Lee-Fong Siow

Lee-Fong Siow
Monash University (Malaysia) · School of Science

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52
Publications
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Publications

Publications (52)
Article
Mango kernel fat (MKF) that is high in monounsaturated triacylglycerols is a potential cocoa butter alternative. This study aims to investigate the yield and physicochemical properties of Dragon variety (Mangifera indica L.) MKF extracted by supercritical carbon‐dioxide and Soxhlet. The fatty acid constituent, triacylglycerol constituent, melting a...
Article
The increasing consumer awareness of healthier food choices with low calories and high fiber content has driven the development of sucrose-free dark compound chocolate enriched with dietary fiber. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of adding dietary fiber-low digestible carbohydrate (LDC) polymer on the moisture sorption behavior a...
Article
The effect of alkaline extraction/isoelectric precipitation and salt extraction/micellization on proximate composition, anti-nutritional content, amino acid composition and physicochemical properties of Moringa oleifera protein isolates were studied. Protein extractability was influenced by NaCl concentration, pH and temperature. The protein concen...
Article
Full-text available
The present work investigated the interaction between soy lecithin (SL), glyceryl monostearate (GMS), and water in structuring palm olein (PO) to create an organogel having similar mechanical properties to commercial spread. Extreme vertices mixture design was used to optimize the composition of PO-based organogel. The resulting model showed a good...
Article
Furfural is a versatile platform chemical that can be employed to produce green fuel and chemical intermediates. In this study, oil palm fronds were first subjected to ultrasonic pretreatment using an ultrasonic probe in water, which was followed by reaction in an aqueous choline chloride-oxalic acid (16.4 wt% H2O) deep eutectic solvent. The focus...
Article
The sucrose-free dark chocolate development is receiving attention due to increasing market demand for foods with reduced sugar. This study aimed to determine the physical and sensory properties, and the storage stability of sucrose-free dark compound chocolate by replacing the sucrose with inulin, Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), trehalose, or malto...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of three different organogelators, sorbitan monostearate (SMS), soya lecithin (SL) and glyceryl monostearate (GMS) prepared at different concentrations (12%, 15% and 18%, w/w) on the structural, thermal and mechanical properties of palm olein (PO)-based organogels. Polarized light microscopy...
Article
This study aims to compare the effect of different drying techniques (oven-, spray-, and freeze drying) on xanthone, a poorly aqueous-soluble bioactive compound, encapsulated by coacervation using gelatin and gum Arabic. Free-flowing spherical shape powders were produced except for freeze drying that resulted in a stratified cell-like structure. Fo...
Article
After extraction of oil, palm fruit biomass contains a rich source of water-soluble phytochemicals (PCs) with proven bioactivity in regulating oxidative stress and inflammation (OSI). For optimal bioefficacy, the pharmacokinetic plasma peak (Tmax) should be bio-matched with the onset of OSI, which can be predicted from the Phytochemical Absorption...
Article
The performances of various anhydrous and aqueous choline chloride-dicarboxylic acid based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were evaluated for furfural production from oil palm fronds without any additional catalyst. The effects of different carbon chain length dicarboxylic acids and water content in each DES on furfural production were investigated....
Article
The existence of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) has improved the process of biomass transformation and valorization due to its ability to break down the recalcitrant structure of biomass via delignification. However, the high viscosity of DES is one of the factors that restraints its effectiveness in delignification of biomass. The addition of water...
Article
We have previously reported that the antioxidant activity of catechin degraded dramatically in a protein rich matrix compared to a sugar or oil-based matrix, and that this degradation was significantly retarded by β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) encapsulation. In the present study, we have probed the nature of this interaction of catechin and its β-CD inclus...
Article
Catechin is astringent in taste, sparingly soluble in water and sensitive to oxygen, light and pH. These properties restrict its application in food products. The present study investigated the stability of inclusion complex (IC) and catechin in various food matrices and investigated in vitro recovery profile of catechin and IC in liquid, semi-soli...
Article
Full-text available
Ternary-blend of palm mid-fraction/palm kernel oil/palm stearin shows comparable palmitic (P), oleic (O) and POP compositions to cocoa butter (CB) which was selected to produce cocoa butter substitute (CBS) using enzymatic interesterification. This study aims to investigate physicochemical properties of CBS and compatibility of CBS/CB. Fatty acid,...
