Lei Bao

Lei Bao
The Ohio State University | OSU · Department of Physics

Doctor of Philosophy

About

96
Publications
41,473
Reads
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1,950
Citations
Introduction
Information Theory, Complex Systems, Cognitive Learning Theory, Computational Models of Learning, Analytics of Education Data, Modeling STEM Learning, Knowledge Integration and Deep Learning, Critical Thinking and Scientific Reasoning, Meta-cognition & Philosophy.
Additional affiliations
July 2000 - present
The Ohio State University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Education
August 1994 - July 1999

Publications

Publications (96)
Article
Full-text available
Abilities in scientific thinking and reasoning have been emphasized as core areas of initiatives, such as the Next Generation Science Standards or the College Board Standards for College Success in Science, which focus on the skills the future will demand of today's students. Although there is rich literature on studies of how these abilities devel...
Article
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A deep understanding of mechanical waves is crucial for students to succeed in studying many advanced physics topics. Studies in existing literature have revealed that students often have widespread difficulties and misconceptions on wave propagation. This research develops and applies a conceptual framework model to examine students' understanding...
Article
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Newton's third law is one of the most important concepts learned early in introductory mechanics courses; however, ample studies have documented a wide range of students' misconceptions and fragmented understandings of this concept that are difficult to change through traditional instruction. This research develops a conceptual framework model to i...
Article
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In the Chinese high school physics curriculum, three operational procedures are introduced in electromagnetism, namely right-hand grip rule, left-hand rule, and right-hand rule. This often led to confusion for student to differentiate these rules, and thus often focus on the surface characteristics of the problem or be misled by unrelated details....
Article
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Formal understanding of the nature of science (NOS) has been considered to be a major contributor to nurturing students’ scientific literacy. In China, this view has been endorsed in the new standard for high school physics curriculum, which has guided the development of the new generation physics textbooks. Following the analytical framework estab...
Article
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Research indicates students with more formal reasoning patterns are more proficient learners, while certain critical thinking abilities are important for living in modern society. Unfortunately, college courses do not typically promote these skills. In order to address this concern, we have developed a first semester introductory physics lab curric...
Article
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Causal reasoning is a fundamental cognitive process that supports a wide range of learning activities such as making predictions and inferences, explaining phenomena, and drawing conclusions. In physics learning, causal reasoning plays an important role in developing conceptual understanding and problem-solving skills. This study builds off the exi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Newton's third law is one of the most important concepts learned early in introductory mechanics courses; however, ample studies have documented a wide range of students' misconceptions and fragmented understandings of this concept that are difficult to change through traditional instruction. This research develops a conceptual framework model to i...
Article
Full-text available
The Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning (LCTSR) is a popular instrument that measures the development of students’ scientific reasoning skills. The instrument has a two-tier question design, which has led to multiple ways of scoring and interpretation. In this research, a method of pattern analysis was proposed and applied to analyze tw...
Article
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Problem-solving categorization tasks have been well studied and used as an effective tool for assessment of student knowledge structure. In this study, a traditional free-response categorization test has been modified into a multiple-choice format, and the effectiveness of this new assessment is evaluated. Through randomized testing with Chinese co...
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Concept inventories (CIs) are commonly used in pre-post instruction to study student conceptual change. For consistency in assessment interpretation, a CI's assessment construct is desired to maintain invariance across different test times. In this study, the longitudinal measurement invariance (LMI) analysis under the confirmatory factor analysis...
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Momentum is a foundational concept in physics. Although it is often taught in introductory mechanics courses, there are a limited number of studies on this topic in the literature. The results from these studies have consistently shown that students have difficulties in understanding momentum, especially the connections between net force, time, and...
Article
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A course selection (CS) model is constructed based on the course enrollment database from a Chinese university in this research. By using big-data analysis on the database, we study the factors that may determine the students’ CS and we investigate how to optimize allocation of course resources. Our results reveal that the allocation of course reso...
Article
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In physics education research (PER), concept inventories (CIs) have become standard instruments for assessing students' learning throughout instruction. To promote widespread use of concept inventories, previous studies have developed an approach to split a full length CI into short versions of CIs. This research extends the existing method to full...
Article
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Education goals have evolved to emphasize student acquisition of the knowledge and attributes necessary to successfully contribute to the workforce and global economy of the twenty-first Century. The new education standards emphasize higher end skills including reasoning, creativity, and open problem solving. Although there is substantial research...
Article
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Knowledge integration is essential to achieve deep conceptual understanding, which requires students to develop well-connected knowledge structures through the central idea of a concept. To effectively represent and analyze knowledge integration, a conceptual framework model on force and motion is developed to map learners' knowledge structures in...
Article
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Light interference is an essential topic for understanding the wavelike nature of light, however, there are limited studies on modeling and assessing students’ misconceptions and learning difficulties in this area. Based on the knowledge integration modeling approach, a conceptual framework for light interference is developed and used to model stud...
Article
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Information definitions across many disciplines commonly treat information as a physical world entity. Information measures are used along with other physical variables undistinguished for modeling physical systems. Building on previous work, this research explicitly defines information as a unique category of entity that is created by intelligent...
