Lawson Brigham

Lawson Brigham
University of Alaska Fairbanks · Geophysical Institute

About

69
Publications
7,105
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1,063
Citations

Publications

Publications (69)
Chapter
The Arctic is prominent in the history of the International Maritime Organization (IMO), following the RMS Titanic disaster in 1912 and soon signing in London of the Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea in 1914. Eighty years later, the IMO initiated a process to manage shipping in ice-covered oceans. In concert with the IMO Guidelines for Ships...
Article
Improving situational awareness and crisis response are key priorities in reducing potential risks associated with sea ice and environmental-related hazards in the Arctic. This research explores the opportunities and challenges associated with leveraging arctic system science research to coproduce sea ice decision support tools. The research is bas...
Article
IMO Polar Code: New Governance for the Southern Ocean - Volume 30 Issue 6 - Lawson W. Brigham
Chapter
Fundamental changes continue to reshape the maritime Arctic. Globalization (the linkage of Arctic natural resources to global markets), profound climate change, regional and global geopolitics, and challenges to the Arctic’s indigenous people are all drivers of a new era at the top of the world. The Arctic Council’s Arctic Marine Shipping Assessmen...
Article
The steady operation of the Northern Sea Route is based on large icebreakers, which ensure access to various Russian regions through the navigable Arctic. Some nuclear-powered icebreakers built as far back as the Soviet era need to be replaced. Up to now, it hasn’t been clear how the icebreaker fleet will be used to make the Northern Sea Route oper...
Article
Full-text available
The USSR and now Russia have employed a fleet of large icebreakers to gain access across the Russian maritime Arctic and facilitate traffic through the Northern Sea Route (NSR). Since 2008, Atomflot has played a very influential role, not only in the management and operation of Russia's icebreakers, but in laying premises for the NSR as a whole. Th...
Article
Recent Arctic sea ice retreat indicates that the Russian coastal seas encompassing the Northern Sea Route (NSR) will be among the first marine environments to transition to a summer ice-free state. Forty-six voyages carrying 1.26 million tons of cargo in 2012 suggest increasing economic viability of the NSR for eastward transport of natural resourc...
Article
On December 6, 2012, the liquefied natural gas carrier Ob River arrived in the northern Japanese port of Tobata. Port arrivals by various types of cargo ships happen routinely every day around the world, but this voyage and arrival were special. The Ob River had departed November 7 from the northern Norwegian port of Hammerfest, sailed east across...
Book
Full-text available
In this timely new book, international scholars and military professionals come together to explore the strategic consequences of the thawing of the Arctic. Their analyses of efforts by governments and defense, security, and coast guard organizations to address these challenges make timely and urgent reading. Rather than a single national perspecti...
Article
Full-text available
Climate models project continued Arctic sea ice reductions with nearly ice-free summer conditions by the mid-21st century. However, how such reductions will realistically enable marine access is not well understood, especially considering a range of climatic scenarios and ship types. We present 21st century projections of technical shipping accessi...
Article
The Arctic Council's Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment (AMSA) released in 2009 has become a framework for the Council's response to enhancing Arctic marine safety and environmental protection. AMSA can be viewed in three ways: as a baseline, snapshot for Arctic marine activity early in the twenty-first century; as a strategic guide for a host of st...
Article
Full-text available
There is an emerging need for regional applications of sea ice projections to provide more accuracy and greater detail to scientists, national, state and local planners, and other stakeholders. The present study offers a prototype for a comprehensive, interdisciplinary study to bridge observational data, climate model simulations, and user needs. T...
Article
Recent Arctic sea ice retreat indicates that the Russian coastal seas encompassing the Northern Sea Route (NSR) will be among the first marine environments to transition to a summer ice-free state. Forty-six voyages carrying 1.26 million tons of cargo in 2012 suggest increasing economic viability of the NSR for eastward transport of natural resourc...
Article
Full-text available
There is an emerging need for regional applications of sea ice projections to provide more accuracy and greater detail to scientists, national, state and local planners, and other stakeholders. The present study offers a prototype for a comprehensive, interdisciplinary study to bridge observational data, climate model simulations, and user needs. T...
