Lawrence Hanks

Lawrence Hanks
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign | UIUC · Department of Entomology

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198
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Introduction

Publications

Publications (198)
Article
An increasing body of evidence indicates that cerambycid beetles native to different continents may share pheromone components, suggesting that these compounds arose as pheromone components early in the evolution of the family. Here, we describe the identification and field testing of the pheromone blends of two species in the subfamily Cerambycina...
Article
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We describe the identification, synthesis, and field-testing of aggregation-sex pheromones, or likely pheromone candidates, of seven species of South American cerambycid beetles in the subfamily Cerambycinae, of the tribes Eburiini and Neoibidionini. Analyses of extracts of volatiles released by adult males revealed that Eburodacrys dubitata White...
Article
During field bioassays in Kenya of 10 chemicals that are common pheromone components of cerambycid beetles, six species in the subfamily Cerambycinae were significantly attracted to 3-hydroxyhexan-2-one, and one species in the subfamily Lamiinae was significantly attracted to 2-(undecyloxy)ethanol (known as monochamol). These results further demons...
Article
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We describe the identification, synthesis, and field bioassays of a novel aggregation-sex pheromone produced by males of Susuacanga octoguttata (Germar), a South American cerambycid beetle. Analyses of extracts of headspace volatiles produced by adult beetles revealed a sex-specific compound emitted by males which was identified as (Z)-7-hexadecene...
Cover Page
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Interspecific Cross-Attraction between the South American Cerambycid Beetles Cotyclytus curvatus and Megacyllene acuta is Averted by Minor Pheromone Components. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10886-018-0933-5
Article
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During field screening trials conducted in Brazil in 2015, adults of both sexes of the cerambycid beetles Cotyclytus curvatus (Germar) and Megacyllene acuta (Germar) (subfamily Cerambycinae, tribe Clytini) were significantly attracted to racemic 3-hydroxyhexan-2-one and racemic 2-methylbutan-1-ol, chemicals which previously have been identified as...
Article
Here, we describe a field experiment that tested for attraction of cerambycid beetles to odors from angiosperm hosts, and whether plant volatiles also serve to enhance attraction of beetles to their aggregation-sex pheromones. Traps were baited with a blend of synthesized chemicals that are common pheromone components of species in the subfamilies...
Article
The chemical structures of aggregation-sex pheromones of longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) are often conserved among closely related taxa. In the subfamily Lamiinae, adult males and females of several species are attracted by racemic blends of (E)-6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-ol (termed fuscumol) and the structurally related (E)-6,10-...
Article
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Cerambycid beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) can locate suitable hosts and mates by sensing pheromones and plant volatiles. Many cerambycid pheromone components have been identified and are now produced synthetically for trap lures. The range over which these lures attract cerambycids within a forest, and the tendency for cerambycids to move out o...
Conference Paper
To locate resources and mates, insects often use a combination of chemical and visual cues to orient to a particular habitat or individual. Beetles in the family Cerambycidae usually respond strongly to long-range pheromones emitted by potential mates. Visual cues may influence responses by these beetles to their pheromones. The objectives of our s...
Article
The cerambycid beetles comprise a diverse family that includes many economically important pests of living and dead trees. Pheromone lures have been developed for cerambycids in many parts of the world, but to date, have not been tested in Australia. In this study, we tested the efficacy of several pheromones, identified from North American and Eur...
Article
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Host plant volatiles have been shown to strongly synergize the attraction of some longhorn beetle species (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) to their pheromones. This synergism is well documented among species that infest conifers, but less so for angiosperm-infesting species. To explore the extent of this phenomenon in the Cerambycidae, we first tested th...
Article
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During field screening trials of a number of known cerambycid pheromones in China, males of Megopis costipennis (White) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Prioninae: Callipogonini) were found to be specifically attracted to racemic anti-2,3-octanediol, suggesting that one of the enantiomers of this compound might be a female- produced sex pheromone of this...
Article
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The invasive Asian cerambycid beetle Callidiellum rufipenne (Motschulsky), informally known as the Japanese cedar longhorned beetle, was first detected in North America in North Carolina in 1997. The beetle has since been detected in neighboring states and is expected to further expand its range. However, delineating the current distribution of C....
Article
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As well as being planted for wind breaks, landscape trees, and fuel wood, eucalypts are also widely used as urban street trees in California. They now are besieged by exotic insect herbivores of four different feeding guilds. The objective of the current analysis was to determine the return on investment from biological control programs that have t...
Article
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Male Dorysthenes granulosus (Thomson, 1860) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Prioninae) were caught in traps baited with racemic 3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid (prionic acid) during field screening trials in China that tested known cerambycid pheromones. This species is an important pest of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.). In follow-up dose-response tr...
