Lawrence Gregory Appelbaum

Lawrence Gregory Appelbaum
Duke University Medical Center | DUMC · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science

Ph.D.

About

136
Publications
47,733
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
3,456
Citations
Citations since 2016
85 Research Items
2614 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
Introduction
I am an Associate Professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and Center for Cognitive Neuroscience at Duke University. I head the Human Performance Optimization Lab (OptiLab; www.dukeoptilab.org) and direct the Brain Stimulation Center. My research has primarily utilized cognitive neuroscience approaches to study perception and action, memory, cognitive control, learning and expertise.
Additional affiliations
June 2011 - present
Duke University Medical Center
Position
  • Managing Director
Description
  • Greg Appelbaum is an Associate Professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences in the Duke University School of Medicine. He heads the Human Performance Optimization lab (Opti Lab) and directs the Brain Stimulation Research Center.
October 2004 - June 2006
Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Institute
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (136)
Article
Background: Writer's cramp (WC) dystonia is a rare disease that causes abnormal postures during the writing task. Successful research studies for WC and other forms of dystonia are contingent on identifying sensitive and specific measures that relate to the clinical syndrome and achieve a realistic sample size to power research studies for a rare...
Article
The last decades have seen a rise in the use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) approaches to modulate brain activity and associated behavior. Concurrently, eye tracking (ET) technology has improved to allow more precise quantitative measurement of gaze behavior, offering a window into the mechanisms of vision and cognition. When com...
Article
Full-text available
Have you ever been frustrated when you miss a shot in basketball, or when your drawing comes out differently on paper than you pictured in your head? Would not it be nice if there was a way that we could speed up learning, to help our brains and hands work together better? People who are training to be surgeons feel the same way. Before they get go...
Article
Full-text available
Activity-dependent synaptic plasticity is a ubiquitous property of the nervous system that allows neurons to communicate and change their connections as a function of past experiences. Through reweighting of synaptic strengths, the nervous system can remodel itself, giving rise to durable memories that create the biological basis for mental functio...
Article
Background: Transdiagnostic clinical emotional dysregulation is a key component of many mental health disorders and offers an avenue to address multiple disorders with one transdiagnostic treatment. In the current study, we pilot an intervention that combines a one-time teaching and practice of cognitive restructuring (CR) with repetitive transcra...
Preprint
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has become an important technique in both scientific and clinical practices, and yet our understanding of how the brain responds to TMS is still limited. Concurrent neuroimaging during TMS may bridge this gap, and emerging evidence suggests widespread that modulatory effects of TMS may be best captured throug...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Transdiagnostic clinical emotional dysregulation is a key component of psychopathology and offers an avenue to address multiple disorders with one transdiagnostic treatment. In the current study, we pilot a one-time intervention that combines cognitive restructuring (CR) with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), targeted...
Article
Full-text available
Background Online repetitive transcranialmagnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been shown to modulate working memory (WM) performance in a site‐specific manner, with behavioral improvements due to stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and impairment from stimulation to the lateral parietal cortex (LPC). Neurobehavioral studies have d...
Article
Full-text available
Unwanted intrusive thoughts (UITs) are negative ruminations that occur commonly and show similar characteristics between clinical and nonclinical forms. Despite their prevalence and impact, the control processes of UITs remain unclear. This study aimed to capture the effects of three thought-control strategies on UITs through an interventional desi...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Emotional dysregulation constitutes a serious public health problem in need of novel transdiagnostic treatments. Objective: To this aim, we developed and tested a one-time intervention that integrates behavioral skills training with concurrent repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Methods: Forty-six adults who met...
Article
Tobacco use remains the number one preventable cause of death in the United States, resulting in significant public health and economic costs. Despite progress in reducing tobacco use through pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy smoking cessation interventions, additional treatment options are still needed to improve treatment effectiveness. As an adj...
Article
Full-text available
Significance: Sports vision is an emerging field that seeks to establish the relationships between visual function and sports performance. Here we provide the first critical review of empirical studies that attempt to link visual assessments and vision training to competitive game performance.Vision is essential to producing controlled movement, a...
Article
Full-text available
While repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is widely used to treat psychiatric disorders, innovations are needed to improve its efficacy. An important limitation is that while psychiatric disorders are associated with fronto-limbic dysregulation, rTMS does not have sufficient depth penetration to modulate affected subcortical structu...
Article
Full-text available
The fusion of immersive virtual reality, kinematic movement tracking, and EEG offers a powerful test bed for naturalistic neuroscience research. Here, we combined these elements to investigate the neuro-behavioral mechanisms underlying precision visual–motor control as 20 participants completed a three-visit, visual–motor, coincidence-anticipation...
