Lee Smith

Lee Smith
Anglia Ruskin University | ARU · Department of Life Sciences

BSc, MSc, PhD

About

757
Publications
152,049
Reads
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14,132
Citations
Citations since 2016
725 Research Items
14029 Citations
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Introduction
Prof Lee Smith is Professor of Public Health at Anglia Ruskin University.
Additional affiliations
October 2013 - May 2016
University College London
Position
  • Research Associate

Publications

Publications (757)
Article
Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) events have been reported after vaccination with adenoviral COVID-19 vector vaccines. This study aimed to compare the clinical presentations and courses of vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) between the two adenoviral vector vaccines, Ad26.COV.2.S (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson) and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Astr...
Article
Aim Malnutrition is a major public health issue that has been associated with high susceptibility for impaired brain development and mental functioning. However, to date studies on this topic have not been collated and appraised. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the association between malnutrition and cognitive development. M...
Article
Background There is currently limited literature on the association between visual impairment and suicidal thoughts and behaviours, especially among older adults from low/middle-income countries (LMICs). Thus, we aimed to investigate the associations of objectively measured distance visual impairment with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts amon...
Article
We identified the following hepatobiliary ADRs that are potentially associated with remdesivir: serum ALT, AST, ammonia and bilirubin elevations, and acute hepatic failure after adjustment, which was not evident in previous RCTs. While hepatic failure and ischemic hepatitis were more frequently associated with remdesivir use, their prevalence rates...
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Background To examine the association between self‐reported food insecurity and depression in 34,129 individuals aged ≥50 years from six low‐ and middle‐income countries (LMICs) (China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa). Methods Cross‐sectional, community‐based, nationally representative data from the WHO Study on global AGEing and a...
Book
This book provides a comprehensive overview for those interested in research and promoting sexual health in older people, as well as a “go-to” guide on the topic of sexual behaviour in older adults. Sexual activity is an essential part of intimate relationships, though it tends to decline in frequency as people grow older. Nevertheless, for many o...
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Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is commonly regarded as an infection typical of children, but increasing literature is showing its importance in older people. Since the data regarding the impact of RSV are still limited for older people, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to compare the rate of hospitalization and mortality be...
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Background Prior research has solely focused on the association between handgrip strength and risk of depression in single countries or general populations, but more knowledge is required from wider-spread cohorts and target populations. Aims This study aimed to investigate the association between handgrip strength and risk of depression using rep...
Article
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Delta variant (B.1.617.2) was the predominant variant behind the surges of COVID-19 in the United States, Europe, and India in the second half of 2021. The information available regarding the defining mutations and their effects on the structure, transmission, and vaccine efficacy of...
Article
Background Multi-national studies in the association between handgrip strength and depression in middle and older aged adults are limited. Hence, Brazil, China, Europe, Korea, United Kingdom (UK) and United States (US) datasets were utilized to investigate this association. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 51,285 participants age...
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The long-term consequences of the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) are likely to be frequent but results hitherto are inconclusive. Therefore, we aimed to define the incidence of long-term COVID signs and symptoms as defined by the World Health Organization, using a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. A systematic search...
Article
Background: The recently emerged novel coronavirus, "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)", caused a highly contagious disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It has severely damaged the world's most developed countries and has turned into a major threat for low- and middle-income countries. Since its emergence...
Article
Background The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate associations between depression and anxiety disorder and the risk of COVID-19 severity and mortality in patients treated in large hospitals in Germany. Methods This retrospective study was based on anonymized electronic medical data from 50 public healthcare service hospitals...
Article
Background: Dementia has been identified as a major predictor of mortality associated with COVID-19. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between dementia and mortality in COVID-19 inpatients in Germany across a longer interval during the pandemic. Methods: This retrospective study was based on anonymized d...
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Background: To date, no large study has examined the relationship between psoriasis and dementia in Germany. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the association between psoriasis and the risk of all-cause dementia in patients followed in general practices in Germany. Methods: This retrospective cohort study is based on longitudinal data...
Article
Objective: The longitudinal trajectories of cardiac structure and function following SARS-CoV-2 infection are unclear. Therefore, this meta-analysis aims to elucidate the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on cardiac function in COVID-19 survivors after recovery. Methods: PubMed/MEDLINE, CENTRAL, and EMBASE were systematically searched for articles...