Article
Early in the 21st century a confluence of climate change, globalization and geopolitics is shaping the future of the maritime Arctic. This nexus is also fostering greater linkage of the Arctic to the rest of the planet. Arctic sea ice is undergoing a historic transformation of thinning, extent reduction in all seasons, and reduction in the area of...
Article
Global economics, not declining sea ice, is driving ships to the Arctic Ocean. Only international regulation will protect the region, says Lawson Brigham.
Article
This chapter discusses the economic connections of the Arctic to the globe are driving new challenges for Arctic marine transport and all marine activities in this once-remote region. Changes in Arctic sea ice, and the geopolitics of delimitation of the outer continental shelf, are also influencing future governance and uses of the Arctic Ocean. Ar...
Chapter
Early in the twenty-first century, a nexus of globalization, climate change, and geopolitics is shaping the future of the maritime Arctic. The implications of these forces have never been more compelling for Arctic marine transport. Exploration and development of the Arctic's vast natural resources, such as oil, gas, and hard minerals (e.g., nickel...
Article
The Arctic Council Ministers in Norway approved a study, the Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment (AMSA), for the future of the region. AMSA is a broad, interdisciplinary assessment which can be viewed in three ways: first, as a baseline assessment of arctic marine activity early in the 21st century, as a strategic guide for a host of arctic and non-a...
Article
Marine access is increasing throughout the Arctic Ocean and the 'Last Arctic Sea Ice Refuge' may have implications for governance and marine use in the region. Arctic marine transportation is increasing due to natural resource developemnt, increasing Arctic marine tourism, expanded Arctic marine research, and a general linkage of the Arctic to the...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Arctic Council’s Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment was a four-year, multinational-led project, under the direction of the Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment (PAME) working group, that included more than 185 experts in maritime and related fields; 13 major workshops in Canada, Finland, Iceland, the Russian Federation and the United Stat...
Article
The Arctic Council, an intergovernmental forum of the eight Arctic states, is currently embarked on a comprehensive assessment of Arctic marine activity in the 21st century — the Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment (AMSA). One of the challenges for theAMSA study team has been to identify the major uncertainties that will be central to shaping the fut...
Article
This State of the Arctic Report presents a review of recent data by an international group of scientists who developed a consensus on the information content and reliability. The report highlights data primarily from 2000 to 2005 with a first look at winter 2006, providing an update to some of the records of physical processes discussed in the Arct...
Article
Full-text available
This State of the Arctic Report presents a review of recent data by an international group of scientists who developed a consensus on the information content and reliability. The report highlights data primarily from 2000 to 2005 with a first look at winter 2006, providing an update to some of the records of physical processes discussed in the Arct...
Article
During 2002 the U.S. Arctic Research Commission chartered a task force on climate change, permafrost and infrastructure impacts. The task force was asked to identify key issues and research needs to foster a greater understanding of global change impacts on permafrost in the Arctic and their importance to natural and human systems. Permafrost was f...
Article
At the end of the twentieth century, Russia's Northern Sea Route (NSR) has functioned primarily as a domestic marine transport system with Murmansk Shipping Company as the dominant operator and facilitator. Total cargo along the NSR in 1999 was 1.58 million tons; during 1997–99 no through transit cargo was carried on the NSR. The International NSR...
Article
Polar icebreakers at the end of the twentieth century - Volume 36 Issue 198 - Lawson W. Brigham
Article
By any measure, 1998 was a year of conflicting domestic and international interests regarding Russia's Northern Sea Route (NSR). The European Union sponsored an international demonstration project using a Finnish tanker during an April and May voyage to the Kara Sea. Russian icebreakers escorted the tanker, which carried a cargo of gas condensate f...
Chapter
The objective of this workshop was to discuss future NSR operations in terms of climate change, icebreaking, ice information and emergency response. Initial presentations and discussions on climate change noted that regardless of the hypothesis for the cause (anthropogenic vs. natural variation), the Arctic is warming. The 1990’s has been a decade...
