Leelo Keevallik

Leelo Keevallik
Linköping University | LiU · Department of Culture and Society

PhD

About

77
Publications
11,330
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,068
Citations
Additional affiliations
April 2011 - present
Linköping University
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (77)
Article
Full-text available
Units in interaction are emergent real-time phenomena that can be accomplished by the coordinated deployment of language and the body. Focusing mostly on data from dance classes, this study looks at how incomplete syntax projects a continuation realized by the body and systematically accounts for clausal syntax that can incorporate an embodied demo...
Article
Full-text available
Negative polar particles have generally been characterized as items for expressing disagreement or responding negatively to polar questions. What has been lacking in these accounts is attention to embodied activities. This paper studies the usage of the Estonian negative particle ei as a preface in realtime activities, showing that it halts the ong...
Article
Full-text available
Cataphoric pronouns have been characterized as being co-referential with a word that comes later. Considering that talk is produced in real time, with little benefit of knowing what is yet to come, participants understand cataphoric pro-forms to be projecting more talk. Projection is a crucial interactive resource, as it enables speakers to align w...
Article
Full-text available
Building on research into reported speech and enactments, this study explores a new aspect of quoting by looking at how dance teachers ascribe body movements to students. Whether words or movements are quoted depends on the activity the participants are engaged in and what they aim to accomplish. Within corrective teaching sequences at dance classe...
Article
Full-text available
The article focuses on how students in a Lindy Hop dance class move into a complex mobile formation as a sequentially relevant response to a directive embedded in the teachers' verbal and embodied instructions of the next task for practice. This sequence of actions accomplishes a transition from a stationary constellation of observing students to a...
Article
In this case study we investigate the role of transnational networks and language brokering in labour migration within the European Union. By describing the working days of Estonians hired by a city maintenance company in Sweden, we demonstrate how language skills and network ties of a manager enable work migration in the local context. Most of the...
Article
Full-text available
The lip-smack is a communicative sound object that has received very little research attention, with most work examining their occurrence in nonhuman primate interaction. The current paper aims to dissect the social potential of lip-smacks in human interaction. The analysis examines a corpus of 391 lip-smack particles produced by English-speaking p...
Article
Full-text available
In this article we investigate spoken professional interaction at construction sites in Sweden, where workers from Poland, Ukraine and Estonia are temporarily employed as carpenters, ground workers and kitchen installers. We study how the workers use resources associated with different languages and how these resources are mobilized along with embo...
Article
Full-text available
The present paper takes an interactional approach to the problem of communicating pain. We ask how a shared understanding of this subjective and internal experience is accomplished. The focus is on the multimodal features of pain displays and the way they emerge and progress at the micro level of turn construction and sequence organisation within h...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we examine how participants’ multimodal conduct maps onto one of the basic organizational principles of social interaction: preference organization – and how it does so in a similar manner across five different languages (Czech, French, Hebrew, Mandarin, and Romanian). Based on interactional data from these languages, we identify a re...
Article
Full-text available
People speak not only under relaxed conditions but also during strenuous activities, and grammatical resources can be used to achieve displays of strain. This study looks at the relationship between progressivity of talk and bodily strain, focusing on the practice of temporarily suspending syntax while the speaker is accomplishing a physically chal...
Article
Full-text available
Language is believed to be a central device for communicating meaning and knowledge between humans. It is superb in its capacity to code abstract ideas and displaced information, which can be conveyed from person to person, sometimes across centuries. When it comes to instructing a bodily skill in co-present situations, language is used along with...
Conference Paper
Robot sound spans a wide continuum, from subtle motor hums, through music, bleeps and bloops, to human-inspired vocalizations, and can be an important means of communication for robotic agents. This first workshop on sound in HRI aims to bring together inter- disciplinary perspectives on sound, including design, conversation analysis, (computationa...
Chapter
This chapter on Estonian and Polish OKAY focuses on complying responses to high entitlement directives. The responses are built of two parts, the verbal OKAY that completes the adjacency pair and an embodied compliance that ensues. The OKAY provides an immediate verbal notification and acceptance of the suggested action trajectory, which is relevan...
Article
Full-text available
Tasting as a social practice can be enacted on behalf of others through precisely positioned nonlexical vocalizations as gustatory mmms. This paper uses multimodal interaction analysis to detail the coordination of parents and infants while starting to feed solid foods; data are from families in Scotland. The analysis focuses on the organization of...
Conference Paper
This paper explores how humans interpret displays of emotion produced by a social robot in real world situated interaction. Taking a multimodal conversation analytic approach, we analyze video data of families interacting with a Cozmo robot in their homes. Focusing on one happy and one sad robot animation, we study, on a turn-by-turn basis, how par...
Book
