Lawrence Gostin

Lawrence Gostin
Georgetown University | GU · School of Law

About

668
Publications
131,274
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23,430
Citations
Citations since 2017
137 Research Items
11921 Citations
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Publications

Publications (668)
Article
This Viewpoint summarizes several federal strategies to ensure pregnant persons’ access to abortion services after the recent Supreme Court ruling in Dobbs v Jackson Women’s Health Organization : expanding access to medication abortion, ensuring provision of emergency abortion services, proposing new conscience protections for clinicians, and prote...
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This JAMA Forum discusses the harms of Title 42 on health, the lack of public health justification for its use in the US and how it violates international law, and the proposed reforms to promote public health instead of border control.
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Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continued to mutate and spread in 2022 despite the introduction of safe, effective vaccines and medications. Vaccine hesitancy remains substantial, fueled in part by misinformation. Our third study of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine hesitancy among 23,000 respondents in 23 cou...
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This is a pivotal moment in the global governance response to pandemic threats, with crucial global health law reforms being undertaken simultaneously in the coming years: the revision of the International Health Regulations, the implementation of the GHSA Legal Preparedness Action Package, and the negotiation of a new Pandemic Treaty. Rather than...
Article
When the history of the COVID-19 pandemic is written, the failure of many states to live up to their human rights obligations should be a central narrative. The pandemic began with Wuhan officials in China suppressing information, silencing whistleblowers, and violating the freedom of expression and the right to health. Since then, COVID-19's effec...
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Despite notable scientific and medical advances, broader political, socioeconomic and behavioural factors continue to undercut the response to the COVID-19 pandemic 1,2 . Here we convened, as part of this Delphi study, a diverse, multidisciplinary panel of 386 academic, health, non-governmental organization, government and other experts in COVID-19...
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Despite notable scientific and medical advances, broader political, socioeconomic and behavioural factors continue to undercut the response to the COVID-19 pandemic1,2. Here we convened, as part of this Delphi study, a diverse, multidisciplinary panel of 386 academic, health, non-governmental organization, government and other experts in COVID-19 r...
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This Viewpoint discusses the ways in which the Supreme Court’s ruling in Dobbs v Jackson Women’s Health Organization , which triggered abortion bans or restrictions in half of states, presents serious legal risks to clinicians and major ethical dilemmas.
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Climate change poses a cataclysmic threat to public health and human rights [...]
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This Viewpoint discusses the recent Supreme Court decision declaring a broad right to carry firearms in public and offers a public health strategy for firearms safety laws.
Preprint
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Background This study assessed the association between Joint External Evaluation (JEE) scores and Covid-19 and other infectious diseases performance in 96 countries. To propose a revised JEE tool, potential JEE indicators were also examined. Methods The JEE scores were extracted across 96 countries from 2016 to 2019. We used Covid-19, fatality rat...
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This Viewpoint examines the ongoing monkeypox outbreak and the recent decision by the director-general of the World Health Organization to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.
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(Abstracted from JAMA 2021;326:1473–1474) A total of 13 states have enacted fetal heartbeat laws banning abortion once embryonic cardiac activity is detected. Despite enforcement of these laws being found unconstitutional by various courts, on September 1, 2021, the US Supreme Court allowed passage of a Texas fetal heartbeat law (SB8).
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WHO has anchored the global health architecture since its founding in 1948, and it is impossible to imagine another institution filling the void if the international community were to let it atrophy. While also confronting and guiding the response to COVID-19, WHO is engaged in the most consequential reforms since its founding, including negotiatin...
Article
Since the start of the Covid‐19 pandemic, societies have faced agonizing decisions about whether to close schools, shutter businesses, delay nonemergency health care, restrict travel, and authorize the use of emergency Covid‐19 countermeasures under limited scientific understanding. When both action and inaction can result in significant harm and i...
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Recognizing marked limitations of global health law in the COVID-19 pandemic, a rising number of states in the World Health Assembly have proposed the development of a new pandemic treaty. This prospective treaty has the potential to clarify state obligations for pandemic preparedness and response and strengthen World Health Organization authoritie...
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Most countries have implemented restrictions on mobility to prevent the spread of Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), entailing considerable societal costs but, at least initially, based on limited evidence of effectiveness. We asked whether mobility restrictions were associated with changes in the occurrence of COVID-19 in 34 OECD countries plus Si...
