Lawrence Freedman

Lawrence Freedman
King's College London | KCL · Department of War Studies

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71
Publications
10,465
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1,336
Citations
Citations since 2017
2 Research Items
304 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230102030405060
20172018201920202021202220230102030405060

Publications

Publications (71)
Article
Tony Blair’s April 1999 Chicago speech is taken as widely seen as foreshadowing his later decision to support the invasion of Iraq. Two sets of context for the speech are described: other criteria for the use of force, going back to the Just War tradition and more recent contributions from Caspar Weinberger and Colin Powell, and the December 1998 s...
Article
Henry Kissinger's World Order harks back to a foreign policy that might seem old-fashioned. But it warns against ignoring the realities of power and interest.
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Full-text available
The Owen/Russell thesis on the impact of mental illness on political leaders is considered. The importance of the issue is acknowledged. Using the examples of President Kennedy and the Shah of Iran it is argued that what constitutes good decision-making is contingent on circumstances and evaluated by outcomes. There are often alternative explanatio...
Article
Terror is defined as deliberate acts of violence designed to create a psychological effect—terror—with the intention of causing a shift in the target's attitudes and behaviour. A distinction is drawn between tactical terrorism, when such acts are undertaken as part of a multifaceted campaign, and strategic terrorism, where they are undertaken as an...
Article
In this article I discuss terrorism as a problem in the study of strategy rather than strategy as a problem in the study of terrorism. There is a developing literature now asserting that terrorist activity should be evaluated as strategy, so that dealing with the phenomenon requires not only denouncing it for its warped morality and inhumanity but...
Article
The wars in Afghanistan and Iraq were liberal wars, in that they were justified as part of a campaign to prevent existential attacks on the Western way of life. But defensively, in terms of protecting liberal society, the Iraq War was not needed; offensively, in terms of extending liberal society, it has been a failure. The human costs have been hi...
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Full-text available
Of Britain's recent wars, the Falklands campaign of 1982 was anomalous in many respects, fought to defend a colony with a small but a loyal population, 8000 miles away, but it was also relatively straightforward. It involved high-level diplomacy and consultations at the United Nations, but it was decided on the battlefield in a series of short, but...
Article
Underlying the transatlantic tensions of recent years is a philosophical gap between visionaries who can imagine, for example, a radical democratic reordering of the Arab Middle East, and counter-visionaries who worry more about costs and unintended consequences. The fundamental issue is strategic. It concerns the readiness to acknowledge and adjus...
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The problem of risk communication in the context of imperfect intelligence regarding a prospective, rather than actual, terrorist attack is examined in order to assess recommendations for precise guidance for the public. Particular problems are noted with the iterative quality of risk communications about terrorism, as they allow the terrorists to...
Article
Posing the most serious challenge to international security today, fourth-generation warfare (4GW) uses all available networks – political, economic, social and military – to convince the enemy's political decision-makers that their strategic goals are either unachievable or too costly for the perceived benefit. It is rooted in the fundamental prec...
Article
In this official history of the Falklands Campaign, Lawrence Freedman provides a detailed and authoritative account of one of the most extraordinary periods in recent British political history and a vivid portrayal of a government at war. After the shock of the Argentine invasion of the Falklands in April 1982, Margaret Thatcher faced the crisis th...
Article
It is now regularly asserted that the American and British invasion of Iraq was 'sold' using an intelligence case that was not only erroneous but skewed by political bias - if not manufactured outright. An examination of the interaction between the development of intelligence assessments and the key decisions on policy reveals that the key assessme...
Chapter
The Soviet Union broke the United States atomic monopoly with a test in August 1949. A number of years would have to pass before this would turn into an atomic stockpile, but the eventual Soviet accumulation of such a stockpile was virtually inevitable. This development had a paradoxical effect. While it discouraged doctrines based upon atomic weap...
Article
International security addresses questions of force: how to spot it, stop it, resist it and occasionally threaten and even use it. It considers the conditions that encourage or discourage organised violence in international affairs and the conduct of all types of military activity. It therefore deals with the most fundamental questions of war and p...
Article
This is an edited text of the sixth John Vincent Memorial Lecture delivered by Lawrence Freedman at the University of Keele on 8 May 1998. Against the background of Soviet military power in Europe in the 1970s, the author explores in the first place the question of the utility of force in circumstances where there is no immediate danger of war, and...
Article
Once upon a time, security specialists focused on elaborate scenarios of superpower nuclear Armageddon. Today, they must try to understand regional conflicts where the weapon of choice is likely to be a machete.
Article
In response to Dr Malcolm Chalmers’ presentation on the British Defence Review, Professor Lawrence Freedman here examines different options for the current review in an international context. In comparison with previous reviews, this one is different‐largely because the international climate in which it is being drafted has radically changed. He ar...
Article
Political Parties and the European Union Edited by GaffneyJohnRoutledge, London, 1996 (340 pages). £45.00, hardback (ISBN 0-415-09059-8); £13.99, softback (ISBN 0-415-09060-1) - Volume 5 Issue 1 - Lawrence Freedman
Article
