Lawrence Guy Straus

Lawrence Guy Straus
University of New Mexico | UNM · College of Arts and Sciences

Doctor of Philosophy

About

403
Publications
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Publications

Publications (403)
Article
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In late Upper Paleolithic Cantabrian Spain, humans developed sophisticated territorial systems, used specialized lithic and osseous tools and weapons, and were skilled hunters of red deer and ibex while also depending increasingly on supplementary food resources, as means of adapting to climatic and environmental change after the Last Glacial Maxim...
Article
Full-text available
Significance The microbiome plays key roles in human health, but little is known about its evolution. We investigate the evolutionary history of the African hominid oral microbiome by analyzing dental biofilms of humans and Neanderthals spanning the past 100,000 years and comparing them with those of chimpanzees, gorillas, and howler monkeys. We id...
Article
Full-text available
El Mirón is an important archaeological cave site in Cantabria (Spain) with a stratigraphy covering the late Middle Paleolithic to the Modern Period. The Magdalenian levels are especially rich in artifacts, faunal remains, and features, and included the burial of an adult female (“the Red Lady”), as well as other scattered human remains, while the...
Article
Full-text available
The Upper Palaeolithic in Europe was a time of extensive climatic changes that impacted on the survival and distribution of human populations. During the Late Glacial Maximum (LGM), southern European peninsulas were refugia for flora, fauna, and human groups. One of these refugia, the Cantabrian region (northern Atlantic Spain), was intensively occ...
Article
El Mirón Cave, located on the northern edge of the Cantabrian Cordillera and 20 km from the present Atlantic shoref, contains a sequence of Upper Paleolithic (Gravettian, Solutrean, Magdalenian and Azilian) levels (ranging in radiocarbon age from 28,000–10,500 BP) atop a minor Middle Paleolithic layer (>46,000 BP) and beneath a long, rich series of...
Article
This article presents the second study of ochres associated with the Lower Magdalenian (18.7 cal kya) “Red Lady” human burial in El Mirón Cave (Cantabria, Spain). In the first study (Seva Román et al., 2015), we determined that the burial deposit contained iron oxides and idiomorphic hematite that were not from sources near the site, but possibly f...
Article
Highlights • First application of palaeoproteomics to eggshell from Palaeolithic Spain • List of Accipitridae eggshell markers for peptide fingerprinting • Diurnal birds of prey (Accipitridae) identified as the main taxon at El Mirón • Humans and birds did not occupy the site at the same time Abstract Bird eggs can become part of the archaeologica...
Article
Full-text available
Environmental change has been proposed as a factor that contributed to the extinction of the Neanderthals in Europe during MIS3. Currently, the different local environmental conditions experienced at the time when Anatomically Modern Humans (AMH) met Neanderthals are not well known. In the Western Pyrenees, particularly, in the eastern end of the C...
Data
Radiocarbon AMS dates produced in this study. Collagen was extracted using the ultrafiltration protocol in all the samples. A contextual information of each archaeological level is provided, including a description of the lithic and bone artefacts and the archaeological context. Also, sample reference, animal species and skeletal element sampled in...
Article
Full-text available
Este artículo intenta ofrecer una síntesis relativamente completa de lo que se conoce en la actualidad sobre la transición del Paleolítico medio al superior y el desarrollo de las adaptaciones humanas y de las culturas durante el último periodo en la Península Ibérica (España y Portugal, así como Andorra y Gibraltar). Los énfasis del trabajo, que e...
Article
The use of caves during the Late Middle and Early Upper Palaeolithic in Europe was often characterized by alternation between humans (Neandertals and Anatomically Modern Humans) and carnivores. One of the most important karstic areas in Europe that contains a rich archaeological record during this cultural period is the Cantabrian Region, northern...
Article
Full-text available
Level 17 is the principal Cantabrian Lower Magdalenian horizon in the outer vestibule area of El Mirón Cave, dating by radiocarbon to c. 15,500 uncal bp. It has yielded very rich faunal and artifactual collections associated with numerous hearths and abundant fire-cracked rocks. Among the many osseous artifacts are a striation-engraved red deer sca...
Article
This sixth date list for the prehistoric site of El Mirón Cave (Cantabria, Spain) reports on new age determinations for the earliest and last Solutrean occupations (20.4 and 18.0 ¹⁴ C kyr BP) and for a Lower/Initial Magdalenian level with a possible rock wall (16.75 ¹⁴ C kyr BP). The site has now been dated by 92 radiocarbon ( ¹⁴ C) assays. In addi...
Article
Full-text available
Methodological advances in dating the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition provide a better understanding of the replacement of local Neanderthal populations by Anatomically Modern Humans. Today we know that this replacement was not a single, pan-European event, but rather it took place at different times in different regions. Thus, local conditi...