Article
Background: Multiracial individuals appear to be at higher risk for mental health problems; however, more research is needed to confirm these racial disparities among young adult college populations. Methods: We analyzed data from the Health Minds Study (N = 99728 young adult college students aged 18–34), collected online across 140 college campuse...
Article
Objective Dietary quality and patterns may influence SARS-CoV-2 infection and outcomes, but scientific data and evidence to support such a role are lacking. Therefore, this meta-analysis aims to elucidate the effect of pre-pandemic diet quality on the risk of COVID-19 infection and hospitalization. Methods PubMed/MEDLINE, CENTRAL, Scopus, and EMBA...
Preprint
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease, and numerous recent findings suggest that several pathologic signs, including loss of muscle strength and mass, are also detected in these patients. In the present study, we evaluated muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), myonuclear number, satellite cell (SC) content, and myosin h...
Article
Background The main aim of this study was to compare older patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) to those with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) according to their dependency in daily living activities and comprehensive geriatric assessment parameters. Method A total of 227 AD and 123 DLB patients underwent a geriatric assessment that included como...
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Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a common condition, associated with a high rate of disability and poor quality of life. Despite the importance of such evidence in public health, no umbrella review (i.e., a review of other systematic reviews and meta-analyses) has systematically assessed evidence on association between knee OA and adverse hea...
Article
2020–2021 Healthy Minds Study, and used multivariable logistic regression to examine the associations between sexual minority status and psychotic experiences, adjusting for age, gender, and race/ethnicity. We then tested whether psychosocial factors accounted for the association. Sexual minority status was associated with 1.87 times greater odds o...
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Objectives The relationship between consuming ≥2 servings of fruits and ≥3 servings of vegetables a day, which has been identified as optimal for health (i.e., adequate fruit/vegetable consumption), and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is largely unknown. Therefore, using data from six LMICs, we investiga...
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This cross-sectional study investigates sales of over-the-counter iodine-containing drugs in 20 European countries between January 2021 and March 2022.
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Background Centenarians often represent one of the best examples of aging successfully. However, the role of body composition or hydration status assessed with bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is poorly explored in this population. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to better understand the use and the role of BIA for evaluating...
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Aims: Methodological rigour enhances reproducibility in preclinical studies and translation from preclinical to clinical studies. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and the trends of essential study design elements in preclinical urological studies, as well as key factors which may improve methodological rigour. Methods and Results: PubMed data...
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Purpose To assess the relationship between particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) levels and the prevalence of excess weight in a representative sample of Spanish young people aged 2─14 years. Methods This was an ecological cross-sectional study using data from the 2017 wave of the Spanish National Health Survey (SNHS), a nationally representative survey...
Article
The present study aimed to investigate the association between asthma and work absence in a large sample of US working adults, while controlling for several sociodemographic and health characteristics. This study used data from the 2019 Health and Functional Capacity Survey of the RAND American Life Panel (ALP). Work absence corresponded to the num...
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In low-income countries tetanus is a major public health concern owing to a low immunization coverage and unclean birth practices. Although it is a vaccine-preventable disease, tetanus can be contracted across the life course. The disease is prevalent and harmful in newborn babies and their mothers when the mothers` are unvaccinated against tetanus...
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Purpose Little is known about the impact of osteoarthritis on the long-term work participation of working-age adults. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and the factors associated with long-term sick leave in people newly diagnosed with osteoarthritis from Germany. Methods This retrospective cohort study include...
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Aim The aim of the present study is to determine target hemoglobin (Hgb) values in older females and males with chronic kidney disease (CKD) according to best performance in mood, gait and balance, muscle strength and activities of daily living, which are important parameters of geriatric assessment. Method Patients’ age, gender, education level,...
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Purpose Food insecurity and multimoribidity (i.e., ≥ 2 chronic conditions) may be linked bidirectionally, but there are no studies on this topic from LMICs. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the association between food insecurity and physical multimorbidity in a large representative sample of older adults from six LMICs. Meth...
Article
Background Little is known on the longitudinal relationship between adhesive capsulitis and depression. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between adhesive capsulitis and the five-year cumulative incidence of depression in adults from Germany. Methods The present retrospective cohort study included all adults aged...