Article
The potential applications of catechin in food products are limited by its astringent taste, sparing solubility in water and sensitivity to oxygen, light and pH. A finishing formulation that is capable of protecting catechin is needed to deliver this antioxidant to its physiological targets with minimal loss of bioactivity. The aims of this study w...
Article
The antioxidant catechin is astringent in taste, sparingly soluble in water and sensitive to oxygen, light and pH. These properties can restrict its application in food products. The present study investigated the effect of pH, relative humidity (RH) and various food components on this polyphenol's antioxidant stability, before and after encapsulat...
Article
Over the past decade, deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been tipped as up-and-coming reagents in biomass processing. In this study, a sequential pretreatment comprising of a DES (choline chloride:urea) and divalent inorganic salt (CuCl2) was evaluated, with the aim of recovering xylose from oil palm fronds (OPF). At a solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:10...
Article
This study examined the physical properties of enzymatically produced palm oil-based cocoa butter substitute (CBS) in dark chocolate. Melting profile, particle size distribution (PSD), rheological, textural behaviors, bloom formation and polymorphism were analysed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), master-sizer/polarized light microscop...
Article
Lignocellulosic biomass is a plant dry matter that could be considered as a renewable carbon resource for the production of reducing sugar, which is an alternative building block for biofuels and chemicals. However, due to the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulosic biomass, researchers have focused their efforts on establishing cost-efficient pretr...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the physicochemical properties of ternary mixtures of palm mid-fraction (PMF):refined bleached deodorized palm kernel oil (RBDPKO):refined bleached deodorized palm stearin (RBDPS) for cocoa butter substitute (CBS). Fatty acid constituents, triacylglycerol constituents, solid fat contents (SFCs), melting behavior, polymorphis...
Chapter
To increase shelf-life, pineapple (Ananas comosus) is canned, frozen or dried into various pineapple-based products. Pineapple for canning is cut into slices, chunks or pieces, tidbits and crushed and added with syrup before the cans are exhausted followed by retorting and cooling. The juice is available as fresh and concentrated frozen at approxim...
Article
This study evaluated the physicochemical properties of palm mid-fraction (PMF), refined bleached deodorized palm kernel oil (RBDPKO) and refined bleached deodorized palm stearin (RBDPS) as binary mixtures in terms of their fatty acid compositions (GC), triacylglycerols (HPLC), solid fat contents (p-NMR), melting behaviors (DSC) and polymorphisms (X...
Article
The objective of this work was to produce xanthone‐containing microcapsules by spray drying xanthone with oil emulsion using inulin as the wall material. Inlet air temperature of 200C resulted in free‐flowing powder and encapsulation yield was remained at 65% at core‐to‐wall ratios of 1:2, 1:4 and 1:6. The solubility of xanthone‐containing microcap...
Article
Xanthone has low aqueous solubility, thus limiting its food application. The aim of this study is to increase aqueous solubility of xanthone through spray drying xanthone in fish oil with maltodextrin and gum Arabic. Powder yield and microencapsulation efficiency at inlet temperature of 120 °C and wall‐to‐core ratio of 6:1 were 63.0 ± 2.0% and 50.8...
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) juice concentration on betacyanin degradation kinetics and sensory acceptance. Sample stored at 4°C were comparatively stable compared to 25°C in terms of betacyanin retention, and yeast and mold growth. The loss of betacyanin in red-fleshed dragon...
Article
This study aims to investigate the antioxidant properties and physical stability of convection- or vacuum-dried orange, yellow and purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) powder upon room temperature storage at different relative humidity (RH) of 33%, 43%, 54% and 75% for 25 days. Both convection and vacuum-dried samples had lower total phenolic cont...
Article
Currently, the transformation of lignocellulosic biomass into value-added products such as reducing sugars is garnering attention worldwide. However, efficient hydrolysis is usually hindered by the recalcitrant structure of the biomass. Many pretreatment technologies have been developed to overcome the recalcitrance of lignocellulose such that the...
