Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair

Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair
Norwegian University of Science and Technology | NTNU · Department of Psychology

PhD, Cand.Psychol.

About

146
Publications
105,063
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,742
Citations
Citations since 2016
81 Research Items
1457 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
Introduction
Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair, PhD, currently works as a professor at the Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Leif Edward is also a specialist of clinical adult psychology and a supervisor of CBT. Leif Edward does research in Clinical Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Personality Psychology, Health Psychology and Evolutionary Psychology. One of labs current projects is 'Rumination, sex differences and depression.' Other projects consider Sexual Regret, Jealousy and Sexual Harassment. In collaboration with the department's clinical group he investigates treatment of different mental disorders with metacognitive therapy.

Publications

Publications (146)
Article
Women's mating adaptations may vary between fertile and luteal phases, given different costs and benefits of sexual activity during each phase. Women's non-conceptive (“extended”) sexuality might function in the context of pair-bonding. The current studies examined associations between women's loyalty and faithfulness to their relationships and fre...
Article
Full-text available
The current study sought to answer three key questions about explaining the emotion of regret in the domain of casual sex: Are sex differences in sexual regret robust or attenuated in a highly egalitarian culture? What proximate psychological variables might explain sex differences in sexual regret? And what accounts for within-sex variation in exp...
Article
Despite some controversy about sex differences in jealousy, data largely support that sex differences studied with the forced choice (FC) paradigm are robust: Men, relative to women, report greater jealousy in response to sexual infidelity than in response to emotional infidelity. Corresponding sex differences for continuous measures of jealousy ty...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: The paper examines how strongly non-physical peer sexual harassment is associated with a wide range of well-being outcomes from symptoms of depression and anxiety to self-esteem, and body image. Methods: Two large community samples of high school students were analyzed (n=1384 and n=1485). Students responded to questionnaires on being s...
Article
Full-text available
Background The aim of the study was to explore symptoms of anxiety and depression, insomnia, and quality of life in a Norwegian community sample of older adults. Methods A representative sample ( N = 1069) was drawn from home-dwelling people of 60 years and above, living in a large municipality in Norway (Trondheim). Results Based on established...
Article
Full-text available
Depressive symptoms are prevalent in adolescence, and girls have higher levels of depressive symptoms and depressive disorder than boys. Rumination and especially brooding, seem to be a central maintaining factor of depressive symptoms, where metacognitions about rumination play a prominent role in maintaining depressive rumination. There is a sex...
Article
Flirting involves various signals communicated between individuals. To attract potential mates, men and women exhibit flirtatious behavior to get the attention of, and potentially elicit sexual or romantic interest from, a desired partner. In this first large, preregistered study of judgement of the effectiveness of flirtation tactics based on Sexu...
Article
Full-text available
A wide range of literature connects sex ratio and mating behaviours in non-human animals. However, research examining sex ratio and human mating is limited in scope. Prior work has examined the relationship between sex ratio and desire for short-term, uncommitted mating as well as outcomes such as marriage and divorce rates. Less empirical attentio...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Metacognitive therapy (MCT) and cognitive–behavior therapy (CBT) are effective treatments for generalized anxiety disorder. In this study, we followed-up patients who had previously participated in a randomized controlled trial of MCT compared against CBT. Method We collected 9-year follow-up data on 39 out of 60 original patients (i.e.,...
Book
Mennesket er et resultat av evolusjonsprosessen. Denne prosessen har formet vår menneskelige natur; vår psykologi er et resultat av evolusjon. Denne boken gir en kort introduksjon til evolusjonspsykologi som forskningstilnærming. Forfatterne tar utgangspunkt i sin egen og internasjonale kollegaers forskning på menneskets evolverte seksuelle psyko...
Article
Full-text available
A wide range of literature connects sex ratio and mating behaviours in non-human animals. However, research examining sex ratio and human mating is limited in scope. Prior work has examined the relationship between sex ratio and desire for short-term, uncommitted mating as well as outcomes such as marriage and divorce rates. Less empirical attentio...
Article
Full-text available
A wide range of literature connects sex ratio and mating behaviours in non-human animals. However, research examining sex ratio and human mating is limited in scope. Prior work has examined the relationship between sex ratio and desire for short-term, uncommitted mating as well as outcomes such as marriage and divorce rates. Less empirical attentio...
