Leena Korpinen

Leena Korpinen
North Karelia Central Hospital · Clinical Physiology and Neurophysiology Unit

MD and Dr.Tech., Adj. Prof.

About

170
Publications
14,870
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909
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2006 - July 2007
University of Vaasa
Position
  • Professor
April 1998 - August 2016
Tampere University
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (170)
Article
Magnetic fields were compared inside passenger seats of electric, petrol and hybrid cars. While driving about 5 km in an urban environment, values were recorded and compared between car types. The magnetic flux densities of the cars were less than 2.6 μT. The magnitudes of the magnetic fields of petrol cars and hybrid cars were about the same and s...
Article
The aim was to study the operation of insulin pumps under a 400 kV transmission line (two test places) and possible disturbances that the lines could have caused. Three different insulin pumps were attached one at a time to the subject’s clothes. The diabetes nurse started the pumps before the tests to ensure the correct settings were being utilize...
Article
Full-text available
A considerably high number of outdoor workers worldwide are constantly exposed for the majority of their working life to solar radiation (SR); this exposure is known to induce various adverse health effects, mainly related to its ultraviolet (UV) component. The skin and the eye are the principal target organs for both acute and long-term exposure....
Conference Paper
Introduction Solar Ultraviolet Radiation (UV) is one of the main risk factors for Non Melanoma Skin Cancer (NMSC) and Malignant Melanoma (MM). In Italy, only considering agriculture, fishery and construction sectors, the approximate number of workers exposed to solar UV (Outdoor workers –OW-) is 2 million (1.6 million males, 4 00 000 females). Our...
Conference Paper
In the European Union (EU), the Directive 2013/35/EU has introduced the legal obligation of an ‘appropriate health surveillance’ (HS) for workers exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF). Until now no agreement exists on the criteria, and on the contents, of such an HS. The EU Directive specifically refers to the protection from the risks associated...
Conference Paper
Introduction Directive 2013/35/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to the risks arising from physical agents (electromagnetic fields (EMFs) was published in 2013. The directive gives minimum requirements for the protection of workers from risks to health an...
Conference Paper
Introduction The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified Radio Frequency in the Group 2B, ‘possibly carcinogenic to humans’, based on an association found between exposure related to mobile phones use and risk of gliomas and acoustic neuromas, even if this classification was discussed for some inconsistencies. Considering the lar...
Conference Paper
Introduction According to Directive 2013/35/EU for magnetic fields from 0 to 1 Hz, the exposure limit value (ELV) for sensory effects due to magnetic flux density is 2 T (Tesla) and 8 T for limbs. Interference with active implanted devices, e.g., cardiac pacemakers, starts at an action level (AL) of 0.5 mT. Interference can influence the functionin...
Article
Directive 2013/35/EU of the European Parliament and Council, among other things, sets values for the occupational exposure of workers regarding the health and safety risks arising from electromagnetic fields. In order to ensure worker safety, the Finnish national grid operator, Fingrid Oyj, conducted several measurements of electromagnetic fields a...
Article
The objective of the study was to investigate occupational exposure to electric fields during the task ‘maintenance of an operating device of circuit breaker from a service platform’ at 110 kV substations. The aim was also to compare the results to Directive 2013/35/EU. At 16 substations, 255 electric field measurements were performed. The highest...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this research is to study the symptoms and use of computers/mobile phones of individuals nearing retirement age (≥55 years). A questionnaire was sent to 15,000 Finns (aged 18–65). People who were ≥55 years of age were compared to the rest of the population. Six thousand one hundred and twenty-one persons responded to the questionnaire; 1...
Article
Fly and bottom ashes are collected at power plants to reduce the environmental effects of energy production. However, handling the ashes causes health problems for operators, maintenance workers and truck drivers at the power plants. Hence, we evaluated ash loaders’ peak inhalation exposures to the chemical components of ash and diesel exhausts in...
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the level of occupational exposure to static magnetic fields experienced by workers close to high voltage direct current (HVDC) cables in Finland. The measurements were conducted at a 500 kV HVDC substation in Finland from 8 different measuring points with a commercial G100 handheld Gaussmeter by Coliy Techn...
Article
Earlier studies conducted at 400 and 110 kV substations in Finland have shown that the occupational exposure to electric fields can exceed the action levels (ALs) set by Directive 2013/35/EU. This is a case study investigating the level of occupational exposure experienced by workers at 220 kV substations in order to determine if the actions levels...
