Lee Taylor

Lee Taylor
Loughborough University | Lough · School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences

PhD

About

156
Publications
64,018
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Introduction
BASES and ESSA Accredited Sport and Exercise Scientist. FACSM, FECSS and FHEA. Evidence-informed elite practitioner/researcher and consultant to World Champion athletes and elite teams. Ongoing collaborative multi-site inter-disciplinary research endeavors across five continents, including elite international teams and clinically orientated projects, with associated global academic and private sector research management experience.

Publications

Publications (156)
Article
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Purpose: To characterize player core temperature (Tc) across a World Rugby Women's Sevens Series tournament day (WRWSS) and determine the efficacy of commonly employed cold-water-immersion (CWI) protocols. Methods: Tc was measured in 12 elite female rugby sevens athletes across 3 games (G1-3) from day 1 of the Sydney WRWSS tournament. Symptoms o...
Article
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Purpose:: Determine how a cooling vest worn during a warm-up could influence selected performance [counter movement jump (CMJ)], physical (GPS metrics) and psycho-physiological (body temperature and perceptual) variables. Methods:: In a randomized crossover design, twelve elite male World Rugby Sevens Series athletes completed an outdoor (WBGT:...
Article
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Purpose: To characterize player core temperature (Tc) across two separate World Rugby Sevens Series (WRSS) tournaments in temperate and warm environments. Methods: Tc was collected in seventeen playing members of one men's team competing at the Singapore (n = 12) and London (n = 11) WRSS tournaments. Exertional heat illness (EHI) symptoms, cooli...
Article
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Models of endurance performance now recognise input from the brain, including an athlete’s ability to cope with various non-pleasurable perceptions during exercise, such as pain and temperature. Exercise training can reduce perceptions of both pain and temperature over time, partly explaining why athletes generally have a higher pain tolerance, des...
Article
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Ramadan intermittent fasting during the COVID-19 lockdown (RIFL) may present unique demands. We investigated training practices (i.e., training load and training times) of athletes, using pre-defined survey criteria/questions, during the ‘first’ COVID-19 lockdown, comparing RIFL to lockdown-alone (LD) in Muslim athletes. Specifically, a within-subj...
Article
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Purpose: To investigate differences in athletes' knowledge, beliefs, and training practices during COVID-19 lockdowns with reference to sport classification and sex. This work extends an initial descriptive evaluation focusing on athlete classification. Methods: Athletes (12,526; 66% male; 142 countries) completed an online survey (May-July 2020...
Article
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Objective Disrupted sleep and training behaviors in athletes have been reported during the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed at investigating the combined effects of Ramadan observance and COVID-19 related lockdown in Muslim athletes. Methods From an international sample of athletes ( n = 3,911), 1,681 Muslim athletes (from 44 countries; 25.1 ± 8.7 year...
Article
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Objective: Disrupted sleep and training behaviors in athletes have been reported during the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed at investigating the combined effects of Ramadan observance and COVID-19 related lockdown in Muslim athletes. Methods: From an international sample of athletes (n = 3,911), 1,681 Muslim athletes (from 44 countries; 25.1 ± 8.7 yea...
Article
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Objective: To investigate the effect of 1) lockdown duration and 2) training intensity on sleep quality and insomnia symptoms in elite athletes. Methods: 1,454 elite athletes (24.1 ± 6.7 years; 42% female; 41% individual sports) from 40 countries answered a retrospective, cross-sectional, web-based questionnaire relating to their behavioral habits...
Article
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Objective In a convenience sample of athletes, we conducted a survey of COVID-19-mediated lockdown (termed ‘lockdown’ from this point forward) effects on: (i) circadian rhythms; (ii) sleep; (iii) eating; and (iv) training behaviors. Methods In total, 3911 athletes [mean age: 25.1 (range 18–61) years, 1764 female (45%), 2427 team-sport (63%) and 14...
