crime or a non-criminal event. In structured individua...
Article
Investigators often have to deal with small groups of suspects, and this is true both for criminal cases and for suspected terrorist cases. There is, however, very little research examining the effectiveness of different interview techniques when facing cells of suspects. In order to remedy this shortcoming, we examined the extent to which three in...
Article
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The present study is the first to examine customs officers’ interview strategies. Specifically, we examined whether or not customs officers’ (N = 80) planned to use evidence in a strategic manner during an investigative interview. Half the customs officers were members of an investigative unit (more experienced interviewers), half were members of a...
Article
Full-text available
Victims of rape sometimes suffer from being blamed for their assault. This cross-cultural field experiment investigated victim blame with respect to victim–perpetrator relationship, benevolent sexism (BS), hostile sexism (HS) and belief in a just world (BJW). Participants were recruited in the United Kingdom (N = 75) and Sweden (N = 83). Participan...
Article
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The current study examined the subjective interview strategies of groups of truth-tellers and liars, and compared these strategies with suspects' actual interview performance. Participants (N=126) were evenly divided as truth-tellers or liars, and were further divided into 21 groups of three individuals. Truth-tellers performed a neutral task, whil...
Article
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Purpose. Research on real-life suspect interviews shows that disclosure of evidence is a very common tactic and that it occurs in all phases of the interview. It is therefore remarkable that there is hardly any research on the effectiveness of different disclosure tactics. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of three different disclosu...
Article
The present experimental study adds to the emerging line of psycholegal research focusing on true and false intentions. It is the first to examine mock suspects' (N = 120) counter‐interrogation strategies in investigative interviews in which they anticipate questions on their intentions. As planning is an inherent part of many intentions, mock susp...
Article
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In order to obtain the most informative and correct statements, witnesses should be heard as soon as possible after the incident. However, this is not always possible. This experimental study investigated whether completing a Self-Administered Interview form (SAI) immediately after a critical event could enhance children's witness performance at a...
Article
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The criteria used by Swedish courts for assessing credibility of plaintiffs' accounts were for the first time scientifically evaluated. Furthermore, unlike much previous deception detection research, we used offenders as participants instead of college students. False and truthful confessions by 30 offenders were analysed, and few significant effec...
Article
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Purpose. Deception detection research has mainly studied denials and distortions given by students. This study examined true and false confessions as told by offenders. It was hypothesized that the statement analytic techniques Criteria-Based Content Analysis (CBCA) and Reality Monitoring (RM) would discriminate truths and lies. Methods. Truthful a...
Article
One suggested reason for the low prosecution rate in child sexual abuse cases is the poor quality of the interviews. The present study examined the extent to which a number of aspects of interview quality were used by interviewers at a Children's Advocacy Centre in Sweden. Furthermore, the relationship between aspects of interview quality and the p...
Article
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This study investigated the role of gender in the care for victims of sexual abuse within three Swedish Christian denominations. Questionnaires anchored by vignettes illustrating different abuse situations were answered by 421 clerics. The main findings were that female respondents apprehended the described situations as more likely to occur than m...
Article
This study examined the effect of social influence on children's witness reports, with respect to a number of details varying in centrality. Children (N = 115; age = 10 years, 4 months to 13 years, 8 months) were interviewed about a personally experienced event. Half of the children were interviewed together with a confederate who answered the inte...
Article
Purpose. The blaming of rape victims can cause secondary victimization. It is of importance to investigate factor that might lead to victim blaming. This study investigated the effect of belief in a just world (BJW), gender of participant, and level of relationship closeness between victim and perpetrator on attributions of both victim and perpetra...
Article
Full-text available
Victims of rape are sometimes blamed for the assaults against them. Research has examined primarily female victims; much less is known about men as victims and whether victim age affects attributions of victim blame. Furthermore, the study investigated the effects of Belief in a Just World (BJW) on blame attributions. Employing a vignette-type expe...