The British Way in Warfare was the title of a book by Basil Liddell Hart published in 1932.1 It was an elaboration of ideas first propounded a year earlier in a celebrated lecture on ‘Economic Pressure or Continental Victories’ to the Royal United Services Institute. Like many of his generation, the more Liddell Hart reflected on his own encounter...
Chapter
Britain’s approach to European security is normally taken to reflect its particular geography and history. As an island separated by a channel from mainland Europe, Britain was until recently only occasionally a close participant in continental affairs. As a maritime nation it developed a global empire. Its cultural affinities were with the English...
Article
Nature is the international weekly journal of science: a magazine style journal that publishes full-length research papers in all disciplines of science, as well as News and Views, reviews, news, features, commentaries, web focuses and more, covering all branches of science and how science impacts upon all aspects of society and life.
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Full-text available
Lawrence Freedman and Efraim Karsh are both members of the Department of War Studies, King's College, London. They are co-authoring a book, provisionally entitled The Second Gulf War, to be published in 1992 by Faber & Faber in the United Kingdom and Princeton University Press in the United States. The authors wish to express their thanks to David...
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Full-text available
The Falklands War began on April 2, 1982, when Argentina forces occupied the Falkland Islands in pursuit of their long-standing claim to sovereignty. Britain immediately sent a task force to the South Atlantic to recover the islands, and by the middle of June it had achieved this objective. This Note examines the course and management of the confli...
Article
Lawrence Freedman is Professor of War Studies at King's College, London. The author would like to acknowledge the help of Nicholas Wheeler in the preparation of this review. 1. The argument that the basic ideas in the strategic debate, including those discussed in this review, have remained "remarkably steady in the face of major technological and...
Article
In the first of our new series of review articles on different aspects of postwar British history, Lawrence Freedman examines the literature on the Falklands conflict, five years after the event. He finds not only that good contemporary history can (and has been) written, but also that it will still have value to the historian even when the files o...
Article
Strategic studies have not included an adequate appreciation of the impact of politics and geography. Whether a particular exercise of military power by a government can succeed depends to a considerable degree on whether that government is operating through consent or by coercion. The need for consent may limit military preparations, but coercion...
Article
A proposal for an international satellite monitoring agency (ISMA) to verify arms control agreements was first made by France in 1978, and has been received enthusiastically, although not by the superpowers. The technologies available for verification are proliferating, and many countries feel they can make a useful contribution. The authors examin...
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Colin Gray, Strategic Studies and Public Policy: The American Experience (The University Press of Kentucky, 1982), 230 pp. $19.50.Colin Gray, Strategic Studies, A Critical Assessment (London: Aldwych Press; Westport, CT., Greenwood Press, 1982), 213 pp. $27.50.
Article
Lawrence Freedman is professor of war studies, and chairman of the department, at King's College London at the University of London. He has held research positions at Nuffield College, Oxford, and at the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) before becoming head of policy studies at the Royal Institute of International Affairs. In ad...
Book
On 6 August 1945 the first atomic bomb was dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. At least 66,000 people died almost immediately from the explosion and fire-storm that followed. Tens of thousands more died in the aftermath. Three days after the first explosion, a second bomb was dropped on the Japanese city of Nagasaki. The immediate dead numbe...
Chapter
The strategic debate that developed in the US during the mid-1950s was impressive both for its vigour and, viewed in retrospect, its underlying consensus. The debate found the Administration, with qualified support from the Air Force, ranged against almost every other interested party. The immediate stake was the size and composition of the defence...
Chapter
As controversial as McNamara’s desire to improve the Alliance’s conventional option was his desire to dissuade the Europeans from developing their own nuclear options. The distaste for the independent nuclear deterrents was not solely a question of saving resources for conventional weapons. It was also related to concepts of controlled nuclear warf...
Chapter
A force of submarine-launched missiles was ideal for a small nuclear power. Against McNamara’s list of disadvantages of limited nuclear capabilities, Britain’s Polaris missiles came out remarkably well. They were neither particularly expensive nor ‘prone to obsolescence’. McNamara’s strictures concerning the danger and lack of credibility of indepe...
Article
For the moment strategy has effectively come to a dead-end. In future any radical departures in strategic thought will be prompted more by political change than innovation in weapons systems. Thus the tasks of strategic studies will lie more in the realm of political science than in traditional military science.
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[Table of Contents]: Introduction, by Burkard Schmitt; Chapter One: Nuclear weapons - less central, more dangerous?, by Thérèse Delpech; Chapter Two: The future of arms control, by Harald Müller; Chapter Three: The ultimate weapon redux? US nuclear policy in a new era, Robert A. Manning; Chapter Four: Europe and deterrence, by Lawrence Freedman; Ch...
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[Preface]. Over the last months, the debate on National Missile Defense (NMD) has increasingly dominated the transatlantic security dialogue. The currently proposed system is intended to provide the United States an effective defence of all fifty states against small-scale attacks by intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs). The primary argument...

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