Article
Recently, computer, mobile phone, and Internet use has increased. This study aimed to determine the possible relation between self-reported wrist and finger symptoms (aches, pain, or numbness) and using computers/mobile phones, and analyze how the symptoms are specifically associated with utilizing desktop computers, portable computers or mini-comp...
Article
Full-text available
The use of the computers and other technical devices has increased. The aim of our work was to study the possible relation between self-reported foot symptoms and use of computers and cell phones using a questionnaire. The study was carried out as a cross-sectional study by posting a questionnaire to 15,000 working-age Finns. A total of 6121 respon...
Article
Full-text available
The increasing use and production of bioenergy means that the number of employees working in this area will inevitably grow, making it ever more important to know the health and safety issues involved in the biomass supply chain. Our aim was to determine the exposure of employees to biological and chemical agents during various work tasks at differ...
Article
Full-text available
Various guidelines for the protection of human beings against possible adverse effects resulting from exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have been published with a view towards continual improvement; therefore, decreasing exposure is an important research area. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of decreasing electric f...
Conference Paper
In this paper we present measurements of the magnetic flux density in an office and three different welding environments. The measured values are compared with the thresholds set by the EU Directive 2013/35/EU. For the office environment, a magnetic field survey is presented at different heights with the electrical appliances operating in different...
Conference Paper
The objective of the paper is to present the measurement examples of the meters and compare the differences in real situations at 400 kV and 220 kV substations. We used two meters: the Narda EFA-300 LF Field Analyzer and Maschek ESM-100 H/E Field Meter. Both meters were used to measure the electric field strength from the same spot at 17 different...
Conference Paper
Recently, induction heating (IH) ranges, which heats using Joule heat based on eddy currents in a pan, have been increasing not only for household use but commercial use. Some of users have concerns about the possible health effects of magnetic fields from induction heating ranges. In this study, we quantitatively measured leakage magnetic fields f...
Conference Paper
The aim of the paper is to present some examples of the works under power lines, where the action values of the directive can be exceeded. The occupational exposure at tasks from the ladder has been studied. We performed measurements on steps of the ladder. We conducted measurements at different step heights: fourth (height 0.9m from ground), eight...
Conference Paper
The aim of this paper was to present examples from measurements utilizing Faraday cages under power lines. We performed experiments with a cage using different nets for the “roof” of the cage: (1) chicken wire without the “roof”; (2) pieces of fish netting; (3) additional fish netting; (4) extra pieces of small animal wire netting; (5) chicken wire...
Conference Paper
The objective of this paper was to measure the electric field (EF) next to a secondary terminal of current transformer with two different methods and then compare results to earlier studies. In the first method, the EF meter was attached to an insulator pole that was 2m in length and lifted next to the secondary terminal of current transformer by h...
Conference Paper
This paper presents the investigation of extremely low frequency magnetic fields at electric facilities of a hospital. We conducted 21 measurements (at electric facilities and other areas, for example, in the lobby and in the corridor). The magnetic fields were from 0.2 µT to 62.0 µT. The highest value was measured near the main circuit-breaker of...
Conference Paper
The aim of the paper was to present examples of electric field measurements using a piece of shielding net under power lines and above the subject. We performed experiments under power lines using a ladder and constructed different shield nets. We conducted five experiments: (1) ladder was not grounded, (2) ladder was grounded; (3) ladder with a 60...
Article
Background: The number of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) operators is rapidly increasing. In these workers, a high prevalence of certain subjective symptoms has been described but until now scant research is available on this topic. Objectives: To assess the prevalence and the evolution of symptoms over time in a group of operators recently en...
Article
Full-text available
Most results regarding induced current in the human body related to electric field dosimetry have been calculated under uniform field conditions. We have found in previous work that a contact current is a more suitable way to evaluate induced electric fields, even in the case of exposure to non-uniform fields. If the relationship between induced cu...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the study was to analyze all values of electric currents from measured periods while performing tasks in forest clearing. The objective was also to choose and analyze measurement cases, where current measurements successfully lasted the entire work period (about 30 min). Two forestry workers volunteered to perform four forest clearing ta...
Article
The aim was to investigate occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields during tasks at ground or floor level at 110 kV substations in Finland and to compare the measured values to Directive 2013/35/EU. Altogether, 347 electric field measurements and 100 magnetic field measurements were performed. The average value of all electric fields w...