Article
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The Asian wood-boring beetle Anoplophora chinensis (Forster) (Coleoptera: Cerambyci-dae) is an important pest of hardwood trees in its native range, and has serious potential to invade other areas of the world through worldwide commerce in woody plants and wood products. This species already has been intercepted in North America, and is the subject...
Article
Many species of cerambycid beetles in the subfamily Cerambycinae are known to use male-produced pheromones composed of one or a few components such as 3-hydroxyalkan-2-ones and the related 2,3-alkanediols. Here, we show that this pheromone structure is characteristic of the cerambycine genus Neoclytus Thomson, based on laboratory and field studies...
Article
We report the identification of a novel pheromone structure from males of the cerambycid beetle Tylonotus bimaculatus Haldeman (Cerambycinae: Hesperophanini), a species native to eastern North America. Volatiles collected from adult males contained (2S,4E)-2-hydroxyoct-4-en-3-one (71 %), (3R,4E)-3-hydroxyoct-4-en-2-one (15 %), (E)-4-octen-2,3-dione...
Article
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Research during the 1980s showed that male Xylotrechus pyrrhoderus Bates (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), a vineyard pest, produce (2S,3S)-2,3-octanediol and (S)-2-hydroxyoctan-3-one as possible pheromone components, but to our knowledge, field tests were not carried out. We confirmed that at least female X. pyrrhoderus were attracted by a 1:1 blend of...
Article
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Cerambycid beetles are abundant and diverse in forests, but much about their host relationships and adult behavior remains unknown. Generic blends of synthetic pheromones were used as lures in traps, to assess the species richness, and phenology of cerambycids in forest fragments in northern Delaware. More than 15,000 cerambycid beetles of 69 speci...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research has shown that volatile sex and aggregation-sex pheromones of many species of cerambycid beetles are highly conserved, with sympatric and synchronic species that are closely related (i.e., congeners), and even more distantly related (different subfamilies), using the same or similar pheromones. Here, we investigated mechanisms by wh...
Conference Paper
The insect cuticle is comprised of a matrix of chitin and proteins, topped with a thin layer of wax. Hydrocarbons in the waxy layer are coopted for communication in many insects, and a subset of these hydrocarbons serve as sex-specific mate recognition signals, also known as contact pheromones. The relative abundance of hydrocarbons can be altered...
Conference Paper
We tested the hypothesis that the altitude at which adult cerambycid beetles fly is associated with the feeding ecology of their larvae. For example, we predict that adults of branch girdling species would be active high in the canopy, while species that colonize fallen branches would be most active near ground level. We tested the hypothesis using...
Presentation
Beetles in the family Cerambycidae often emit long-range, sex pheromones to facilitate mate-location. Several species of parasitoids have been shown to ’eavesdrop’ on olfactory cues emitted by potential hosts. Orienting towards the sex pheromones of potential hosts may be a reliable and efficient way to locate an opportunity to oviposit. Our object...
Conference Paper
The cuticular hydrocarbon profile encodes information essential to ant colony organization: nestmate signals, sex cues, and individual fertility status. Understanding the chemical nature of these signals and how multiple signals are encoded within a single phenotype are crucial steps in understanding the evolution of eusociality. My studies of Nort...
Article
We summarize field data on the species composition and seasonal phenology of the community of cerambycid beetles of east-central Illinois. Data were drawn from field bioassays conducted during 2009 - 2012 that tested attraction of adult beetles of diverse species to a variety of synthetic pheromones and host plant volatiles. A total of 34,086 beetl...
Article
Full-text available
The attraction of cerambycid beetles to 10 known cerambycid pheromones was tested in a tropical montane rain forest in southern China. From 28 May to 25 June 2010, 1,526 cerambycids representing 71 species were captured in pheromone-baited traps, with 14 species accounting for 92% of the specimens. Test compounds with a 3-hydroxyalkan-2-one or 2,3-...
Conference Paper
Communication via cuticular hydrocarbons is widespread throughout solitary and eusocial insects. For many solitary insects, cuticular hydrocarbons convey mate and species recognition signals. For eusocial insects, hydrocarbon signals encode information essential to colony organization: nestmate signals, caste and sex cues, and individual fertility...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We evaluated the abundance and occupancy of long-horned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in forest fragments in northern Delaware over two years. Most of these urban and suburban forests are part of the long-term FRAME (Forest Fragments in Managed Ecosystems) program, which comprises 30 sites in the Mid-Atlantic region of the eastern United State...
Article
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The small white-marmorated longicorn beetle, Monochamus sutor (L.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is widely distributed throughout Europe and Asia. It is a potential vector of the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) Nickle, the causal agent of the devastating pine wilt disease. Volatiles were collected from both male and...
Article
Contact pheromones in the form of cuticular hydrocarbons are widespread among insects. Eusocial insects present a special challenge for understanding the evolution of the cuticular hydrocarbon profile because this blend is responsible for multiple distinct roles such as nestmate recognition and signalling fertility status. This study investigates t...
