Lawrence Raphael

Lawrence Raphael
Adelphi University | AU · Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders

About

58
Publications
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1,333
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Publications

Publications (58)
Article
The ability to encode information in temporal envelopes of acoustic stimuli is an important skill of the auditory system. It has been demonstrated that a listener's temporal-processing capability is predictive of performance on speech recognition, especially in noisy and complex environments (George, Festen, & Houtgast, 2006; George et al., 20...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: This preliminary investigation examined the effectiveness of using electropalatography, manufactured by Complete Speech®, as a tool with three children diagnosed with articulation disorders. The participants produced the following phonemes in error: /ʃ/, /s/, /r/, r-colored vowels [ɚ,ɝ], and r-colored diphthongs [ɛr, ɪr, ɔr, ɑr] in differe...
Conference Paper
This study explored a possible correlation between 1) gap detection ability and 2) speech recognition in noise. The participants were younger and older individuals with normal hearing. They completed a cognitive screening, hearing tests, and the Gaps-in-Noise (GIN) and Revised Speech Perception in Noise (R-SPIN) tests. We did not find a correlation...
Article
This study examined the effects of three different speaking modes (clear, habitual, and slow speech) on speech production of individuals with and without Parkinson's disease. Twenty-one speakers (13 with Parkinson's, 8 Controls) read the Farm passage in habitual, clear, and slow speech modes. Acoustic analysis involving the assessment of the first...
Article
At Haskins Laboratories, Katherine Harris lead a research team of engineers, programmers, technicians, ENT physicians, and fellow scientists to study speech production. As the reputation of this innovative research program grew, students, post-doctoral fellows, and visiting scientists from many universities and international laboratories came to jo...
Article
Unlabelled: The purpose of this study was to examine the nature and frequency of occurrence of disfluencies, as they occur in singletons and in clusters, in the conversational speech of individuals who clutter compared to typical speakers. Except for two disfluency types (revisions in clusters, and word repetitions in clusters) nearly all disfluen...
Article
Full-text available
The roles of spectro-temporal coherence, lexical status, and word position in the perception of speech in acoustic signals containing a mixture of speech and nonspeech sounds were investigated. Stimuli consisted of nine (non)words in which either white noise was inserted only into the silent interval preceding and/or following the onset of vocalic...
Article
Persons with cerebellar ataxia exhibit changes in physical coordination and speech and voice production. Previously, these alterations of speech and voice production were described primarily via perceptual coordinates. In this study, the spatial-temporal properties of syllable production were examined in 12 speakers, six of whom were healthy speake...
Article
Some vowel normalization schemes assume the perceptual exploitation of f0 and F3 information. These schemes implicitly predict that access to such information should improve listeners’ classification of vowels in a mixed-speaker condition relative to their classification in a blocked-speaker condition. In this study listeners classified naturally p...
Article
Investigations of the mechanisms underlying durational effects have shown that the displacements and velocities of articulator movement for the same acoustic‐phonetic segments are variable. Kinematic measures reveal more extreme displacements and increased velocity in stressed syllables as compared to weakly stressed syllables [Cohen et al., J. Aco...
Article
Ataxic dysarthria has been investigated both acoustically and perceptually without correlation to neurological imaging. The present study sought an acoustic signature with correlation to neurological degeneration for the speech disturbance recognized in cerebellar degeneration. Acoustic measures and magnetic resonance imaging were used to measure s...
Article
Full-text available
This investigation examined the effects of otitis media with effusion (OME) and its associated fluctuating conductive hearing loss on the perception of phonological and morphophonological /s/ and /z/ in young children. We predicted that children free of OME (OME-) would perform better than children with histories of OME (OME+). We also predicted th...
Article
The ``discovery'' of voice onset time (VOT) has, perhaps, stimulated more research projects than any other comparable measure. When the fathers of VOT, Leigh Lisker and Arthur Abramson, published their paper in 1964, other researchers were quick to recognize the implications of their findings and of their methodology. Those in the neighborhood of t...
Article
Perhaps the most influential among Franklin S. Cooper?s many contributions to the science and technology of speech research, was the design and construction of the Pattern Playback. The playback, devised originally as part of a project aimed at developing a reading machine for the blind, was significant for several reasons: It was the first speech...