This volume explores how emergent patterns of complex syntax – that is, syntactic structures beyond a simple clause – relate to the local contingencies of action formation in social interaction. It examines both the on-line emergence of clause-combining patterns as they are ‘patched together’ on the fly, as well as their routinization and sedimenta...
Article
Full-text available
What do people do with sniffs, lip-smacks, grunts, moans, sighs, whistles and clicks, where these are not part of their language's phonetic inventory? They use them, we shall show, as irreplaceable elements in performing all kinds of actions - from managing the structural flow of interaction to indexing states of mind, and much more besides. In thi...
Article
Full-text available
This article analyzes the tacit norms of embodied turn-taking in a specific dance activity, Lindy Hop jam circles. Building on an extensive tradition of scrutinizing turn-taking in conversation, it shows how dancing couples negotiate the right to a next turn by visual means. Using multimodal interaction analysis, the article dissects the behavior o...
Chapter
Full-text available
Based on talk-oriented activities, there seems to be a consensus that turn-taking is organized to minimize gaps between turns. This study looks at a conversational sequence that evolved in a multi-party setting during a joint cleaning of a sheep stable, and analyzes how nextness is accomplished in an unproblematic manner after extensive silences. I...
Chapter
Full-text available
Based on talk-oriented activities, there seems to be a consensus that turn-taking is organized to minimize gaps between turns. This study looks at a conversational sequence that evolved in a multi-party setting during a joint cleaning of a sheep stable, and analyzes how nextness is accomplished in a nonproblematic manner after extensive silences. I...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates comments on the physical surroundings while a group of people are shoveling dung in a sheep stable. In this setting, where the auditory space is mostly open for talk, some comments launch a conversational sequence while others are treated as self-talk. The paper discusses how the speaker’s body posture, speech volume, and ga...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter discusses preferred responses that are delayed in their turn by the initial particle no in Estonian. It demonstrates that the turn-initial time-space may be employed for a display of “making up one’s mind”, either weighing matters outside the conversation or something already discussed in the talk. The paper argues that besides the dic...
Article
This paper looks at responsive actions built with different word orders, targeting the element kyl(lä) in Finnish and küll in Estonian, two close relatives. Depending on the action sequence and syntax, kyl(lä)/küll expresses intensity or speaker certainty, thus epistemically “reinforcing” the proposition. Historically the same lexical item, even th...
Article
This article navigates the findings of conversation analysis, interactional linguistics, and related multimodal studies to summarize what we know about the grammar-body interface. It shows how grammar is fitted to sequences and trajectories of embodied activities, as well as deployed interchangeably with bodily displays, resulting in truly multimod...
Chapter
Full-text available
This study looks at offer sequences in Estonian with an analytical focus on answers in the imperative form. “Telling someone to do something” has traditionally been considered an initiating action, typically an order. In this study, however, Estonian speakers are shown to produce “orders” in second position, i.e., in response to an initiating actio...
Article
Full-text available
This article targets action formation in multimodal sequences. It shows how nonpolar interrogatives in Estonian are used for noticing breaches in others’ embodied conduct, focusing on kes (“who”)-interrogatives. In contrast to information questions with kes, a “noticing of a breach” does not seek an informative answer, which would be an identificat...
Article
Full-text available
The paper studies the semantic-pragmatic and syntactic development of the negation verb/word ei + the adverb kaas’together, also’ into an epistemic marker and particle ega. Ega has been described as a coordinating conjunction, a marker of negation and a question word in Estonian grammars and we will show how these diverse usages come together on a...
Article
Full-text available
Finnish and Estonian kyl(lä)/küll and the word order of negative clauses This paper looks comparatively at the Finnish kyl(lä) and Estonian küll, which function as an epistemic adverb and a particle in both languages, and have a common origin in the noun ‘abundance’. Even though the word is mostly used to formulate positive answers, it also occurs...
Article
Full-text available
Conversation analysis has established that the smooth progression of interaction and the accomplishment of action rest on joint understanding, which is implicitly built by a next turn of talk. In this article we examine explicit claims to intersubjective understanding from a range of settings from the institutional to the mundane. Our target expres...
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper looks at the correlation of vocal and bodily behavior in the multilay-ered activity of dance teaching, as teachers explain and perform simultaneously. The aim is to show how talk is adjusted to the rhythm and character of the dance on the one hand, and how dance is fitted into the evolving grammar on the other. The study demonstrates the...
Article
Full-text available
This paper studies the Estonian three-way phonological quantity distinction by second-generation Swedish Estonians. Production of the three phonological quantities has been measured in informal interviews with four speakers, all active members of the Estonian exile community. Comparisons with native Estonians show that three of the four Swedish Est...
Article
Full-text available
The study focuses on turns in interaction that involve a bodily-vocal demonstration: an embodied demonstration that is accompanied by a non-lexical vocalization. It shows how the temporal organization of these demonstrations contributes to participant treatment of them as a part of a turn-constructional unit, mostly as its completion. It is also su...