Article
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Objectives: Explore training-related knowledge, beliefs and practices of athletes and the influence of COVID-19-related lockdowns. Methods: Athletes [n = 12,526 classified: world-class (13%), international (21%), national (36%), state (24%), and recreational (6%)] completed an online survey (50 d; 17th May to 5th July 2020) exploring their trainin...
Article
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Purpose: To survey elite athletes and practitioners to identify (1) knowledge and application of heat acclimation/acclimatization (HA) interventions, (2) barriers to HA application, and (3) nutritional practices supporting HA. Methods: Elite athletes (n = 55) and practitioners (n = 99) completed an online survey. Mann-Whitney U tests (effect siz...
Article
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Purpose: To describe the physiological (resting core temperature, exercising heart rate, and sweat rate) and psychophysical (rating of perceived exertion, thermal sensation, and thermal comfort) responses to a short-term heat acclimatization (HA) training camp in elite female rugby sevens athletes. Methods: Nineteen professional female rugby sev...
Article
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Purpose To determine associations between thermal responses, medical events, performance, heat acclimation and health status during a World Athletics Championships in hot-humid conditions. Methods From 305 marathon and race-walk starters, 83 completed a preparticipation questionnaire on health and acclimation. Core (T core ; ingestible pill) and s...
Article
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Capillary dried blood spot (DBS) samples facilitate field-based collection without venipuncture. This pilot study aims to evaluate the viability of creatine (Cr) and creatinine (Crt) quantification using fresh capillary serum (CrS/CrtS) and DBS samples (CrDBS/CrtDBS), using Flow Injection Analysis Mass Spectrometry (FIA – MS). Nine Olympic Athletes...
Article
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The precise mechanistic action of acetaminophen (ACT; paracetamol) remains debated. ACT's analgesic and antipyretic actions are attributed to cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition preventing prostaglandin (PG) synthesis. Two COX isoforms (COX1/2) share 60% sequence structure, yet their functions vary. COX variants have been sequenced among various mammal...
Article
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Purpose: To survey soccer practitioners' recovery strategy: (1) use, (2) perceived effectiveness, and (3) factors influencing their implementation in professional soccer. Methods: A cross-sectional convenience sample of professional soccer club/confederation practitioners completed a web-based survey (April to July 2020). Pearson chi-square and...
Article
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Purpose: To determine the effect of wearing a phase-change cooling vest in elite female rugby sevens athletes during (1) a simulated match-day warm-up in hot conditions prior to a training session and (2) a prematch warm-up during a tournament in cool conditions. Methods: This study consisted of 2 randomized independent group designs (separated...
Article
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Athletes physically overload to improve performance. Unbalanced stress/recovery may induce over-training, which is difficult to diagnosis as no diagnostic marker exists. Hormonal responses to a 55/80 cycle (30-min of alternating blocks of 1-min at 55% and 4-min at 80% maximum work rate) may highlight early-stage overtraining (overreaching), as blun...
Book
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This second edition of Qatar National Physical Activity Guidelines is written as a practical guideline reference and not necessarily as a scientific resource. It outlines the most updated knowledge and best practices regarding physical activity as it relates to health. The intention of this content is to be an immediate and easy resource of informa...
Article
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Whether cyclooxygenase (COX)/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) thermoregulatory pathways, observed in rodents, present in humans? Participants (n = 9) were exposed to three environments; cold (20 °C), thermoneutral (30 °C) and hot (40 °C) for 120 min. Core (Tc)/skin temperature and thermal perception were recorded every 15 min, with COX/PGE2 concentrations d...
Article
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Purpose: To determine whether elite female rugby sevens players are exposed to core temperatures (Tc) during training in the heat that replicate the temperate match demands previously reported and to investigate whether additional clothing worn during a hot training session meaningfully increases the heat load experienced. Methods: A randomized...