Article
Contents: I. Descriptive Phonetics: Respiration. II. Descriptive Phonetics: Phonation. III. Descriptive Phonetics: Articulation. IV. Descriptive Phonetics: Suprasegmentals. V. Neurological Mechanisms in Speech. VI. Speech Organization and Coordination. VII. Speech Articulation and Language.
Chapter
In a series of experiments reported elsewhere (Raphael & Dorman, 1981; Raphael, Dorman, & Liberman, 1980), we have found that the syllable-initial formant transitions of synthetic CVC syllables contribute by their duration to the perception of vowel duration. Our experimental paradigm called for subjects to classify syllable-final consonants in CVC...
Article
Available data indicate that most languages employ three categories of Voice Onset Time (VOT) to distinguish homorganic stop consonants. The three categories, voicing lead/short lag/long lag, are temporally discrete and, in the opinion of some researchers, may coincide with psychoacoustically predetermined regions of auditory sensitivity. Moreover,...
Article
This paper presents an analysis of some articulatory properties of (Dutch) diphthongs, attempting to correlate articulatory inferences based on perceptual and acoustic data with more direct physiological measurements (recordings of EMG activity). Evidence is presented that supports a distinction between "genuine" and "pseudo" diphthongs: the two cl...
Article
The results of research previously reported [Raphael and Dorman, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Suppl 1, 67, S51 (1980)] indicated that CV transitions contribute equally with steady‐state formants to the perception of that vowel duration which can cue consonant voicing in natural speech. The experiments reported here extend the earlier work by considering the...
Article
In many languages both glides and vowels are found in tauto‐syllabic sequences preceding vowels. The phonological interpretations of these sequences may differ from one language to another. In English, for instance, glide + vowel is usually considered a CV sequence; while vowel + vowel is interpreted as a V (diphthong). In contrast, Dutch interpret...
Article
Two representative tokens of peg, taken from different contexts, were edited so that many of the potential acoustic cues to syllable‐final cognate opposition were individually altered. The durational and/or spectral values of the cues were set equal to those found in typical tokens of peck. In the first experiment listeners heard the stimuli in iso...
Article
The identification and discrimination of a stop-consonant voicing contrast (/da/--/ta/) was assessed in children and adolescents who had moderate, severe, and profound sensorineural hearing losses. The location of the perceptual boundary between /da/ and /ta/ did not differ between normal listeners and listeners with moderate losses. Of the ten lis...
Article
Many perceptual and acoustic studies of word-final cognate opposition have relied mainly on isolated synthetic utterances and have usually concluded that one or another of the potential cues is primary. Recent studies of natural speech segment durations in samples of connected discourse have raised questions about the efficacy of such cues. In the...
Article
Full-text available
Most investigations into the perceptual relevance of vowel duration have employed patterns of synthetic speech in which only the steady-state portions of syllables have been used as the variable. The experiments reported here were designed to discover if CV transitions are also included by the listener in determining the effective duration of the "...
Article
Full-text available
Most theoretical accounts of the identification of stop consonant place of articulation have focused on how bursts and formant transitions conspire to signal place in CV syllables. In the present series of experiments we have examined the identification of place in VCV syllables and have found that not only do the burst and opening transitions affe...
Article
The experiments reported here were attempts to replicate the results of previous research which had employed synthetic stimuli [Raphael et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Suppl. 1 57, S49(A) (1975), and 58, S57(A) (1975)]. A speaker recorded a single token of the syllable [sεd]. Under computer control the syllable was edited to produce three continua: [sε...
Article
The results of experiments previously reported indicated that syllable?initial formant transitions contribute by their duration to the perception of the syllable?final voicing contrast for stop consonants. The present experiment employed synthetic disyllables in an attempt to specify the contribution of the duration of syllable?initial and syllable...
Article
Full-text available
The results of several experiments demonstrate that silence is an important cue for the perception of stop-consonant and affricate manner. In some circumstances, silence is necessary; in others, it is sufficient. But silence is not the only cue to these manners. There are other cues that are more or less equivalent in their perceptual effects, thou...