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The most effective method of limiting the coronavirus disease pandemic of 2019 (COVID-19) is vaccination. For the determination of the comparative efficacy and safety of COVID-19 vaccines and their platforms during the pre-Delta era, a systematic review and network meta-analysis was conducted. The MEDLINE, Embase, and MedRxiv databases were searche...
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Background Sarcopenia has been associated with a lower quality of life (QoL). However, studies on this association from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are scarce. Aims To examine the association between sarcopenia and QoL, in a large nationally representative sample of older adults from six LMICs. Methods Cross-sectional, community-base...
Article
Background Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a common autoimmune dermatological condition that is often under-diagnosed in women and has been documented to affect quality of life and sexual function. Aim To determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction among women with vulvar lichen sclerosus. Methods The authors conducted a systematic review and meta-anal...
Article
Sexual health among male cancer survivors is becoming an increasingly important aspect of health care as the number of survivors increases. Here the authors analyse the impact of cancer treatment and cancer types on the prevalence of erectile dysfunction among these men.
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Objectives The burden of neurological disorders is increasing worldwide, including Asia. The purpose of this study was to determine the burden of neurological disorders between 1990 and 2019 in Asia using the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Sociodemographic Index. Design, setting, outcome and participants The GBD Study is updated every year and the...
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Purpose Informal caregivers may be at high risk for psychotic experiences (PE) due to caregiving related stress, sleep issues, or other potential mechanisms, but this has not been previously investigated in the general adult population. Thus, we examined the association between caregiving and PE, and its mediators, in a large sample of adults from...
Article
Social participation may theoretically decrease risk for mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, to date, no study has specifically investigated the association between social participation and MCI in LMICs, while the mediating role of loneliness is unknown. Thus, we investigated this association in a sample of adults aged ≥50 years from six low-...
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To date, there is no study addressing the time-varying confounding bias in the association of handgrip strength (HGS) with all-cause or cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, we conducted marginal structural models (MSM) to provide causal estimations on the associations of HGS with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in a representative sample of...
Article
Background: Food insecurity is prevalent among college students in the United States and has been associated with substance use. We sought to provide updated prevalence estimates and associations between food insecurity and a broad range of substances during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Methods: Using cross-sectional data from the Health Minds Study...
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Objective Sleep disorders including excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), insomnia and anemia are both common. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between anemia and insomnia/EDS in the elderly. Methods A total of 744 older outpatients were included in this cross-sectional study. Anemia was defined as a hemoglobin concentration belo...
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Background Geriatric syndromes are complex clinical manifestations and significant causes of mortality and morbidity. This study was aimed to determine the frequency and co-incidence of geriatric syndromes in older patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).Methods Older patients were included in this cross-sectional retrospective study. All patien...
Preprint
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Objective: To provide a comparative systematic review and meta-analysis of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance rates in African countries and their predictors. Methods: Fifteen studies on COVID-19 vaccine acceptance rate s in African countries were reviewed in the Medline database via PubMed. Meta-analysis investigated the summary effect and inter-study he...
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Background Cannabis legalization and use have risen globally. However, the association between cannabis use, eating behaviors and body weight among adolescents is yet unexplored. Objectives This study examined the association between cannabis use, fast-food consumption, overweight and obesity in 28 countries using data from the 2010–2016 Global Sc...
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Introduction: Although the understanding of several aspects of long COVID-19 syndrome is increasing, there is limited literature regarding the treatment of these signs and symptoms. The aim of our systematic review was to understand which therapies have proved effective against the symptoms of long COVID-19. Methods: A systematic search for rand...
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There is a small body of evidence suggesting that unclean cooking fuel use may be associated with cognitive decline. However, to date, no study has investigated the association between unclean cooking fuel and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Thus, we investigated the association between cooking fuel type or ventilation type and MCI among adults ag...
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Background Acrylamide, a component of fried foods, has been associated with several negative health outcomes. However, the relationship between dietary acrylamide and osteoporotic fractures has been explored by a few cross-sectional studies. Aims To investigate if dietary acrylamide is associated with the onset of fractures in North American parti...
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Recently, numerous cases of monkeypox were reported from several non-endemic countries in Europe, North America, and Oceania, suggesting an unusual and alarming public health issue, particularly considering that the disease is not directly related to human or animal travels. Attention is currently being drawn to this phenomenon since more than 70%...