Article
Data on biomechanical overload of the upper limb in animal facility operators are currently scanty. We decided to study this risk in a university animal facility. Eleven different tasks performed by operators were identified. For each of them, the biomechanical overload of the upper limb was evaluated by applying 4 different methods frequently used...
Article
The paper is devoted to the investigation of electromagnetic field distribution in the vicinity of overhead transmission lines under different environmental conditions, taking into account the wire sag curve in a span. A wire state equation is utilized, which allows one to calculate stresses in the wire and sags based on the known stresses and temp...
Article
Full-text available
Earlier studies have shown that the occupational exposure of electric fields at 400 kV substations can be higher than the low action level of 10 kV/m set by the Directive 2013/35/EU. One possibility for decreasing the occupational exposure is to surround the worker with a Faraday cage. The objective of the study was to investigate how effective a F...
Article
Exposure to spark discharges may occur beneath high voltage transmission lines when contact is initiated with a conductive object (such as a motor vehicle) with the spark discharge mediated by the ambient electric field from the line. The objective of this study was to assess whether such exposures could interfere with the normal functioning of imp...
Article
The aim of our work is to study persons who self-reported aches, pain, or numbness in the hip and lower back very often and their use of computers and cell phones via a questionnaire. The study was carried out as a cross-sectional study by posting a questionnaire to 15,000 working-age persons, and among all respondents (6121), 8.2% of them reported...
Article
The aim of this study was to collect example measurements of electromagnetic field exposure via smart meters for cable-transmitted (50-100 kHz) signal emissions in a meter room in Finland. We measured different smart meters and different concentrators. The magnetic fields in various situations on the meter surface ranged from 0.1-2.2 μT. The measur...
Article
The aim of this pilot study was to present examples of extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields in a Finnish metro station. The metro trains are powered by 750 V DC voltage supplied through a conductor rail next to the running rails. We measured magnetic fields with a magnetic field meter MFM 3000 in 17 cases when a train was leaving the platf...
Article
The use of cardiac pacemakers (PMs) increases in Western countries. The aim of the study is to investigate cardiac pacemakers (PMs) using a human-shaped phantom in magnetic fields of a shunt reactor at a 400 kV substation. We performed seven PM experiments using a phantom. Two locations close to the shunt reactors were chosen. The magnetic field ex...
Article
The aim of the work is to study self-reported depression and anxiety symptoms among working-age Finns using logistical regression models. The study was carried out as a cross-sectional study by posting a questionnaire to 15,000 working-age persons. The responses (6121) revealed that 101 (1.7%) Finnish working-age persons suffered depression very of...
Article
The aim of this study was to analyze all values of electric current from measured periods while performing tasks on 110 and 220 kV power lines. Additionally, the objective was to study the average current densities and average total contact currents caused by electric fields in 110 and 220 kV power line tasks. One worker simulated the following tas...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The risk of perturbation of a cardiac pacemaker by an electromagnetic field has been studied for many years. However the instructions given to the patient remain vague, especially concerning electric and magnetic fields linked to electricity. In the context of Directive 2013/35/UE, this paper discusses the level of risk for 50 Hz electric and magne...
Article
The objectives of the study were to present examples of occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields at gas-insulated substations (GISs) and to analyse the exposure according to the new European Directive 2013/35/EU. The aim was also to describe the details of the measurements of this study at GISs. Electric and magnetic fields were measur...
Article
Full-text available
The literature on upper limb musculoskeletal disorders (UL-MSD) in different groups of healthcare workers was reviewed: 65 relevant studies were collected. In dentists, the neck was the most frequently affected segment, with prevalences up to 73% and exceeding 50% in 7 out of 12 studies. In dental hygienists and in laboratory technicians, the hand/...
Conference Paper
The aim of this paper was to investigate, the new directive 2013/35/EU on occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and the electrical workers’ use of cardiac pacemakers (PMs). The directive includes minimum requirements for the protection of workers from risks to their health and safety. In addition there is information about medical implant...
Article
Workers using an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) are classified by European Directive 2013/35/EU as being at particular risk because of the potential interference between implanted medical devices and electromagnetic fields. The aim of the study was to investigate ICD function using a human-shaped phantom in high magnetic fields of a s...
Article
When developing various ICT solutions to support people's well-being, the systems are quite often based on the use of computers or smart phones. However, in different age groups, the skills to use ICT can vary; therefore, not all people can use new technical systems. The aim of this paper was to investigate the selfreported use and know-how of the...