Data
Supporting information manuscript with a detailed description of each archaeological site sampled in this study. (DOCX)
Data
Radiocarbon AMS dates produced in this study. Collagen was extracted using the ultrafiltration protocol in all the samples. A contextual information of each archaeological level is provided, including a description of the lithic and bone artefacts and the archaeological context. Also, sample reference, animal species and skeletal element sampled in...
Data
Radiocarbon accelerator dates from the Cantabrian region mentioned in this work. Only bone samples with ultrafiltration methods are included. ABA: charcoal fragment treated with a series of acid and base washes; ABOx-SC: charcoal treated with acid and base washes, followed by an oxidation stage and pre-combustion; UF AMS: collagen extracted using t...
Data
Radiocarbon dates from El Cuco modelled in OxCal4.2 [41,43] against INTCAL13 [42]. (TIF)
Data
Results of sensitivity test conducted on regional models. (DOCX)
Data
Radiocarbon dates from Covalejos modelled in OxCal4.2 [41,43] against INTCAL13 [42]. (TIF)
Data
Radiocarbon dates from Amalda modelled in OxCal4.2 [41,43] against INTCAL13 [42]. (TIF)
Data
Results of the Order function comparing the PDF’s of the boundaries dating the start and the end of the archaeological industries from the Cantabrian region. Cells containing probabilities of >95% are coloured in green, 68–94% in orange and <68 in grey. (DOCX)
Data
Results of sensitivity test conducted on individual models. (DOCX)
Data
Radiocarbon dates from Ekain modelled in OxCal4.2 [41,43] against INTCAL13 [42]. (TIF)
Article
Full-text available
Numerous studies have shown that the relative frequency of retouched pieces can help to distinguish forager mobility strategies amongst individual layers at a single site and, potentially, at multiple sites across regions (Riel-Salvatore and Barton, 2004; Riel-Salvatore et al., 2008; Barton & Riel-Salvatore, 2014). We use this proxy measure and oth...
Article
Full-text available
Modern excavation techniques aim accurately to recover extant archaeological data. Usually bone micro-fragments are gathered as a result, however, during archaeological analysis these remains are often set apart as indeterminate bones and generally do not contribute to the interpretation of the deposits. How to decipher archaeological palimpsests u...
Article
This contribution reviews the evidence for technological continuity and change (both gradual and abrupt) among the classic Magdalenian, Azilian, Asturian and non-coastal Mesolithic culture-adaptive traditions against the backdrop of environmental change across the Pleistocene–Holocene (i.e. Bølling–Boreal) transition in Cantabrian Spain. It explore...
Article
Paleolithic archaeologists have a longstanding interest in temporal change in prehistoric human behavior, and have often identified changes between archaeological periods based on sampling limitations. This analysis focuses on the Cantabrian Lower Magdalenian period in El Mirón cave, where archaeologists have been able to subdivide the ~ 33 cm thic...
Article
A review of the cultural evidence from northern coastal Atlantic Spain (a.k.a., Vasco-Cantabria) spanning the late Last Glacial and early Postglacial (from Greenland Interstadial 1 to the mid-Holocene) reveals that some changes may have been related to major climate/environmental changes, while others may be attributed to demographic factors that c...
Article
This fifth date list for the long cultural sequence in El Mirón Cave (Cantabria, Spain) reports on new radiocarbon assays for the Middle Paleolithic and Lower Magdalenian levels, ranging from about >45 to 15 uncalibrated kyr.
Article
Full-text available
Human behaviour can be reconstructed by analysing specific activities and campsite organization using spatial analysis. The dense occupation layers of the Lower Cantabrian Magdalenian in the Northern Spain reveal varied aspects of Upper Palaeolithic lifeways, including evidence of speci c localized activities. The outer vestibule of El Mirón cave h...
Article
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Modern humans arrived in Europe ~45,000 years ago, but little is known about their genetic composition before the start of farming ~8,500 years ago. Here we analyse genome-wide data from 51 Eurasians from ~45,000-7,000 years ago. Over this time, the proportion of Neanderthal DNA decreased from 3-6% to around 2%, consistent with natural selection ag...
Article
Lithic weapon tips have existed at least since the Middle Paleolithic. Beginning in the Early Upper Paleolithic of Europe, bladelet (a.k.a. microblade) elements used as edges, barbs or tips were added to the repertoire of weapon technology. Various forms thereof are present in Aurignacian, Gravettian, Solutrean and Magdalenian assemblages. In the S...
Article
The history of the hominin settlement of Europe has always been marked by range expansion and contraction in the face of interglacial-glacial cycles. The last major contraction occurred during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and was manifested culturally in western Europe by the Solutrean technocomplex, during which the surviving human population wa...