Article
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Purpose To characterise hydration, cooling, body mass loss, and core (T core ) and skin (T sk ) temperatures during World Athletics Championships in hot-humid conditions. Methods Marathon and race-walk (20 km and 50 km) athletes (n=83, 36 women) completed a pre-race questionnaire. Pre-race and post-race body weight (n=74), T core (n=56) and T sk (...
Article
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Purpose: Physical overexertion can lead to detrimental overreaching states without sufficient recovery, which may be identifiable by blunted exercise-induced cortisol and testosterone responses. A running test (RPETP) elicits reproducible plasma cortisol and testosterone elevations (in a healthy state) and may detect blunted hormonal responses in...
Article
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Purpose: To compare the effects of consuming a 16% maltodextrin+fructose+pectin alginate (MAL+FRU+PEC+ALG) drink against a nutrient matched maltodextrin-fructose (MAL+FRU) drink on enterocyte damage and gastrointestinal permeability after cycling in hot and humid conditions. Methods: Fourteen recreational cyclists (7 men) completed three experim...
Article
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Hot-water immersion following exercise in a temperate environment can elicit heat acclimation in endurance-trained individuals. However, a delay between exercise cessation and immersion is likely a common occurrence in practice. Precisely how such a delay potentially alters hot-water immersion mediated acute physiological responses (e.g., total hea...
Article
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Background: Cultural, environmental and logistical factors promote a sedentary lifestyle within Qatar, particularly for females. Sedentary behaviour is acutely associated with poor cognitive function and fatigue, and chronically may be implicated with cognitive decline (i.e. Alzheimer's disease). Purpose: To examine the effects of breaking up si...
Article
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Background: Cultural, environmental and logistical factors challenge the Qatari population, particularly females, to engage in physical activity, and there is a high prevalence of diabetes in this population. Sedentary behavior is associated with increased cardiometabolic disease risk and early mortality and breaking up sitting can attenuate postpr...
Article
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Purpose: Progressively overloading the body to improve physical performance may lead to detrimental states of overreaching/ overtraining syndrome. Blunted cycling-induced cortisol and testosterone concentrations have been suggested to indicate overreaching after intensified training periods. However, a running-based protocol is yet to be developed...
Article
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Objective Insufficient sleep duration and quality has negative effects on athletic performance, injury susceptibility and athlete development. This study aimed to assess the sleep characteristics of professional Qatar Stars League (QSL) soccer players. Methods In a cross-sectional study, QSL players (n=111; 23.7±4.8 years) completed three question...
Article
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Player readiness can affect the ability to perform and tolerate prescribed training load (TL); therefore, in a time-efficient and practice compatible manner, practitioners need objective evidence to inform readiness to train. Six male professional footballers (mean ± standard deviation [SD]; 26 ± 2 years, 79.0 ± 4.9 kg, 1.82 ± 0.05 m) participated....
Article
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Introduction: Long-haul transmeridian travel is known to cause disruptions to sleep and immune status, which may increase the risk of illness. Aim: This study aimed to determine the effects of long-haul northeast travel for competition on sleep, illness and preparedness in endurance athletes. Methods: Twelve trained (13.8 ± 3.2 training h/week) mas...
Article
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To determine the effect of carbohydrate mouth rinsing (CHO-MR) on physical and cognitive performance during repeated-sprints (RS) after 3 days of intermittent fasting (abstaining from food and fluid 14 h per day). In a randomized and counter-balanced manner 15 active healthy males in a fasted state performed a RS-protocol [RSP; 2 sets (SET1 and SET...
Article
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This investigation examined the effects of three pre-match and half-time cooling manoeuvres on physical performance and associated physiological and perceptual responses in eight University soccer players during a non-motorised treadmill based individualised soccer-specific simulation [intermittent soccer performance test (iSPT)] at 30°C. Four rand...
Article
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This investigation assessed performance, physiological and perceptual responses to wearing additional clothing during endurance training for two-weeks in temperate environments, to determine if this approach could be used as a practical, alternative, heat acclimation strategy for athletes. Fifteen trained male triathletes assigned to performance-ma...