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The aim of this study was to examine the association between a comprehensive spectrum of physical fitness components and disordered eating symptoms in a sample of Spanish adolescents. This cross-sectional study analysed a representative sample of 741 adolescents (55.1% girls) from the Eating Healthy and Daily Life Activities (EHDLA) study (Valle de...
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The sheer volume of research publications on physical activity, mental health, and well-being is overwhelming. The aim of this study was to perform a broad-ranging scientometric analysis to evaluate key themes and trends over the past decades, informing future lines of research. We searched Web of Science Core Collection from inception until Decemb...
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Background This study describes the global epidemiology and trends associated with neck pain. Global Burden of Disease data collected between 1990 and 2019 were used to determine the global burden of neck pain in the general populations of 204 countries. Methods Global, regional, and national burdens of neck pain determined by prevalence, incidence...
Article
Purpose (1) To identify if adults with uncorrectable sight loss would increase their physical activity (PA) following advice from general healthcare, eyecare or sight loss service professionals. (2) To identify what resources could be provided alongside advice from a professional to facilitate PA. Materials and methods Survey data from 100 UK adul...
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It is known that the etiology and clinical outcomes of autoimmune diseases are associated with a combination of genetic and environmental factors. In the case of the genetic factor, the SNPs of the PTPN22 gene have shown strong associations with several diseases. The recent exploding numbers of genetic studies have made it possible to find these as...
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This study including older adults from Ireland aimed to analyze the prospective association between multimorbidity and falls and to identify the mediators in this relationship. The present study used data from two consecutive waves of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) survey. Multimorbidity was assessed at Wave 1 (2009–2011) and was de...
Article
Objectives Social frailty is a common condition in older people, but its consequences are largely unknown. Therefore, in this longitudinal analysis, we aimed to investigate the association between social frailty and risk of all-cause mortality in a large sample of older people. Design Longitudinal, cohort. Settings and participants Older people p...
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The aim of this study was to examine whether breakfast status, place and habits are associated with psychosocial behavioural problems in a nationally representative sample of young people aged 4 to 14 years residing in Spain. This study analysed secondary data from the Spanish National Health Survey (2017), including 3772 Spanish children and adole...
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Objective: Viral infections may increase the risk of developing type 1 diabetes (T1D), and recent reports suggest that Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) might have increased incidence of pediatric T1D and/or diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Therefore, this meta-analysis aims to estimate the risk of global pediatric new-onset T1D, DKA, and severe DKA...
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Background Homelessness has been associated with multiple detrimental health outcomes across observational studies. However, relatively few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been conducted on people who experience homelessness (PEH). Thus, this umbrella review ranked the credibility of evidence derived from systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-...
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We performed an umbrella review on environmental risk/protective factors and biomarkers for postpartum depressive symptoms to establish a hierarchy of evidence. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception until 12 January 2021. We included systematic reviews providing meta-analyses relat...
Article
People with depression and subjective cognitive complaints (SCC) may be at particularly high risk for developing dementia. However, to date, studies on depression and SCC are limited mainly to single high-income countries. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between depression and SCC in adults from low- and middle...
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Background Little is known about the epidemiology of post-coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) condition (PCC) in primary care practices. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of and the factors associated with PCC in the 12 months following the diagnosis of COVID-19 in patients followed in general practices in Germany. Methods...
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Background Sleep duration may influence risk for sarcopenia but studies on this topic are scarce, especially from low and- middle-income countries (LMICs). Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between sleep duration and sarcopenia among adults aged ≥ 65 years from five LMICs (China, Ghana, India, Russia, South Afric...
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Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) substantially contributes to the burden of mental disorders. Improved awareness and changes in diagnostic criteria of ASD may have influenced the diagnostic rates of ASD. However, while data on trends in diagnostic rates in some individual countries have been published, updated estimates of diagnostic rate trends and...
Article
Background Physical multimorbidity (i.e., ≥2 chronic conditions) may induce feelings of wish to die (WTD), but there is limited literature on this topic, while the mediators in this association are largely unknown. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate this association and its mediators among older Irish adults. Methods Cross-secti...
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Background Interest in physical and mental health outcomes in caregivers of patients with dementia is increasing. However, there is limited data available on the prevalence of suicidal ideation, suicidal attempts, and suicide rates among caregivers of those with dementia. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review these outcomes to address this g...