Article
Previous studies using synthetic nonsense syllables have shown that listeners require a longer closure interval to report hearing a sequence of two identical stops (e.g., /?dd?/) than a sequence of two different stops (e.g., /?bd?/). Acoustic measurements of real words in natural speech do not reveal an analogous difference in production. That is,...
Article
Full-text available
EMG studies of the American English vowel pairs /i-I/ and /e-epsilon/ reveal two different production strategies: some speakers appear to differentiate the members of each pair primarily on the basis to tongue height; for others the basis of differentiation appears to be tongue tension. There was no obvious reflection of these differences in the sp...
Article
Traditional articulatory descriptions of front rounded and unrounded vowel pairs have assumed that tongue height is the same for the members of the pairs /i-y/, /e-ø/, and /ε-œ/. The electromyographic, articulatory synthetic, and acoustic investigations carried out in this study indicate that, in Dutch, the rounded member of the pairs /i-y/ and /e-...
Article
The present study investigated perceptual cues for the word?final fricative?affricate contrast, e.g., as in dish?ditch. When the closure interval between vowel and fricative in dish is increased, listeners perceive ditch. The duration of closure interval necessary for the perception of the affricative varies as a function of both friction rise time...
Article
Full-text available
Three experiments assessed the roles of release bursts and formant transitions as acoustic cues to place of articulation in syllable-initial voiced stop consonants by systematically removing them from American English /b,d,g/, spoken before nine different vowels by two speakers, and by transposing the bursts across all vowels for each class of stop...
Article
Phonetic science is becoming increasingly interdisciplinary. Phoneticians rely on, or at least collaborate with, sociologists, psychologists, biologists, poets, physicists, anthropologists, neurologists and others. A look at the history of phonetics reveals that this seemingly recent trend has deep roots. In fact, it is possible to draw parallels b...
Article
Results of previous experiments [Raphael et al., “Vowel information conveyed by consonant transitions,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 57, Suppl. No. 1, S49(A) (1975)] indicate that perceptual cues for initial consonants are, in part, incorporated by listeners into their estimates of vowel/syllable duration when they make voicing judgments of word‐final conso...
Article
Full-text available
To determine durational differences between vowel and nasal segments preceding word-final /t/ and /d/, spectrograms were made of adult speakers' productions of minimal pairs of the type /pent/-/pend/. Vowel, nasal, and vowel plus nasal (vocalic nucleus) durations were greater before /d/ than before /t/. Assuming the voiceless context as a base, the...
Article
Full-text available
Temporal-order perception of phoneme segments in running speech is much superior to temporal-order perception in repeating vowel sequences. The more rapid rates possible in running speech may be due largely to the presence of formant transitions. In a series of five experiments we observed that many temporal-order misjudgements of repeating vowels...
Article
It is well established that information specifying place and manner of articulation for stop consonants is conveyed by the transitions of the vocalic segment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these transitions also convey information about vocalic duration. Accordingly, four series of synthetic stimuli were generated: three of the...
Article
Full-text available
Electromyographic techniques were employed to discover which, if any, intrinsic and extrinsic tongue muscles displayed a difference in overall amount of activity corresponding to the traditional tense-lax distinction between members of the English vowel pairs /i-I/, /e-epsilon/, and /u-u/. Although some muscles revealed a consistent difference, mos...
Article
A number of studies in the literature have stated that the duration of a vowel is a significant cue to the voicing characteristic of the consonant that follows it. The present study investigated the effect of varying preceding vowel duration upon the perception of word‐final stops, fricatives, and clusters in synthetic speech. A variety of minimal...
Article
Both the traditional vowel triangle and more recent schemes of vowel classification present us with a picture in which the members of at least three pairs of vowels, /i‐I/, /e‐ɛ/, and u‐U/, are said to be differentiated from each other by a feature of tenseness. It has been suggested that differences in tension between the members of a tense‐lax pa...
Article
It has often been observed that English vowels are of greater duration before voiced than before voiceless consonants. This durational difference has been shown to be a significant perceptual cue to the voicing characteristic of word?final consonants. Little, however, has been done to specify the articulatory mechanisms underlying the observed diff...

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