Article
The effects of oven-drying at 50 and 100C, sun-drying and ambient air-drying at 24 ± 1C on the antioxidant properties (AOPs) of mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves were studied. Except for leaves oven-dried at 50C which showed minimal AOP changes, leaves dried under other conditions resulted in a significant decrease in AOP. Fresh mulberry leaves conta...
Chapter
Cryopreservation applies to the freezing, storage (usually long-term) at a very low temperature, thawing, and successful recovery of living cells. There are seven basic steps in cryopreservation protocols: sample collection, maintenance of collected material in extender solutions, quality assessment, refrigerated storage, freezing, thawing, and via...
Article
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cryoprotectants (CPA) namely sucrose:sorbitol mixture (S:S), trehalose, and inulin HD on the physical properties of frozen Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus guttatus) fish balls. Consumer acceptance of fish balls added with the CPA were also determined. Fish balls were made by mixing Spanish macker...
Article
The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity of different pineapple varieties namely Josephine ( Ananas comosus L. var. comosus cv. Josephine), Morris ( Ananas comosus L. var. comosus cv. Morris), and Sarawak ( Ananas comosus L. var. comosus cv. Sarawak). Different concentrations of methanol, ethanol, and acetone were used...
Article
Red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) is rich in antioxidants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of heat pasteurization, pH adjustment, ascorbic acid addition as well as storage under agitation and light or dark condition on betacyanin content in red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) juice and concentrate. The...
Article
This study aims to investigate physical stability and antioxidant properties of spray-dried red (Hylocereus polyrhizus) and white (Hylocereus undatus) dragon fruit powder upon storage at various relative humidity (RH). Inlet air temperatures of 120 °C (red dragon fruit) and 110 °C (white dragon fruit) as well as maltodextrin concentration of 30% (w...
Article
Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) is abundantly available in Malaysia and it is a potential source of xylose for the production of high-value added products. This study aimed to optimize the hydrolysis of EFB using dilute sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) via response surface methodology for maximum xylose recovery. Hydrolysis was ca...
Article
Antioxidant properties of both fresh and convection oven-dried guavas (Psidium guajava L.) were determined. Guava slices of 1.0 cm wide, 3.0 cm long and 0.5cm thick (20 g) were subjected to convection drying at 40°C for 9, 12 and 14 hours, respectively, and their water activity, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activities were measured....
Article
Seafood is valued for its nutritive components and desirable sensory attributes. However, quality of seafood is vulnerable to rapid degradation if no appropriate postharvest handling or processing methods are used. It is important to understand the basic biochemical reactions of the relevant components in seafood in order that their quality can be...
Article
IntroductionMaterials and Methods Results and DiscussionGlass Transition TemperatureConclusions References
Article
IntroductionMaterials and Methods Results and DiscussionConclusions AcknowledgmentsReferences
Article
Full-text available
Soy sauce has been widely used as one of the main seasoning agents in Asian countries. Soy sauce is produced by two-steps fermentation processes, namely koji fermentation and moromi fermentation. In this study, different temperatures (25, 35 and 45°C) for moromi fermentation in bioreactor were investigated for understanding their influences on soya...
Article
Cryo-responses of two types of large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) that were made from either egg yolk L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine (EPC) or 1,2-dipalmitoyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC), in the presence of non-permeable or permeable cryoprotective agents (CPA) was investigated. Partial ternary phase diagrams of CPA-salt-water with specific CPA t...
Article
Freezing behaviors of egg yolk l-alpha-phosphatidylcholine (EPC) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) were quantitatively characterized in relation to freezing temperatures, cooling rates, holding time, presence of sodium chloride and phospholipid phase transition temperature. Cooling of the EPC L...
Chapter
Seafood is valued for its nutritive components and desirable sensory attributes. However, quality of seafood is vulnerable to rapid degradation if no appropriate postharvest handling or processing methods are used. It is important to understand the basic biochemical reactions of the relevant components in seafood in order that their quality can be...
Article
Three groups of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) large unilamellar vesicle (LUV) dispersions were studied: LUV (A) dispersions with only extraliposomal sodium chloride (NaCl), LUV (B) dispersions with intra- and extraliposomal NaCl, and LUV (C) dispersions with only intraliposomal NaCl. The NaCl concentrations ranged from 0 to 15...

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