Leander Anderegg

Leander Anderegg
University of California, Berkeley | UCB · Department of Integrative Biology

Doctor of Philosophy

About

54
Publications
25,641
Reads
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3,767
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2009 - May 2012
Carnegie Institution for Science
September 2008 - May 2011
Stanford University
Education
September 2012 - June 2017
September 2007 - June 2011
Stanford University
Field of study
  • Human Biology

Publications

Publications (54)
Article
Full-text available
Terrestrial photosynthesis requires the evaporation of water (transpiration) in exchange for CO2 needed to form sugars. The water for transpiration is drawn up through plant roots, stem, and branches via a water potential gradient. However, this flow of water—or sap ascent—requires energy to lift the water to the canopy and to overcome the resistan...
Article
Full-text available
Plants are critical mediators of terrestrial mass and energy fluxes, and their structural and functional traits have profound impacts on local and global climate, biogeochemistry, biodiversity, and hydrology. Yet Earth System Models (ESMs), our most powerful tools for predicting the effects of humans on the coupled biosphere-atmosphere system, simp...
Article
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Root‐associated fungal communities modify the climatic niches and even the competitive ability of their hosts, yet how the different components of the root microbiome are modified by habitat loss remains a key knowledge gap. Using principles of landscape ecology, we tested how free‐living versus host‐associated microbes differ in their response to...
Article
Full-text available
Significance A fundamental association between sustained water transport and downstream tissue survival should select for xylem that avoids embolism in long-lived woody plants. Previous studies suggest that long-vessel species, such as oaks and vines, are more susceptible to drought-induced loss of function than other species. We show that western...
Article
Widespread tree mortality following droughts has emerged as an environmentally and economically devastating ‘ecological surprise’. It is well established that tree physiology is important in understanding drought-driven mortality; however, the accuracy of predictions based on physiology alone has been limited. We propose that complicating factors a...
Article
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Significance Human-caused climate change could impact respiratory health, including asthma and allergies, through temperature-driven increases in airborne pollen, but the long-term continental pollen trends and role of climate change in pollen patterns are not well-understood. We measure pollen trends across North America from 1990 to 2018 and find...
Article
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Vegetation optical depth (VOD) retrieved from microwave radiometry correlates with the total amount of water in vegetation, based on theoretical and empirical evidence. Because the total amount of water in vegetation varies with relative water content (as well as with biomass), this correlation further suggests a possible relationship between VOD a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Vegetation optical depth (VOD) retrieved from microwave radiometry correlates with the total amount of water in vegetation, based on theoretical and empirical evidence. Because the total amount of water in vegetation varies with relative water content (as well as with biomass), this correlation further suggests a possible relationship between VOD a...
Article
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In Mediterranean-type climates, asynchronicity between energy and water availability means that ecosystems rely heavily on the water-storing capacity of the subsurface to sustain plant water use over the summer dry season. The root-zone water storage capacity ( S m a x [L]) defines the maximum volume of water that can be stored in plant accessible...
Article
Large intraspecific functional trait variation strongly impacts many aspects of communities and ecosystems, and is the medium upon which evolution works. Yet intraspecific trait variation is inconsistent and hard to predict across traits, species, and locations. We measured within‐species variation in leaf mass per area (LMA), leaf dry matter conte...
Article
Climate warming is facilitating the expansion of many cold‐sensitive woody species in woodland‐grassland ecotones worldwide. Recent research has demonstrated that this range expansion can be further enhanced by positive vegetation‐microclimate feedbacks whereby woody canopies induce local nocturnal warming, which reduces freeze‐induced damage and f...
Article
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A central challenge in global change research is the projection of the future behavior of a system based upon past observations. Tree‐ring data have been used increasingly over the last decade to project tree growth and forest ecosystem vulnerability under future climate conditions. But how can the response of tree growth to past climate variation...
Article
Where does the carbon released by burning fossil fuels go? Currently, ocean and land systems remove about half of the CO 2 emitted by human activities; the remainder stays in the atmosphere. These removal processes are sensitive to feedbacks in the energy, carbon, and water cycles that will change in the future. Observing how much carbon is taken u...
Article
Solar Induced chlorophyll Fluorescence (SIF) shows promise as an approach for estimating gross primary production (GPP) remotely. However, sun-target-sensor geometry and within-canopy absorption of SIF can alter the relationship between measured SIF and GPP, because sensors can only retrieve some unknown fraction of the total emitted SIF. Radiative...
Article
Understanding the driving mechanisms behind existing patterns of vegetation hydraulic traits and community trait diversity is critical for advancing predictions of the terrestrial carbon cycle because hydraulic traits affect both ecosystem and Earth system responses to changing water availability. Here, we leverage an extensive trait database and a...
Preprint
Context Large intraspecific functional trait variation strongly impacts many aspects of natural communities and ecosystems, yet is inconsistent across traits and species. Approach We measured within-species variation in leaf mass per area (LMA), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), branch wood density (WD), and allocation to stem area vs. leaf area in...
Article
Full-text available