Article
Full-text available
Expertise in laparoscopic surgery is realized through both manual dexterity and efficient eye movement patterns, creating opportunities to use gaze information in the educational process. To better understand how expert gaze behaviors are acquired through deliberate practice of technical skills, three surgeons were assessed and five novices were tr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Writer’s cramp (WC) dystonia presents with abnormal postures during the task of writing and is an ideal dystonia subtype to study disease mechanisms for all forms of focal dystonia. Development of novel therapies is contingent on identifying sensitive and specific measures that can relate to the clinical syndrome and achieve a realistic...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Emotional dysregulation constitutes a serious public health problem in need of novel transdiagnostic treatments. To this aim, we developed and tested a one-time intervention that integrates behavioral skills training with concurrent repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Methods: Forty-seven adults who met criteria for at...
Preprint
Full-text available
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has fundamentally transformed how we treat psychiatric disorders, but is still in need of innovation to optimally correct dysregulation that occurs throughout the fronto-limbic network. rTMS is often applied over the prefrontal cortex, a central node in this network, but less attention is given to...
Article
Despite the widespread use of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in research and clinical care, the dose–response relations and neurophysiological correlates of modulatory effects remain relatively unexplored. To fill this gap, we studied modulation of visual processing as a function of TMS parameters. Our approach combined electroencephalogra...
Article
We recently proposed a neurocognitive model of distancing—an emotion regulation tactic—with a focus on the lateral parietal cortex. Although this brain area has been implicated in both cognitive control and self-projection processes during distancing, fMRI work suggests that these processes may be dissociable here. This preregistered (NCT03698591)...
Article
The brain is an inherently dynamic system, and much work has focused on the ability to modify neural activity through both local perturbations and changes in the function of global network ensembles. Network controllability is a recent concept in network neuroscience that purports to predict the influence of individual cortical sites on global netw...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Experts consistently exhibit more efficient gaze behaviors than non-experts during motor tasks. In surgery, experts have been shown to gaze more at surgical targets than surgical tools during simple simulations and when watching surgical recordings, suggesting a proactive control strategy with greater use of feedforward visual sampling....
Article
The published full text of this research can be found here: Liu, S., Ferris, L. M., Hilbig, S., Asamoa, E., LaRue, J. L., Lyon, D., ... & Appelbaum, L. G. (2020). Dynamic vision training transfers positively to batting practice performance among collegiate baseball batters. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 51, 101759.
Article
Full-text available
A growing body of evidence demonstrates visual, perceptual, and oculomotor abilities contribute to batting performance in baseball and there is interest in whether training such abilities can transfer positively to batting performance. The current study tested this question through a pre-registered randomized, and placebo-controlled intervention, c...
Preprint
Full-text available
Despite the widespread use of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in research and clinical care, the underlying mechanisms-of-actions that mediate modulatory effects remain poorly understood. To fill this gap, we studied dose-response functions of TMS for modulation of visual processing. Our approach combined electroencephalography (EEG) with a...
Article
Full-text available
Scientists and practitioners have long debated about the specific visual skills needed to excel at hitting a pitched baseball. To advance this debate, we evaluated the relationship between pre-season visual and oculomotor evaluations and pitch-by-pitch season performance data from professional baseball batters. Eye tracking, visual-motor, and optom...
Preprint
Full-text available
Although the unwanted intrusive thoughts (UITs) exist widely in human beings and show similar characteristics between clinical and nonclinical forms, its control process remains unclear. Thoughts of choking under pressure, particularly among high-achieving athletes, represent a meaningful UIT type due to their psychological and performance-related...
Article
The perception of visual motion is dependent on a set of occipitotemporal regions that are readily accessible to neuromodulation. The current study tested if paired-pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (ppTMS) could modulate motion perception by stimulating the occipital cortex as participants viewed near-threshold motion dot stimuli. In this sh...
Article
Full-text available
Neuroimaging evidence suggests that the aging brain relies on a more distributed set of cortical regions than younger adults in order to maintain successful levels of performance during demanding cognitive tasks. However, it remains unclear how task demands give rise to this age-related expansion in cortical networks. To investigate this issue, fun...
Article
Full-text available
The process of manipulating information within working memory is central to many cognitive functions, but also declines rapidly in old age. Improving this process could markedly enhance the health-span in older adults. The current pre-registered, randomized and placebo-controlled study tested the potential of online repetitive transcranial magnetic...