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Many vaccine rationing guidelines urge planners to recognize, and ideally reduce, inequities. In the United States, allocation frameworks are determined by each of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 64 jurisdictions (50 states, the District of Columbia, five cities and eight territories). In this study, we analyzed vaccine allocation...
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As shown by COVID-19, infectious diseases with a pandemic potential present a grave threat to health and wellbeing. Although the International Health Regulations provide a framework of binding legal obligations for pandemic prevention, preparedness, and response, many countries do not comply with these regulations. There is a need for a renewed fra...
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Background The 2005 International Health Regulations (IHR (2005)) require States Parties to establish National Focal Points (NFPs) responsible for notifying the World Health Organization (WHO) of potential events that might constitute public health emergencies of international concern (PHEICs), such as outbreaks of novel infectious diseases. Given...
Preprint
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Background: The 2005 International Health Regulations (IHR (2005)) require States Parties to establish National Focal Points (NFPs) responsible for notifying the World Health Organization (WHO) of potential events that might constitute public health emergencies of international concern (PHEICs), such as outbreaks of novel infectious diseases. Given...
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Several coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines are currently in human trials. In June 2020, we surveyed 13,426 people in 19 countries to determine potential acceptance rates and factors influencing acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine. Of these, 71.5% of participants reported that they would be very or somewhat likely to take a COVID-19 vaccine,...
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A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-01226-0
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The World Health Organization (WHO) has sought to bring the world together to respond to a shared threat. This column seeks to examine the central importance of WHO in developing and implementing global health law. Recognizing that global health law requires global governance, the column begins by situating WHO’s role at the forefront of global hea...
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Joseph R. Biden was elected President of the United States during a period of compound crises for global health and security: the worst pandemic in a century, as well as steep reverses in progress toward reducing poverty, hunger, and disease. The United States has been in full retreat from global health leadership, fraying relationships with allies...
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The International Health Regulations (ihr), of which the World Health Organization is custodian, govern how countries collectively promote global health security, including prevention, detection, and response to global health emergencies such as the ongoing covid-19 pandemic. Countries are permitted to exercise their sovereignty in taking additiona...
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The International Health Regulations ( ihr ), of which the World Health Organization is custodian, govern how countries collectively promote global health security, including prevention, detection, and response to potential global health emergencies such as the ongoing covid -19 pandemic. While Article 44 of this binding legal instrument requires c...
Preprint
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Objectives To determine the impact of restrictions on mobility on reducing transmission of COVID-19. Design Daily incidence rates lagged by 14 days were regressed on mobility changes using LOESS regression and logit regression between the day of the 100th case in each country to August 31, 2020. Setting 34 OECD countries plus Singapore and Taiwan...
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The World Health Organization (WHO) is leading an unprecedented pandemic response while facing relentless political attacks. Never before has the world been so reliant on WHO. Never before has WHO faced such existential challenges to its institutional authority. Responding to these contemporary attacks on WHO governance requires a detailed understa...
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Mathew Kavanagh and co-authors discuss law reform in the global tuberculosis response.
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In this editorial, we reflect on the challenges that nationalism poses in the COVID-19 response, conceptualizing how we could reimagine global health governance. We begin by examining how international organizations have sought to bring nations together in responding to global health threats. However, international institutions are facing increasin...
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In December 2020, the first COVID-19 vaccines were approved. Despite more than 85 million reported cases and 1.8 million known deaths, millions worldwide say they may not accept it. This study assesses the associations of age, gender, and level of education with vaccine acceptance, from a random sample of 13,426 participants selected from 19 high-C...
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This column explores the global health law reforms necessary to progressively realize universal access to a future COVID-19 vaccine. We begin by explaining the importance of global health law in the distribution of essential vaccines as a determinant of public health. The column then turns to examine the human rights foundations of global health la...
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Infectious disease outbreaks pose major threats to human health and security. Countries with robust capacities for preventing, detecting and responding to outbreaks can avert many of the social, political, economic and health system costs of such crises. The Global Health Security Index (GHS Index)-the first comprehensive assessment and benchmarkin...
Preprint
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A number of COVID-19 vaccines are under development, with one or more possibly becoming available in 2021. We conducted a global survey in June 2020 of 13,426 people in 19 countries to determine potential acceptance rates of a COVID-19 vaccine and factors influencing acceptance. We ran univariate logistic regressions to examine the associations wit...