Research Highlights: To better understand within-community variation in wood density, our study demonstrated that a more nuanced approach is required beyond the climate-wood density correlations used in global analyses. Background and Objectives: Global meta-analyses have shown higher wood density is associated with higher temperatures and lower ra...
Preprint
Methods are lacking to characterize critical zone (CZ) structure at spatial scales relevant to earth system and dynamic global vegetation models. This knowledge gap results in poor quantification of CZ plant-available water storage capacity, hindering realistic prediction of the response of plants and streamflow to anticipated changes in the hydrol...
Article
Purpose: Urinary stone disease during pregnancy is poorly understood but is thought to be associated with increased maternal and fetal morbidity. We sought to determine the prevalence of urinary stone disease in pregnancy and whether urinary stone disease during pregnancy is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Materials and methods: We i...
Article
Plant functional traits provide a link in process-based vegetation models between plant-level physiology and ecosystem-level responses. Recent advances in physiological understanding and computational efficiency have allowed for the incorporation of plant hydraulic processes in large-scale vegetation models. However, a more mechanistic representati...
Article
Drought‐induced tree mortality is projected to increase due to climate change, which will have manifold ecological and societal impacts including the potential to weaken or reverse the terrestrial carbon sink. Predictions of tree mortality remain limited, in large part because within‐species variations in ecophysiology due to plasticity or adaptati...
Article
Full-text available
Terrestrial photosynthesis is the largest and one of the most uncertain fluxes in the global carbon cycle. We find that NIRV, a remotely sensed measure of canopy structure, accurately predicts photosynthesis at FLUXNET validation sites at monthly to annual timescales (R² = 0.68), without the need for difficult to acquire information about environme...
Article
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Species often respond to human‐caused climate change by shifting where they occur on the landscape. To anticipate these shifts, we need to understand the forces that determine where species currently occur. We tested whether a long‐hypothesised trade‐off between climate and competitive constraints explains where tree species grow on mountain slopes...
Article
Full-text available
Vulnerability to embolism varies between con‐generic species distributed along aridity gradients, yet little is known about intra‐specific variation and its drivers. Even less is known about intra‐specific variation in tissues other than stems, despite results suggesting that roots, stems and leaves can differ in vulnerability. We hypothesized that...
Article
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Forest leaf area has enormous leverage on the carbon cycle because it mediates both forest productivity and resilience to climate extremes. Despite widespread evidence that trees are capable of adjusting to changes in environment across both space and time through modifying carbon allocation to leaves, many vegetation models use fixed carbon alloca...
Article
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A goal of comparative physiology is to understand underlying causes of the tremendous diversity of land plant form and function. The hope is that functional diversity of land plants can be distilled to a few traits that together capture the essence of plant form and function (Díaz et al., 2016), thereby simplifying plant diversity into a tractable...
Article
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Climate change‐driven drought stress has triggered numerous large‐scale tree mortality events in recent decades. Advances in mechanistic understanding and prediction are greatly limited by an inability to detect in situ where trees are likely to die in order to take timely measurements and actions. Thus, algorithms of early warning and detection of...
Article
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Forest conservation and carbon sequestration efforts are on the rise, yet the long-term stability of these efforts under a changing climate remains unknown. We generate nearly three decades of remotely-sensed canopy water content throughout California, which we use to determine patterns of drought stress. Linking these patterns of drought stress wi...
Article
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How plants respond physiologically to leaf warming and low water availability may determine how they will perform under future climate change. In 2015–2016, an unprecedented drought occurred across Amazonia with record-breaking high temperatures and low soil moisture, offering a unique opportunity to evaluate the performances of Amazonian trees to...
Preprint
Terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) is both the largest and most uncertain flux within the global carbon cycle. Much of this uncertainty results from the fact that GPP is onerous to measure and is only reliably monitored at roughly 100 canopy-scale sites scattered across the globe. Sparsity of consistent observations of GPP at the site-level...
Article
Full-text available
The utility of plant functional traits for predictive ecology relies on our ability to interpret trait variation across multiple taxonomic and ecological scales. Using extensive data sets of trait variation within species, across species and across communities, we analysed whether and at what scales leaf economics spectrum (LES) traits show predict...
Article
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Identifying the factors that influence the climate sensitivity of treeline species is critical to understanding carbon sequestration, forest dynamics, and conservation in high elevation forest/meadow ecotones. Using tree cores from four sub-alpine conifer species collected from three sides of Mt. Rainier, WA, USA, we investigated the influences of...
Article
Functional traits associated with drought resistance can be useful for predicting tree responses to a drying climate. Yet drought resistance is likely achieved through a complex combination of constitutive traits (traits expressed even in benign environments) and plastic traits (traits expressed only in response to drought). Because few studies mea...
Article
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Widespread tree mortality associated with drought has been observed on all forested continents and global change is expected to exacerbate vegetation vulnerability. Forest mortality has implications for future biosphere-atmosphere interactions of carbon, water and energy balance, and is poorly represented in dynamic vegetation models. Reducing unce...