Article
Full-text available
The indications for implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) are expanding and workers' use of ICDs has increased. The aim of this paper was to investigate the new directive, 2013/35/EU, on occupational exposure to ELF electric fields and the electrical workers' use of Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators (ICDs). For example, the directive...
Article
The aim of the study was to analyze all current values from measured periods while performing tasks on 400 kV power lines. Our aim was also to study the average current densities and average total contact currents caused by electric fields in 400 kV power line tasks. Two workers simulated the following tasks: (A) climbing up a portal tower, (B) cli...
Article
Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy has increased in Western countries. The aim of the study was to investigate the function of ICDs using a human-shaped phantom in electric and magnetic fields of 400 kV power lines. The phantom was used in the following manner: isolated from the ground, earthed from a foot, or earthed from a hand....
Article
The object of the study was to investigate extremely low frequency (ELF) electric field exposure measurement methods under power lines. The authors compared two different methods under power lines: in Method A, the sensor was placed on a tripod; and Method B required the measurer to hold the meter horizontally so that the distance from him/her was...
Article
The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of humidity on analyzing electric field exposure using extremely low frequency (ELF) electric field measurements. The study included 322 measurements in a climate room. We used two commercial three-axis meters, EFA-3 and EFA-300, and employed two measurement techniques in the climate room...
Article
The aim of our work is to study self-reported sleep disorders/disturbances associated with physical symptoms and usage of computers, and to analyse physical symptoms of different groups, usage of desktop computers, usage of portable computers or mini-computers, and background information. The study was carried out as a cross-sectional study by post...
Article
Unlabelled: The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible relation between self-reported neck symptoms (aches, pain or numbness) and use of computers/cell phones. The study was carried out as a cross-sectional study by posting a questionnaire to 15,000 working-age persons, and 15.1% of all respondents (6121) reported that they very oft...
Conference Paper
The courses which deal with electromagnetism, are difficult to understand for most electrical engineering students. However, almost every electrical professional needs a good understanding of electromagnetism. The aim of this paper is to present the use of animation and simulation to teach electromagnetics (EM) to the students of Electrical Enginee...
Article
An ungrounded human, such as a substation worker, receives contact currents when touching a grounded object in electric fields. In this article, contact currents and internal electric fields induced in the human when exposed to non-uniform electric fields at 50 Hz are numerically calculated. This is done using a realistic human model standing at a...
Article
The aim of our study is to investigate UV exposure under 400 kV powerlines in Finland through sample measurements as a typical case study. The Finnish exposure limit value at work for weighted ultraviolet radiation (UV-BC) is 30 J/m2 per eight hours of exposure (based on European directive (2006/25/EU)), which is not applicable to solar radiation....
Article
The aim of our study is to examine the changing phase sequence method for limiting magnetic fields outside high voltage power substations. We consider the phase alternation of high and low voltage busbar wires on an example of a typical Ukrainian 110kV power substation in two- and three-dimensional forms. It is finally shown that implementation of...
Article
The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of construction-based and grounding system parameters of underground power cables 6-10kV on magnetic flux density levels. It is shown that grounding a system at its start or end point without grounding it at the ends is the worst in terms of the magnetic field levels due to the absence of induce...
Article
The aim of this study was to carry out theoretical investigations of power frequency magnetic fields (MFs), produced inside and outside the domain of urban 110-kV power substations and to establish a correspondence between the levels of the fields and the specified population limits as defined by Ukrainian regulations. The fields produced by high-v...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper aims to analyze common magnetic field exposure situations to children in the home, to determine possibly relevant sources. Part of the data presented here derives from measurements performed in projects in Finland and Italy. In the home, the important sources of children's exposure are electrical systems and devices. In conclusion we can...
Article
The main aim of this study was to investigate occupational exposure to electric fields, and current densities and contact currents associated with tasks at air-insulated 110 kV substations and analyze if the action value of EU Directive 2004/40/EC was exceeded. Four workers volunteered to simulate the following tasks: Task (A) maintenance of an ope...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
ELF-MF exposure was monitored in 543 workers for 2 days using personal meters. Time-Weighted Average (TWA) levels at work, at home and outside the home were calculated. A JEM, based on the 1988 International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO 88), was created. Median exposures at work, at home and outside the home were 0.14, 0.03 and 0.05...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of our work was to study the physical symptoms of upper- and lower-level white-collar workers using a questionnaire. The study was cross-sectional with a questionnaire posted to 15 000 working-age persons. The responses (6121) included 970 upper- and 1150 lower-level white-collar workers. In the upper- and lower-level white-collar worker gr...