Article
Cuticular hydrocarbons have been identified as the source of sex-recognition signals for many insects, but for social insects, specifically ants, cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of males are often ignored. This study reports male-specific cuticular hydrocarbon patterns for the trap-jaw ant Odontomachus brunneus. Analysis of samples from four Florida...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, several attractant pheromones have been identified for cerambycid beetles, including 2-(undecyloxy)-ethanol (hereafter monochamol) for Monochamus galloprovincialis (Olivier), M. alternatus Hope, and M. scutellatus (Say). This study screened eight known cerambycid pheromones or their analogues (including monochamol) as potential att...
Article
We report identification and field testing of 2-(undecyloxy)-ethanol (monochamol) as a sex-specific, aggregation pheromone component produced by males of Monochamus scutellatus scutellatus (Say) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), a longhorned beetle native to North America. A congener, Monochamus notatus (Drury), which uses the same hosts as M. s. scutell...
Conference Paper
Cuticular hydrocarbons are thought to present an assortment of information necessary for maintaining a eusocial society. Nestmate status and reproductive status of individuals are both prime examples of such information conveyed through hydrocarbons. While, in ants, the role cuticular hydrocarbons as nestmate signals has been well demonstrated, fer...
Article
Full-text available
Eusociality is characterized by a reproductive division of labor, wherein workers respond to the presence of reproductive individuals by refraining from reproduction themselves and restricting the reproductive efforts of others. Our understanding of how eusociality is maintained therefore depends on characterizing the mechanism by which workers det...
Article
Full-text available
Recent work suggests that closely related cerambycid species often share pheromone components, or even produce pheromone blends of identical composition. However, little is known of the pheromones of species in the subfamily Prioninae. During field bioassays in California, males of three species in the prionine genus Tragosoma were attracted to 2,3...
Article
We evaluated attraction of cerambycid beetle species to blends of known cerambycid pheromones to determine whether such blends could be used as effective trap lures for detecting and monitoring multiple species simultaneously. Pheromone-baited traps captured 1,358 cerambycid beetles of which 1,101 (81.1%) belonged to three species in the subfamily...
Article
We present data indicating that three species of cerambycid beetles (subfamily Cerambycinae) produce the common cerambycine pheromone component (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one as well as an alkan-2-one component, a possible new motif for cerambycid pheromone components. GC/MS analyses of headspace volatiles produced by male beetles indicated that Cyrtopho...
Article
In this study, we assessed the relationship between the size of bolts cut from pin oak trees, Quercus palustris Münchhausen (Fagaceae), and eastern white pines, Pinus strobus Linnaeus (Pinaceae), and the number and body size of cerambycid beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) that develop within them. From oak bolts emerged adult Graphisurus fasciatus...
Article
We evaluated the attraction of native species of cerambycid beetles to blends of cerambycid pheromones and the host plant volatiles ethanol and α-pinene to determine whether such blends could be effective lures for detecting and monitoring multiple species. The complete six-component blend of pheromones included racemic 3-hydroxy-2-hexanone, 2,3-he...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract—Two species in the genus Monochamus Dejean (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) have recently been shown to have the same male-produced sex pheromone, 2-undecyloxy-1-ethanol (monochamol), suggesting that other congeners may share the same pheromone. We tested that hypothesis by conducting field bioassays of monochamol, in combination with...
Article
Odorant receptors (Ors) are a unique family of ligand-gated ion channels and the primary mechanism by which insects detect volatile chemicals. Here, we describe 57 putative Ors sequenced from an antennal transcriptome of the cerambycid beetle Megacyllene caryae (Gahan). The male beetles produce a pheromone blend of nine compovnents, and we function...
Article
Recent research has revealed extensive pheromonal parsimony within the large beetle family Cerambycidae, with closely related species producing the same or very similar pheromone components. This article summarizes research that evaluated attraction of cerambycids to individual pheromone components, blends of pheromone components, and combinations...
Article
Full-text available
We tabulated plant species that served as floral hosts of adult beetles as reported by Charles Robertson in his 33-yr data set of flower-visiting insects of central Illinois. Robertson listed 153 species of beetles (28 families) that visited 141 species of plants (44 families), most of which were in the Asteraceae. The most common beetle species we...
Article
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Widespread destruction of tallgrass prairies in the midwestern United States has fragmented plant communities with the result that populations of endemic animal species have become geographically isolated from one another. The goal of the research summarized here was to evaluate the potential for conserving endemic prairie species of herbivorous in...
Conference Paper
Many species of longhorned beetles (Cerambycidae) rely on volatile sex and aggregation pheromones to locate mates. The chemical structures of pheromones vary across subfamilies, but within these groups many species produce similar or identical compounds. In the subfamily Cerambycinae, the chemicals 3-hydroxyhexan-2-one, 2,3-hexanediol, and 2-methyl...