Article
Full-text available
Widespread tree mortality associated with drought has been observed on all forested continents and global change is expected to exacerbate vegetation vulnerability. Forest mortality has implications for future biosphere–atmosphere interactions of carbon, water and energy balance, and is poorly represented in dynamic vegetation models. Reducing unce...
Article
Full-text available
Range shifts are among the most ubiquitous ecological responses to anthropogenic climate change and have large consequences for ecosystems. Unfortunately, the ecophysiological forces that constrain range boundaries are poorly understood, making it difficult to mechanistically project range shifts. To explore the physiological mechanisms by which dr...
Article
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Predicting how climate change will influence forests is challenging. Forest communities are expected to lose cold-adapted trees near their low latitude/elevation range limits, while warm-adapted trees should increase in abundance near their high latitude/elevation limits ( i.e., ‘thermophilization’). However, slow-growing and long-lived trees, pair...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Predicting how, and how quickly, species geographic ranges may respond to climate change is a current focus in ecology and conservation. Accurate predictions of range shifts will require an explicit consideration of how population growth rates depend on individual vital rates (i.e., growth, survival, and reproduction)...
Conference Paper
How will climate change influence species distributions? Ecologists generally assume species’ ranges are determined by climate at broad spatial scales, and that climate change will cause species distributions to move uphill and polewards. However, long generation times and life history stages that differ in their sensitivity to climate are likely t...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the pathways through which drought stress kills woody vegetation can improve projections of the impacts of climate change on ecosystems and carbon-cycle feedbacks. Continuous in situ measurements of whole trees during drought and as trees die hold promise to illuminate physiological pathways but are relatively rare. We monitored leaf...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Tree death from drought and heat stress is a critical and uncertain component in forest ecosystem responses to a changing climate. Recent research has illuminated how tree mortality is a complex cascade of changes involving interconnected plant systems over multiple timescales. Explicit consideration of the definitions...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods: A current concern within the field of ecology is the extent to which climate change will affect species distributions. Due to global warming, current models forecast species ranges shifting both poleward and upward. In order to better understand these range shift dynamics we need to understand the interplay of both ab...
Article
Full-text available
Widespread drought-induced mortality of woody plants has recently occurred worldwide, is likely to be exacerbated by future climate change and holds large ecological consequences. Yet despite decades of research on plant-water relations, the pathways through which drought causes plant mortality are poorly understood. Recent work on the physiology o...
Article
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Forest mortality constitutes a major uncertainty in projections of climate impacts on terrestrial ecosystems and carbon-cycle feedbacks. Recent drought-induced, widespread forest die-offs highlight that climate change could accelerate forest mortality with its diverse and potentially severe consequences for the global carbon cycle, ecosystem servic...
Article
Full-text available
Globally documented widespread drought-induced forest mortality has important ramifications for plant community structure, ecosystem function, and the ecosystem services provided by forests. Yet the characteristics of drought sea-sonality, severity, and duration that trigger mortality events have received little attention despite evidence of chang-...
Article
Full-text available
Global patterns of drought-induced forest die-off indicate that many forests may be sensitive to climate-driven mortality, but the lack of understanding of how trees and saplings die during drought hinders the projections of die-off, demographic bottlenecks and ecosystem trajectories. In this study, we performed a severe controlled drought experime...
Article
Full-text available
Forests provide innumerable ecological, societal and climatological benefits, yet they are vulnerable to drought and temperature extremes. Climate-driven forest die-off from drought and heat stress has occurred around the world, is expected to increase with climate change and probably has distinct consequences from those of other forest disturbance...
Article
Forest die-off around the world is expected to increase in coming decades as temperature increases due to climate change. Forest die-off will likely affect understory plant communities, which have substantial influence on regional biological diversity, ecosystem function, and land-atmosphere interactions, but how die-off alters these plant communit...
Article
Full-text available
Forest ecosystems store approximately 45% of the carbon found in terrestrial ecosystems, but they are sensitive to climate-induced dieback. Forest die-off constitutes a large uncertainty in projections of climate impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, climate-ecosystem interactions, and carbon-cycle feedbacks. Current understanding of the physiological...
Article
Widespread drought-induced forest mortality has been documented across the globe in the last few decades and influences land-atmosphere interactions, biodiversity, carbon sequestration, and biophysical and biogeochemical feedbacks to climate change. These rapid mortality events are currently not well-captured in current vegetation models, limiting...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Extensive drought-induced forest mortality has recently been documented worldwide, is likely to be exacerbated by future climate change, and holds large ecological consequences. Yet the pathways through which meteorological drought causes plant mortality are poorly understood. As the most widely distributed tree in Nort...

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