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According to a 2019 report by Woolf and Schoomaker,¹ average life expectancy in the US began to level off in 2010 and then declined from 2014 to 2017. Although life expectancy increased slightly in 2018, concerted actions to address the “cumulative insults to the nation’s health” are warranted,² especially considering the increase in mortality in 2...
Book
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Human rights are essential to global health, yet rising threats in an increasingly divided world are challenging the progressive evolution of health-related human rights. It is necessary to empower a new generation of scholars, advocates, and practitioners to sustain the global commitment to universal rights in public health. Looking to the next ge...
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This chapter conceptualizes the threat of populism to global health and human rights. Part I examines the roots of contemporary populism, with the realization of a globalizing and interconnected world— bound together by shared norms— leading to the rise of fundamentalist movements that seek to return to an imagined past. Giving rise to right- wing...
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This chapter addresses the international organizations that have accepted human rights obligations as a way of framing their global health policies, programs, and practices. International organizations within the United Nations (UN) system are engaged in implementing human rights—in both the mission they carry out and the way in which they carry ou...
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This introductory chapter seeks to define the relationship between global health and human rights and examine the evolving field of health and human rights. Global health and human rights are complementary approaches to defining and advancing human health and well-being. Where global health prioritizes the improvement of public health and health eq...
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This chapter examines the historical origins of human rights as a basis for public health. Tracing the idea of rights from philosophical notions of natural rights to human rights under international law, the normative foundations underlying rights have long been seen as central to health and well-being—from the political engagement with underlying...
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This chapter provides an understanding of the legal foundations of human rights, examining human rights under international law as a basis for social justice in public health. International human rights law has codified the rights first enumerated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), evolving through the politics of the Cold War to...
Article
Human rights are essential to global health, yet rising threats in an increasingly divided world are challenging the progressive evolution of health-related human rights. It is necessary to empower a new generation of scholars, advocates, and practitioners to sustain the global commitment to universal rights in public health. Looking to the next ge...
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Full-text available
Introduction: Nine events have been assessed for potential declaration of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). A PHEIC is defined as an extraordinary event that constitutes a public health risk to other states through international spread and requires a coordinated international response. The WHO Director-General convenes Eme...
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We propose that a Right to Health Capacity Fund (R2HCF) be created as a central institution of a reimagined global health architecture developed in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic. Such a fund would help ensure the strong health systems required to prevent disease outbreaks from becoming devastating global pandemics, while ensuring genuinely...
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COVID-19 reveals gaps in international law that can inhibit timely sharing of information, samples, and sequences
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How can we keep people – wherever they live – healthy and safe? Among all global health initiatives, universal health coverage (UHC) has garnered most political attention. But can UHC (as important as it is) actually achieve the two fundamental aspirations of the right to health: keeping people healthy and safe, while leaving no one behind? There i...
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Health inequalities are embedded in a complex array of social, political, and economic inequalities. Responding to health inequalities will require systematic action targeting all the underlying (“upstream”) social determinants that powerfully affect health and well‐being. Systemic inequalities are a major reason for the rise of modern populism tha...
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The Lancet–O’Neill Institute/Georgetown University Commission on Global Health and Law published its report on the Legal Determinants of Health in 2019. The term ‘legal determinants of health’ draws attention to the power of law to influence upstream social and economic influences on population health. In this article, we introduce the Commission,...
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Few novel or emerging infectious diseases have posed such vital ethical challenges so quickly and dramatically as the novel coronavirus SARS‐CoV‐2. The World Health Organization declared a public health emergency of international concern and recently classified COVID‐19 as a worldwide pandemic. As of this writing, the epidemic has not yet peaked in...
Chapter
This chapter, which grew out of a Greenwall Foundation–funded working group of a dozen or so ethicists, lawyers, and public health practitioners, provides a rough conceptual map of the terrain of public health ethics. It examines the nature of public health and public health interventions, and it identifies a number of general moral considerations...
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Global health law remains crucial to preventing, detecting, and responding to COVID-19 — implementing the IHR to control the rapid spread of this novel coronavirus — and this column explores the long evolution and continuing limitations of this WHO framework. Outlining the international legal landscape, this column examines the evolution of global...