Chapter
Three practical aspects of the Northern Sea Route (NSR) were reviewed within INSROP’s Sub-Programme I (“Natural Conditions and Ice Navigation”) and Phase 2 simulation study — the natural environment (including sea ice distribution, geographical setting and regional climate), ice navigation (including charts, routes, aids to navigation, communicatio...
Article
Analysis of SAR data of the polar oceans. TsatsoulisCostas and KwokRonald (Editors). 1998. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. viii + 290p, illustrated, hard cover. ISBN 3-540-62802-9.248 DM; £95.50; $US 159.00. - Volume 35 Issue 194 - Lawson Brigham
Chapter
The physical environment of the Russian maritime Arctic presents unique challenges to the mariner and to modern technology. This chapter will consider and integrate three significant aspects of the Northern Sea Route (NSR) and INSROP: the natural environment, ice navigation and ship technology. The natural environment component focuses primarily on...
Article
Antarctic oasis: under the spell of South Georgia. CarrTim and CarrPauline. 1998. New York and London: W.W. Norton. 256 p, illustrated, hard cover. ISBN 0-393-04605-2. £29.95. - Volume 34 Issue 191 - Lawson Brigham
Article
1997 was an important year for Russia's Northern Sea Route (NSR) in terms of foreign interest. The first full transits of the NSR by western merchant ships were made. The International Northern Sea Route Programme (INSROP) continued into phase 2 of its research projects, and planning proceeded for a European Union-sponsored demonstration voyage to...
Article
Project SHEBA: drifting research station in the Arctic Ocean - Volume 34 Issue 190 - Lawson W. Brigham
Article
Full-text available
The last major calving event along the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS, Antarctica) front occurred a decade ago, following a substantial increase in the rate of ice-front advance in the few years preceding the event. This 'B-9' event, on the eastern part of the front between Edward VII Peninsula and Roosevelt Island, removed ~ 5100 km2 of ice, about 100 years...
Article
During 1996, Russia's Northern Sea Route (NSR) continued to attract international attention. While overall tonnage carried along the NSR declined to approximately two million tonnes, more operations in the Russian maritime Arctic involved foreign flag ships. Ships of Arctic Shipping Services, a Russian-Finnish joint venture company, delivered fuel...
Article
An international polar navigation code for the twenty-first century - Volume 33 Issue 187 - Lawson W. Brigham
Article
The Northern Sea Route, 1995 - Volume 32 Issue 183 - Lawson W. Brigham, Terence Armstrong
Article
The Finnish shipbuilder Rauma-Repola OY is completing a new Antarctic research ship for the Soviet Union. The 140-meter Akademik Fedorov will be an Antarctic expedition vessel capable of resupplying Soviet stations and transporting 160 personnel to their research bases. Besides functioning as a multi-purpose passenger and cargo vessel, this icebrea...
Conference Paper
During 1985 the Soviet Union operated approximately 70 icebreakers of many types and 14 specialized icebreaking cargo ships of the SA-15 class. However, within this fleet only 16 vessels can be considered true polar icebreakers - large, powerful ships capable of independent operations in multi-year ice. These polar icebreakers, all built since 1959...
Conference Paper
The operational capability of the U.S. Coast Guard's POLAR Class icebreakers is reviewed for Alaskan ice covered waters. Operational capability is defined in terms of three distinct geographic areas: the Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas. POLAR Class icebreakers have successfully operated in each of these areas since 1979. As a result of the deplo...
Article
An interagency study of the nation's polar ice-breaking requirements through the end of the century was recently completed. The Polar Icebreaker Requirements Study (PIRS) Group presented fleet size alternatives and recommended that the Icebreaker User Council define the capabilities required for new icebreakers. The User Council consists of represe...
Article
The paper presents the results from a two- year project to identify areas where further research and development will improve the ability of responders to deal with an accidental oil spill into a marine environment (fresh or salt water) in the presence of ice. The subject of oil spills in ice is of concern to corporations, local residents, and gove...
Article
Section 4.4) Thom Stubbs and Carly Dokis (Section 4.5) 4.1 Introduction "Human dimensions" refers to the interrelationships of people and the environment, particularly with respect to environmental change (e.g., Raynor and Malone 1998; Liverman et al. 1999, Huntington et al. 2007a). Often, human dimensions concerns broad issues such as government p...

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