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As college faculty consider how to prepare students with necessary workplace skills, it is important to look for opportunities to do so within existing courses. This paper showcases how a physics lab course was successfully redesigned to promote important reasoning abilities not explicitly addressed in the typical college setting. Student developme...
Article
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Standardized concept inventories (CIs) have been widely used in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education for assessment of student learning. In practice, there have been concerns regarding the length of the test and possible test-retest memory effect. To address these issues, a recent study developed a method to split a CI into t...
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Scientific reasoning skills are necessary for scientific literacy. The control of variables (COV) sub skill is foundational for developing scientific reasoning skills. This study investigated student development of Low, Intermediate, and High COV skills in a first semester algebra-based introductory physics lab at a two-year college. Nine COV quest...
Article
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In science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education there has been increased emphasis on teaching goals that include not only the learning of content knowledge but also the development of scientific reasoning skills. The Lawson classroom test of scientific reasoning (LCTSR) is a popular assessment instrument for scientific reasoning. Thr...
Article
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Assessment instruments composed of two tier multiple choice (TTMC) items are widely used in science education as an effective method to evaluate students’ sophisticated understanding. In practice, however, there are often concerns regarding the common scoring methods of TTMC items, which include pair-scoring and individual scoring schemes. The pair...
Article
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Information about a system's internal interactions is important to modeling the system's dynamics. This study examines the finer categories of the information definition and explores the features of a type of local information that describes the internal interactions of a system. Based on the results, a dual-space agent and information modeling fra...
Article
This study used eye-tracking technology to investigate students' visual attention while taking the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) in a web-based interface. Eighty nine university students were randomly selected into a pre-test group and a post-test group. Students took the 30-question FCI on a computer equipped with an eye-tracker. There were seven...
Article
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In a recent study, the 30-question Force Concept Inventory (FCI) was theoretically split into two 14-question “half-length” tests (HFCIs) covering the same set of concepts and producing mean scores that can be equated to those of the original FCI. The HFCIs require less administration time and reduce test-retest issues when different versions are u...
Article
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Scientific reasoning is an important component under the cognitive strand of the 21st century skills and is highly emphasized in the new science education standards. This study focuses on the assessment of student reasoning in control of variables (COV), which is a core sub-skill of scientific reasoning. The main research question is to investigate...
Article
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The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) is a 30-question multiple-choice assessment that has been a building block for much of the physics education research done today. In practice, there are often concerns regarding the length of the test and possible test-retest effects. Since many studies in the literature use the mean score of the FCI as the primary...
Article
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Cognitive conflict is well recognized as an important factor in conceptual change and is widely used in developing inquiry-based curricula. However, cognitive conflict can also contribute to student anxiety during learning, which can have both positive and negative impacts on students' motivation and learning achievement. Therefore, instructors nee...
Chapter
Matlab is an interactive software system for numerical computations and graphics, it is especially designed for matrix computations. PSpice is a world standard that has proven itself in the area of circuit design. The powerful, highly-visual simulation world of Orcad/PSpice is a great tool for understanding circuit theory and electronic design, giv...
Chapter
The use of Matlab and its companion toolboxes in teaching graduate and undergraduate electrical engineering circuits courses, control systems and signal analysis courses have been long realized and reported by many educators. These works concentrate on the numerical capabilities of Matlab for solving linear equations and its plotting capabilities....
Article
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Interest in computer-based learning, especially in the use of virtual reality simulations is increasing rapidly. While there are good reasons to believe that technologies have the potential to improve teaching and learning, how to utilize the technology effectively in teaching specific content difficulties is challenging. To help students develop r...
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It is well documented that when solving problems experts first search for underlying concepts while students tend to look for equations and previously worked examples. The overwhelming majority of end-of-chapter (EOC) problems in most introductory physics textbooks contain only material and examples discussed in a single chapter, rarely requiring a...
Article
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Students typically use electronic polling systems, or clickers, to answer individual questions. Differing from this tradition, we have developed a new clicker methodology in which multiple clicker questions targeting the same underlying concept but with different surface features are grouped into a sequence. Here we present the creation, validation...
Article
Clickers a wireless-keypad used in class-polling systems that enable students to answer questions during lectures. Such systems provide an interactive teaching environment with real time feedback for students and teachers on the progress of teaching and learning. Clicker use is becoming more widespread amongst faculty as a means of engaging student...
Chapter
Artificial Neural Networks have been shown to have the potential to perform well for classification problems in many different environments, including business, science and engineering. This paper introduces the principle of BP Neural Network and the calculation steps, and puts forward an evaluation programmed about Scientific Reasoning with BP Neu...
Article
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Students commonly have difficulty with ``synthesis problems'', which require a combination of typically two concepts that are taught separately in different chapters and/or at significantly different times during a course. One reason for this is that students frequently rely on a formula-based approach, beginning by searching for mathematical equat...
Article
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Item Response Theory (IRT) is a popular assessment method used in education measurement, which builds on an assumption of a probability framework connecting students' innate ability and their actual performances on test items. The model transforms students' raw test scores through a nonlinear regression process into a scaled proficiency rating, whi...