Article
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This article examined how to elicit cues to deception when a suspect is asked both about his/her intentions and his/her corresponding past planning, and when the investigator holds evidence on the suspect's planning activities. In a new experimental set-up accommodating the main characteristics of intent, participants (N = 120) either planned a cri...
Article
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This study aimed at extending the deception literature by examining lie-telling strategies given by persons with criminal experience. In interviews taking place in prisons, offenders (n = 35) provided lie-telling strategies in a free narrative style. In an inductive content analysis, we coded both all strategies provided as well as one principal st...
Article
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Research on deception has consistently shown that people are poor at detecting deception, partly due to lack of consistent cues to deception. This research focuses on eliciting verbal cues to deception when questioning suspects who deny crime and how such cues differ due to type of questioning. An experiment examined verbal differences between inno...
Article
Research has shown that cues to deception are more salient as an effect of strategic use of evidence (SUE) during interviews. This study examined the feasibility of the SUE-technique for eliciting cues to children's deception. Experiment 1 investigated verbal cues to deception as a function of early vs. late disclosure of evidence. Eighty-four chil...
Article
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The aim of this study was to increase understanding of the psychology of deception by mapping the reasoning of guilty and innocent mock suspects who deny a transgression. Based on previous research, we proposed that suspects will engage in two major forms of regulation: impression management, which requires the purposeful control of nonverbal and d...
Article
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In this paper we focused on children's deception (10-12 years, Experiment 1), and adult's ability detect deception in children (Experiment 2). The self-presentational perspective (DePaulo, 1992) suggests that both liars and truth tellers will try to act in a convincing manner to be assessed as truth tellers. By asking unanticipated questions we put...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we focused on children's deception (10-12 years, Experiment 1), and adult's ability detect deception in children (Experiment 2). The self-presentational perspective (DePaulo, 1992) suggests that both liars and truth tellers will try to act in a convincing manner to be assessed as truth tellers. By asking unanticipated questions we put...
Article
The present study investigated guilty mock-suspects' counter-interrogation tactics with respect to the disclosure of possibly self-incriminating information, specifically, to what extent the disclosure of this information was moderated by (1) the suspects' criminal experience (naïve versus experienced) and (2) the degree of suspicion directed towar...
Article
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In an experimental study on social influence, children (aged 11–12 years, N = 176) were interviewed about a personally experienced interaction with a stranger. Before the interview they watched a video‐recorded statement from another witness (adult or child), who suggested either that (a) a person who was present during the event (a passenger) had...
Article
Children in two age groups (7 vs. 12 yrs, N= 174) individually interacted with a stranger and were later interviewed about this event. Right before the interview, each child encountered the stranger once again and he engaged in a conversation where he either suggested that a (central or peripheral) detail originally present in the event had actuall...
Article
This study examined adults’ ability to distinguish between truthful and deceptive pairs of children. Adult observers (N = 88) judged the veracity of one of 22 truthful or deceptive pairs of children (12–13 years). The children were interviewed separately about their real or imagined encounters with an unknown man. Analyses showed that the overall a...
Article
We investigated adults' ability to detect children's prepared and unprepared lies and truths. Furthermore, we examined children's strategies when lying. Thirty children (11–13 years) were interviewed about one self-experienced and one invented event each. Half had prepared their statements, the other half not. Sixty adult observers assessed the ver...
Article
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Deception detection has largely failed to investigate guilty and innocent suspects’ strategies. In this study, mock suspects (n=82) were interrogated by police trainees (n=82) who either were or were not trained in the technique to strategically use the evidence (the SUE technique). Analyses revealed that guilty suspects to a higher degree than inn...
Article
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Research on deception detection in legal contexts has neglected the question of how the use of evidence can affect deception detection accuracy. In this study, police trainees (N=82) either were or were not trained in strategically using the evidence when interviewing lying or truth telling mock suspects (N=82). The trainees' strategies as well as...