Article
Full-text available
Sociosexuality and sexual compulsivity predict sex differences in voyeuristic interest in the population. In this study, we used a sample of 1113 participants from the UK (46% men) to consider whether sociosexuality and sexual compulsivity interacted to explain these sex differences and whether this relationship extended to the related domain of ex...
Article
Full-text available
In this study we examined how people perceive social‐sexual behavior of women and men, and how these perceptions were associated with beliefs about the outcomes of the #MeToo movement, sexism, traditional values, and gender equality. In addition, we examined the effect of having experienced sexual harassment on such perceptions. Analyses were perfo...
Article
The aim of the current study was to test the validity of the Norwegian version of the Desire Thinking Questionnaire (DTQ). Three cross-sectional surveys were conducted investigating the psychometric properties of the DTQ in alcohol use (N = 588), nicotine use (N = 446) and social media use (N = 359). Principal components and confirmatory factor ana...
Article
Full-text available
Many different predictors for belief in conspiracy theories have been empirically validated in different studies. The current study considers the relative contribution of individual differences in dimensions of schizotypal personality, social dominance orientation (SDO), right wing authoritarianism (RWA), paranormal beliefs (PB) and the newer const...
Article
Full-text available
Sex differences in jealousy responses to sexual and emotional infidelity are robust in samples of heterosexual adults, especially in more gender egalitarian nations. However, investigations of when and how these differences develop have been scant. We applied two forced choice infidelity scenarios in a large community sample of high school students...
Article
Full-text available
Interpersonal touch behavior differs across cultures, yet no study to date has systematically tested for cultural variation in affective touch, nor examined the factors that might account for this variability. Here, over 14,000 individuals from 45 countries were asked whether they embraced, stroked, kissed, or hugged their partner, friends, and you...
Article
Full-text available
In several recent papers the sex difference in regret predicted by sexual strategies theory has been supported: men more than women report regret passing up short-term sexual opportunities (inaction regret), while women regret having had sexual encounters (action regret). However, the adaptive function of regret, to improve future behavioral choice...
Article
Objective We aimed to discover whether psychological treatment for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) was associated with changes in the big five personality traits and their facets. Method Patients with GAD were randomized either to receive cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT, n = 28) or metacognitive therapy (MCT, n = 32). Before and after 12 sessi...
Preprint
Full-text available
This study examined the warzone stressors: killing in combat, experiencing personal threats, or traumatic witnessing during deployment in relation to psychological distress, alcohol consumption and quality of life at long-term follow-up. The study was conducted in two samples of Norwegian veterans who had served in Afghanistan (Study 1, N = 4,053)...
Article
Introduction: PTSD and chronic pain are disorders that researchers increasingly acknowledge to be risk factors that overlap and their comorbidity is associated with poorer treatment outcomes. This review focuses on torture survivors due to the high prevalence of comorbidity in this group, as well as how PTSD and chronic pain might develop, interact...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: PTSD and chronic pain are disorders that researchers increasingly acknowledge to be risk factors that overlap and their comorbidity is associated with poorer treatment outcomes. This review focuses on torture survivors due to the high prevalence of comorbidity in this group, as well as how PTSD and chronic pain might develop, interact...
Article
Full-text available
The #MeToo movement has to a large degree addressed a specific type of sexual harassment, focusing on quid pro quo over hostile environment type sexual harassment. Prototypical #MeToo features include male over female actor; superior over subordinate actor; repeated over single case harassment; private over public settings; personal over general ta...
Article
Full-text available
Few studies have investigated what soldiers find meaningful after being exposed to highly stressful events and what positive effects they might have in the aftermath. This study reports the psychometric properties of a newly developed questionnaire, Meaning of Service (MoS), and its application to the study of how strongly meaning-making processes...