Article
Traditional end‐of‐chapter problems often are localized, requiring formulas only within a single chapter. Students frequently can solve these problems by performing “plug‐and‐chug” without recognizing underlying concepts. We designed open‐ended problems that require a synthesis of concepts that are broadly separated in the teaching time line, milit...
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When answering physics questions, students often have different perspectives than do physics experts. Sometimes this difference does not mean students possess misconceptions, but might indicate that the questions need to be revised. We conducted student interviews to identify and resolve validity issues that stem from the different perspectives of...
Article
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The development of general scientific abilities is critical to enable students of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) to successfully handle open-ended real-world tasks in future careers. Teaching goals in STEM education include fostering content knowledge as well as developing these general scientific abilities. One such abili...
Article
The traditional methods of assigning and grading homework in large enrollment physics courses have raised concerns among many instructors and students. In this paper we discuss a cost-effective approach to managing homework that involves making half of the problem solutions available to students before the homework is due. In addition, students are...
Article
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Student content knowledge and general reasoning abilities are two important areas in education practice and research. However, there hasn't been much work in physics education that clearly documents the possible interactions between content learning and the development of general reasoning abilities. In this paper, we report one study of a systemat...
Article
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Pre-testing and post-testing is a commonly used method in Physics Education Research to assess student learning gains. It is well recognized in the community that timings and incentives in delivering conceptual tests can impact test results. However, it is difficult to control these variables across different studies. As a common practice, a pre-te...
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We present mathematical learning models—predictions of student’s knowledge vs amount of instruction—that are based on assumptions motivated by various theories of learning: tabula rasa, constructivist, and tutoring. These models predict the improvement (on the post-test) as a function of the pretest score due to intervening instruction and also dep...
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A new question methodology has been developed and used with voting machines in large physics lecture classrooms. The methodology was tested by comparing student performance in voting machine and non-voting machine lecture sections during three consecutive electricity and magnetism quarters of introductory calculus-based physics. Data from The Conce...
Article
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Cognitive conflict is well recognized as an important factor in conceptual change and is widely used in developing constructivism-based curricula. However, cognitive conflicts can also contribute to student anxiety during learning, which, when not properly addressed, can have negative impacts on students' motivation and achievement. Therefore, inst...
Article
Full-text available
Pre-post testing is a commonly used method in physics education community for evaluating students' achievement and or the effectiveness of teaching through a specific period of instruction. A popular method to analyze pre-post testing results is the normalized gain first brought to the physics education community in wide use by R.R. Hake. This pape...
Article
The Ohio State University Physics Education Research Group (OSU PERG) developed a novel word tracking program for analyzing student writing. In an ongoing study of writing to learn, this tracking program was used during Spring Quarter 2006 to characterize patterns in student writing and to look for correlations between student writing behaviors and...
Article
We present three learning models that make different assumptions about how the rate of a student's learning depends on the amount that they know already. These are motivated by the mental models of Tabula Rasa, Constructivist, and Tutoring theories. These models predict the postscore for a given prescore after a given period of instruction. Constru...
Article
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Since its introduction, the normalized gain or the g-factor has been widely used in assessing students' performance in pre- and post-tests. The average g-factor can be calculated using either the average scores of the class or individual student's scores. In general, these two calculations produce different results. The nature of these two results...
Article
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With proper context settings, instructors need to guide students to recognize explicitly cognitive conflicts among students' existing understandings and new observations. To study this issue, we have developed an easy-to-use instrument, the in-class Conflict and Anxiety Recognition Evaluation (iCARE), for monitoring the status of students' cognitiv...
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We have investigated student difficulties in understanding and interpreting probability and its relevant technical terms as it relates to quantum measurement. These terms include expectation value, probability density, and uncertainty. From this research, it is evident that students have difficulties in understanding these terms and often fail to d...
Article
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Decades of education research have shown that students can simultaneously possess alternate knowledge frameworks and that the development and use of such knowledge are context dependent. As a result of extensive qualitative research, standardized multiple-choice tests such as Force Concept Inventory and Force-Motion Concept Evaluation tests provide...
Article
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Physics learning situations often involve many cognitive conflicts between a student's present understandings and new information being learned. Cognitive conflict is known as an important factor in conceptual change. Therefore, it is important to help physics teachers and students develop skills and knowledge for more effective conflict management...
Article
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Physicists consider laboratories to be a vital part of any introductory course, yet The Ohio State University's existing labs are not meeting their educational goals and students consistently rate them as having low value. This paper explores some of the reasons that standard introductory physics laboratories are not having the expected impact, and...
Article
There are two somewhat independent research traditions, which converge to suggest a form of students' knowledge: alternative conceptions and mental models. However we have little literature that explains what they are different from each other and from memory. This study tried to describe these issues with some thoughts about how cognitive psycholo...
Article
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A ``voting machine'' is a generic name for wireless-keypad in-class polling systems used by students to answer multiple-choice questions during lectures. We present our experiences gained while distributing and using voting machine modules. Using voting machines with carefully designed sets of multiple-choice questions and instantaneous voting summ...