Article
The authors describe the discovery of the first human burial of Magdalenian age to be found in the Iberian Peninsula—the partial skeleton of a young adult whose bones were stained with red ochre. The burial was well stratified in a sequence at the vestibule rear running from the Mousterian to the Mesolithic, and was adjacent to a large block that h...
Article
Hunter-gatherer groups' organizational strategies were influenced by how key resources were structured on landscapes, including lithic toolstones with fixed outcrop locations. Lithic artifacts, which were created via reductive sequences, can inform landscape-level behavioral reconstructions because toolstone decreased in quantity through use as it...
Article
Full-text available
This fourth date list for the long cultural sequence in El Mirón Cave (Cantabria, Spain) reports on 19 new AMS assays for Solutrean, Initial, Lower, and Middle Magdalenian and Azilian levels, ranging from about 19 to 11 uncali-brated kyr. Key results are provision of further precision on the transition between the Solutrean and Magdalenian at the e...
Article
The human burial of Lower Magdalenian age in El Mirón Cave was found in the narrow space between the outward (westward) sloping bedrock wall of the vestibule rear and a very large limestone block. The corpse had been deposited in contact with both engraved lines on the cave wall and red ochre staining on the eastern face of the block. In addition,...
Article
During the course of long-term excavations of El Mirón Cave in Cantabrian Spain, remains of an adult human woman were found in deposits dating to the Lower Magdalenian (18.9-18.7 cal. kya). Interred with abundant red ochre (including specular hematite crystals) in culturally rich sediments characterized by abundant lithic and osseous artifact assem...
Article
Full-text available
El Mirón Cave, in the Cantabrian Cordillera near the border between Cantabria and Vizcaya, contains a long sequence of radiocarbon-dated Magdalenian and Azilian levels. Lying between a series of Solutrean levels and a major, multi-level horizon pertaining to the classic Cantabrian Lower Magdalenian –CLM–, are several layers dating between c. 17-16...
Article
This is an updated review of recent (post-2004) developments in the study of the rich Upper Paleolithic (40–10 uncal. ka) record from the Spanish “wing” of the classic Franco-Cantabrian culture area, composed of the provinces of Asturias, Cantabria, Vizcaya, Guipúzcoa and northern Navarra. Numerous new/ongoing excavations, radiometric dating assays...
Conference Paper
Cantabrian Late Pleistocene strategies of subsistence reveal different phases of cultural change. The first phase occurred during the transition from the Solutrean to the Early Magdalenian (around 20.000 cal BP) while the second one occurred from the Lower to the Middle Magdalenian (around 18.000 cal BP). This study will focus on the second transit...
Article
Full-text available
Across Atlantic ice: the origin of America's Clovis culture (Stanford & Bradley 2012) is the latest iteration of a controversial proposal that North America was first colonised by people from Europe rather than from East Asia, as most researchers accept. The authors, Dennis Stanford and Bruce Bradley, argue that Solutrean groups from southern Franc...
Article
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The comments of Stanford and Bradley (above) do not address our criticisms and obfuscate the topic at hand with irrelevant data (e.g. the south-to-north movement of fluted points through the Ice Free Corridor), nonexistent data (e.g. ‘under the water’ or ‘destroyed sites’), and questionable data (e.g. Meadowcroft and Cactus Hill are by no means wid...
Article
Full-text available
We have analyzed the mitochondrial DNA variability of human remains recovered from the cave of El Mirón (Ramales de la Victoria, Cantabria). Although this is a small sample, is important to helping to increase our knowledge about hunter-gatherer groups from the Cantabrian region. The mitochondrial lineage of El Mirón, corresponds to rCRS belonging...
Article
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El Mir?n Cave (Ramales de la Victoria, Cantabria, Spain) has evidence of brief visits (by hunting parties) to the montane zone of the upper As?n valley in easternmost Cantabria during the Last Glacial Maximum with 14C dates ranging between 19.2-18.4 kya uncal BP. Landscapes were largely treeless (scattered pines), with varying degrees of humidity a...
Article
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In this article, I review 40 years of research and reflection on the nature of the Solutrean phenomenon in the context of human survival during the Last Glacial Maximum in SW Europe.?? I trace the evolution of my thinking on the Solutrean through the course of several projects and the work of many colleagues in archeology, archeozoology, and paleoe...
Article
Full-text available
The Pleistocene was an epoch of extreme climatic and environmental changes. How individual species responded to the repeated cycles of warm and cold stages is a major topic of debate. For the European fauna and flora, an expansion-contraction model has been suggested, whereby temperate species were restricted to southern refugia during glacial time...