Article
Full-text available
The Triangular Theory of Love (measured with Sternberg’s Triangular Love Scale – STLS) is a prominent theoretical concept in empirical research on love. To expand the culturally homogeneous body of previous psychometric research regarding the STLS, we conducted a large-scale cross-cultural study with the use of this scale. In total, we examined mor...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the current study was to explore protective (resilience) and vulnerability factors (dysfunctional metacognitions and brooding) for self-esteem. A total of 725 participants were included in a cross-sectional study. A path analysis revealed five paths to self-esteem. The three main paths were as follows: (1) symptoms −> metacognitions −> b...
Article
Full-text available
Infidelity represents a major threat to relationships, often resulting in dissolution of couples. The process from infidelity to potential breakup was studied in 92 couples using questionnaires concerning hypothetical scenarios of sexual and emotional infidelity. Structural equation model analyses using couple data for both infidelity types suggest...
Article
We need more research and less scorn, and a better understanding of the INCEL phenomenon in order to prevent radicalisation. https://kjonnsforskning.no/en/2020/06/who-cares-men-who-are-left-behind
Article
Full-text available
Several recent papers have established a link between personality and Tinder use, particularly with regards to sociosexuality and motivations for use. Following up our recent publication on dating apps and the studies linking Tinder and sociosexuality, we provide a more detailed investigation of the efficiency of using Tinder to acquire one-night s...
Article
A growing body of research has demonstrated that metacognitions are associated with alcohol use and other addictive behaviours. In the present study (N = 588), we investigated the validity of the Positive Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (PAMS) and the Negative Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (NAMS). The results supported two-factor solutions for both the...
Article
Full-text available
Considerable research has examined human mate preferences across cultures, finding universal sex differences in preferences for attractiveness and resources as well as sources of systematic cultural variation. Two competing perspectives—an evolutionary psychological perspective and a biosocial role perspective—offer alternative explanations for the...
Article
Full-text available
A major challenge in the treatment of depression has been high relapse rates following treatment. The current study reports results from a 3-year follow-up of patients treated with metacognitive therapy (MCT). Thirty-four of the 39 patients enrolled in the original study attended assessment (participation rate of 87%). There were large reductions i...
Article
Full-text available
Humans express a wide array of ideal mate preferences. Around the world, people desire romantic partners who are intelligent, healthy, kind, physically attractive, wealthy, and more. In order for these ideal preferences to guide the choice of actual romantic partners, human mating psychology must possess a means to integrate information across thes...
Book
Psykologisk behandling og samtaleterapi er ment å redusere menneskelig lidelse. Når noen søker hjelp skal en profesjonell terapeut lytte til det som fortelles, tåle å høre det og gi råd eller forslag til hvordan tenke, føle eller handle annerledes. Det kan virke paradoksalt å påstå at slik psykologisk behandling, gjort i de beste intensjoner, skal...
Article
Mate choice lies close to differential reproduction, the engine of evolution. Patterns of mate choice consequently have power to direct the course of evolution. Here we provide evidence suggesting one pattern of human mate choice—the tendency for mates to be similar in overall desirability—caused the evolution of a structure of correlations that we...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Mate choice involves trading-off several preferences. Research on this process tends to examine mate preference prioritization in homogenous samples using a small number of traits and thus provide little insight into whether prioritization patterns reflect a universal human nature. This study examined whether prioritization patterns, an...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports the 1-year follow-up results from a randomized controlled trial (RCT), which examined the efficacy of metacognitive therapy (MCT) for unipolar depression compared to a waiting condition. Thirty-nine patients with major depression were offered MCT and were divided into two conditions; immediate MCT with 10 weekly sessions or a wai...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Scant research exists on the gender-specific association between physical activity, insomnia symptoms and depressive symptoms among adolescents. The present study investigates the direct and indirect association of insomnia and physical activity with symptoms of depression. Design: In a community-based sample (N = 1485) we investigated f...
Article
The frequency of sexual intercourse within couples is associated with a variety of factors, such as relationship length, sexual and relationship satisfaction, and perceived quality of the relationship. Love, as a commitment device, might reduce interest in extrapair sex. Therefore, one can expect a negative association between measures of passion a...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual signaling is subject to manipulation, and miscommunication may occur because of biased interpretations of signals, or because of strategical downplaying of sexual interest (playing hard-to-get). In this paper, we examined initial perceptions of cues from opposite sex partners along with participant reported own sexual attraction and signaled...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive behaviour therapy for older adults with generalised anxiety disorder and depression – Should new interventions be tested? Research on treatment of generalised anxiety disorder and depression among older adults (60+) has some challenges. Treatment guidelines recommend pharmacological treatment and cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), but the...