Article
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To examine the reproducibility of three measurement techniques used to determine creatine kinase, interleukin-6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, 50 participants had blood samples taken on two occasions. Fingertip plasma samples were analysed using the Reflotron for CK determination. Venous blood samples collected into serum separator tubes...
Article
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Currently, very little is known about the impact of short- or long-haul air travel on the sleep and wellbeing of wheelchair basketball athletes. Eleven national wheelchair basketball athletes wore actigraphy monitors prior, during, and after air travel to the United Kingdom. Upon arrival, participants rated their subjective jet-lag, fatigue, and vi...
Article
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The purpose was to examine the utility of subjective and objective measures of player preparedness, interpreted at both a group and individual level, during two consecutive competitions of the World Rugby Sevens Series (WRSS). Subjective (sleep, energy and muscle soreness ratings) and objective [heart rate (HR) at rest (HRREST) and in response to s...
Article
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The present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the perturbations in hormonal and psychological homeostasis in response to soccer match-play. These perturbations were explored according to match outcome (i.e., win versus loss), gender, type of contest (i.e., competitive versus non-competitive fixtures) and competitive level (i.e., n...
Article
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This investigation assessed the acute physiological and perceptual responses to wearing additional clothing during outdoor cycling to determine if this strategy could increase the heat load while training in temperate environments. Seven male cyclists (age: 32 ± 13 y, height: 179 ± 10 cm, body mass: 74 ± 10 kg, body fat percentage: 10.3 ± 1.0%) com...
Data
Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) checklist [22]. (DOC)
Article
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To prepare for extremes of heat, cold or low partial pressures of oxygen (O2), humans can undertake a period of acclimation or acclimatization to induce environment-specific adaptations, e.g. heat acclimation (HA), cold acclimation (CA), or altitude training. While these strategies are effective, they are not always feasible due to logistical impra...
Article
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Background Acetaminophen is an over-the-counter drug used to treat pain and fever, but it has also been shown to reduce core temperature (Tc) in the absence of fever. However, this side effect is not well examined in humans, and it is unknown if the hypothermic response to acetaminophen is exacerbated with cold exposure. Objective To address this q...
Article
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Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is valid technique which elicits reductions in femoral blood flow occlusion mediated reperfusion stress [oxidative stress, Hsp gene transcripts] within the systemic blood circulation and/or skeletal muscle. It is unknown whether systemic hypoxia, evoked by hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) has efficacy in priming the heat...
Article
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The leukocyte heat shock response (HSR) is used to determine individual’s thermotolerance. The HSR and thermotolerance are enhanced following interventions such as preconditioning and/or acclimation/acclimatisation. However, it is unclear whether the leukocyte HSR is an appropriate surrogate for the HSR in other tissues implicated within the pathop...
Article
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The purpose was to assess sleep patterns, quantity and quality in adolescent (16.2 ± 1.2 yr) Middle Eastern academy soccer players (n = 20) and the influence of an intermission upon these characteristics. On a 17-day training camp (located one time zone west of home) including three discrete matches, sleep was assessed pre- (PRE) and post-match (PO...
Poster
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Sub-optimal sleep durations relative to the National Sleep Foundations (NSF) guidelines of 8-10 h per night are seen in adolescents globally, with the Middle East region having specific lifestyle, environmental and cultural nuances which exacerbate these deficiencies. These deficiencies are due to general and athlete specific negotiable (eg pre-bed...
Article
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It is well established that endurance performance is negatively affected by environmental heat stress due to a complex interaction of physical, physiological and psychological alterations. Numerous scientific investigations have attempted to improve performance in the heat with pre-cooling (cooling prior to an exercise test), and as such this has b...
Article
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Probiotic and glutamine supplementation increases tissue Hsp72, but their influence on extracellular Hsp72 (eHsp72) has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic probiotic supplementation, with or without glutamine, on eHsp72 concentration before and after an ultramarathon. Thirty-two participants were sp...