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper looks at how immaterial objects are manipulated into being for pedagogical purposes. Dance teachers employ objects to visualize subtle tactile and kinaesthetic experiences. The objects emerge in a situated manner within activity metaphors where alternative bodily activities are juxtaposed with the dance movement, taking for granted that...
Chapter
Full-text available
Article
Full-text available
Initiating actions, such as the introduction of a topic or the initiation of a sequence in a conversation, are social accomplishments. The study focuses on the Estonian no(h)-preface in turns that initiate action sequences and often also a locally new topic in a human encounter. It argues that these no(h)-prefaced turns accomplish continuity beyond...
Article
Full-text available
The article shows how a bound morpheme, the enclitic -gi/-ki in Estonian, functions in the domain of interpersonal relations and mutual knowledge calibration in conversation. Speakers use the enclitic with verbs in order to adjust some assumption previously held by themselves or by their interlocutors. When formulating contributions in talk, partic...
Chapter
Full-text available
Introduction There is a disparity between expressing what we know and what we don't know in interaction. Participants regularly convey what they know implicitly by stating, telling, assessing, etc. In contrast, what they don't know is typically claimed outright. However, there are sequential environments in conversation where knowledge displays are...
Chapter
Full-text available
Some interrogative subject and object complement clauses are not treated as subordinate in Estonian interaction. ey are interactionally proled, as participants answer them as questions. Grammatically, they behave like independent clauses, displaying inversion and the turn-nal question particle vä/ve. e main clauses considered in the chapter, ütle/ö...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the phenomenon that pro-adverbs of manner are cross-linguistically used to mark transitions from one activity to another. In Estonian, the pro-adverb nii is used for this purpose. Among Estonian refugees in Sweden, an activity transition is frequently marked with soo . Both nii and soo originally had the same semantic meaning ‘l...
Article
Artikkel käsitleb lauseid, mis algavad hinnangusõnaga ja mida on traditsiooniliselt käsitletud aluslauseliste tarinditena. Võttes arvesse morfosüntaktilisi, semantilisi, järjendilisi ja intonatsioonilisi piiranguid, argumenteeritakse, et pigem tuleks tarindit analüüsida kui kommentaari ja lause kombinatsiooni. Kommentaar sisaldab hinnangusõna või -...
Article
Full-text available
Social constructionist approaches underscore that identity is constantly negotiated. It emerges as values and attitudes are promoted and confronted in everyday actions, behavioral patterns and fleeting comments by participants in social events. This article analyzes membership categorization and pragmatic code-switching in the Swedish Estonian refu...
Article
Full-text available
In conversation analytic and interactional studies, some responses are analyzed as being minimal.This article explores minimality in regard to two types of answers that appear to be used interchangeably as minimal responses to yes/no questions in Estonian. The answers represent typologically different formats, particles and echo answers (verb repea...
Article
Full-text available
This article studies a practice of marking transitions to a next activity in Estonian interaction. The particle nii is implemented at boundaries between activities or phases of activities, showing that a pragmatic particle need not be implemented only in regard to verbal matters, such as topic or turn sequence. Nii marks the prior activity or its p...
Article
Full-text available
Reduplication has been shown to carry the semantic meaning of increased intensity, duration or emphasis. This study demonstrates that syntactic reduplication in Estonian is regularly used in responsive positions in action sequences. Instances of syntactic reduplication constitute specific social practices such as affiliative and disaffiliative urgi...
Article
Full-text available
The paper shows how four combinations of 1(st) person pronoun + epistemic verb emerge as adverbs in contemporary spoken Estonian, arguing that word classes have fuzzy boundaries. Excerpts from naturally occurring conversations demonstrate how ma tean 'I know', ma usun 'I believe', ma arvan 'I think', and mai tea 'I don't know' are used in varying p...
Chapter
Full-text available
Fillers are used to delay the next due unit in talk. The study argues that there may be interpersonal advantages in the delay of key items in turns, such as easing the processing for the recipient, announcing structural boundaries in conversation, and displaying orientation to the sensitiveness of the action. The subject matter of the paper is the...
Article
Full-text available
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Chapter
Full-text available
The study of clause combining has been advanced lately by increasing interest in the study of actual language use in a typologically diverse set of languages. A number of received understandings have been challenged, among these the idea of clause combinations as being divisible into subordination and coordination in a binary fashion. Connected to...
Article
Full-text available
In contemporary informal Estonian, the negative verb form ei tea ‘don't know’ has become a routinized part of generic questions, in which the agent is left unexpressed. This pattern is in accordance with the general impersonal and reference-avoiding style of conversing in Estonia. The study outlines a continuum of synchronic usages from the origina...
Article
Full-text available
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Chapter
Full-text available
Article
Full-text available
This article gives an overview of the Estonian usage of pronouns and verb endings as address forms in the case of a single addressee. At present, competence in Estonian involves the ability to use two options: singular and plural. They mainly indicate the degree of social distance and situational formality but there is much variation in the usage s...

Network

Cited By

Projects

Project (1)
Project
Understanding how humans interpret non-lexical robot sounds in real world interaction in their homes and improving design for situated contexts. This work is part of the non-lexical vocalisations project (https://nonlexicalvocalizations.com).