Article
Full-text available
From an Error Management Theory (EMT) perspective we expect a negative forgiveness bias, in which one underestimates a romantic partner's forgiveness following one's own transgressions. The function would be to secure that the transgressions are fully mended through reparative behavior. The extent to which this bias is related to infidelity and typ...
Article
This study investigates individual differences, sex differences and predictors of current and prior use of Picture-Based Mobile Dating Apps (PBMDA), including level and type of PBMDA activity, and reasons for PBMDA use. Six hundred and forty-one Norwegian university students aged between 19 and 29 years completed a questionnaire in lecture breaks....
Article
Full-text available
Background Cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), yielding significant improvements in approximately 50% of patients. There is significant room for improvement in the outcomes of treatment, especially in recovery. Aims We aimed to compare metacognitive therapy (MCT) with the gold stan...
Article
Full-text available
Interpersonal problems are significantly elevated in patients with depression. Metacognitive therapy (MCT) for depression does not address interpersonal problems but is associated with large reduction in depressive symptoms. The main aim of the current study was to explore whether MCT leads to improvements in interpersonal problems in patients with...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies on conspiracy thinking has concluded that the strongest pre­dictor of the tendency towards conspiratorial thinking is a one-dimensional construct—conspiracy mentality—that is relatively stable over time and valid across cultures. Lantian et al. (2016) found that a single, elaborate question can work as a measure of conspiracy beliefs...
Chapter
Casual sex and hookups are largely synonymous and involve sexual behaviors that occur outside ongoing committed relationships. These brief uncommitted sexual encounters occur among individuals that are not dating or romantic partners, and they are performed without any expectations of future romantic relationships. The encounter typically occurs on...
Article
Full-text available
Sex differences in sexual regret are found to be robust across nations. Participants in Norway (N = 547) and the United States (N = 216) reported their level of regret for their most recent casual sexual experience. Participants also reported on proximate factors hypothesized to predict casual sex regret: negative emotions (worry), feeling pressure...
Chapter
Much of the development of children, young people, and young adults is determined by opportunities for play and “real life” experience in their early years. This is not, as some believe, an optional or frivolous luxury, but an essential life experience for development of character, skills, self-awareness, and competence. Yet in recent years, eviden...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual regret was investigated across two disparate cultures: Norway (N = 853), a highly secular and sexually liberal culture, and the United States (N = 466), a more religious and more sexually conservative culture. Sex differences, individual differences in preferred mating strategy, religiosity, and cultural differences in sexual regret were ana...
Article
This paper reports on the development and the psychometric properties of short forms of Ambivalent Sexism Scales toward women (ASI; Glick & Fiske, 1996) and men (AMI; Glick & Fiske, 1999), and a scale measuring rape stereotypes (IRMA; McMahon & Farmer, 2011). The short form AMI/ASI were applied for examining gender and educational differences in un...
Article
Full-text available
Both worry and metacognitive beliefs have been found to be related to the development of anxiety, but metacognitive theory (Wells and Matthews, 1994; Wells, 2009) suggest that metacognitive beliefs may play a more prominent role. The aim of the present prospective study was to examine whether worry, metacognitive beliefs or the interaction between...
Chapter
Full-text available
Within evolutionary approaches to depression there is a rather even split between theories that propose that depression and symptoms of major depressive disorder are not adaptive and those that propose that depression is adaptive. An example of the latter, the analytical rumination hypothesis, has since its first formulation (Watson & Andrews, 2002...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Natural selection is a process where organisms with the most adaptive properties to their environment have an increased ability to reproduce, and transferring their genes to the next generation. Behaviours that give organisms an advantage in reproduction will be naturally selected, and this behavioural trait will spread in the population. In behavi...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have documented links between sub-clinical narcissism and the active pursuit of short-term mating strategies (e.g., unrestricted sociosexuality, marital infidelity, mate poaching). Nearly all of these investigations have relied solely on samples from Western cultures. In the current study, responses from a cross-cultural survey of...