Article
The U.S. is currently facing an unprecedented epidemic of opioid-related deaths. Despite the efficacy of the current treatments for opioid use disorder (OUD), including psychosocial interventions and medication-assisted therapy (MAT), many patients remain treatment-resistant and at high risk for overdose. A potential augmentation strategy includes...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that delivers constant, low electrical current resulting in changes to cortical excitability. Prior work suggests it may enhance motor learning giving it the potential to augment surgical technical skill acquisition. Objectives: The aim of th...
Preprint
Full-text available
A growing body of evidence demonstrates visual, perceptual, and oculomotor abilities contribute to batting performance in baseball and there is interest in whether training such abilities can transfer positively to batting performance. The current study tested this question through a pre-registered randomized, and placebo-controlled intervention, c...
Chapter
Full-text available
PTSD is a chronic, highly debilitating condition that can develop following exposure to traumatic events. Unfortunately, less than 20%-30% of patients with PTSD achieve full remission following pharmacological treatment. As such, there is a need for novel, nonpharmacological alternatives that can facilitate recovery from PTSD. Brain stimulation app...
Article
Full-text available
The brain is organized into networks that reorganize dynamically in response to cognitive demands and exogenous stimuli. In recent years, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has gained increasing use as a noninvasive means to modulate cortical physiology, with effects both proximal to the stimulation site and in distal areas that ar...
Preprint
Full-text available
Scientists and practitioners have long debated about the specific visual skills needed to excel at hitting a pitched baseball. This study aimed to advance the debate by evaluating the relationship between pre-season visual and oculomotor evaluations and pitch-by-pitch season performance data from professional baseball batters. Eye tracking, visual-...
Article
Full-text available
Elite athletes not only run faster, hit harder, and jump higher, but also see and react better. However, the specific visual-motor skills that differentiate high-achieving athletes are still not well understood. In this paper we examine 2317 athletes (1871 male) tested on the Nike SPARQ Sensory Station, a digital test battery measuring visual, perc...
Preprint
The brain is an inherently dynamic system, and much work has focused on the ability to modify neural activity through both local perturbations and changes in the function of global network ensembles. Network controllability is a recent concept in network science that purports to predict the influence of individual cortical sites on global network s...
Preprint
Full-text available
The perception of visual motion is dependent on a set of occipitotemporal regions which are readily accessible to neuromodulation. Previous studies using paired-pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (ppTMS) have provided evidence of the capacity of this type of protocols to modulate cognitive processes. To test whether such cortical modulation ca...
Article
Full-text available
Online repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), applied while subjects are performing a task, is widely used to disrupt brain regions underlying cognition. However, online rTMS has also induced "paradoxical enhancement". Given the rapid proliferation of this approach, it is crucial to develop a better understanding of how online stimula...
Preprint
Full-text available
Neuroimaging evidence suggests that the aging brain relies on a more distributed set of cortical regions than younger adults in order to maintain successful levels of performance during demanding cognitive tasks. However, it remains unclear how task demands give rise to this age-related expansion in cortical networks. To investigate this issue, we...
Preprint
Full-text available
The process of manipulating information within working memory (WM) is central to many cognitive functions, but also declines rapidly in old age. Given the importance of WM manipulation for maintaining healthy cognition, improving this process could markedly enhance health-span in older adults. The current pre-registered study tested the potential o...
Article
Full-text available
Working memory is the ability to perform mental operations on information that is stored in a flexible, limited capacity buffer. The ability to manipulate information in working memory is central to many aspects of human cognition, but also declines with healthy aging. Given the profound importance of such working memory manipulation abilities, the...
Data
Research summary. This document provides information about the study, the assumptions, and the inclusion and exclusion criteria. (DOCX)
Data
Detailed inclusion and exclusion criteria. (DOCX)
Data
Adverse effect monitoring plan. (PPTX)
Article
Full-text available
Stroboscopic visual training (SVT) is a form of training in which an individual practices a task under intermittent visual conditions with the intention of enhancing subsequent performance under normal visual conditions. Training with stroboscopic devices is theorized to improve important visual, perceptual, and cognitive skills, which in turn tran...
Article
The insular cortex supports the conscious awareness of physical and emotional sensations, and the ability to modulate the insula could have important clinical applications in psychiatry. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) uses transient magnetic fields to induce electrical currents in the superficial cortex. Given its deep location...
Article
Context: Aerobic exercise interventions are increasingly being prescribed for concussion rehabilitation, but whether aerobic training protocols influence clinical concussion diagnosis and management assessments is unknown. Objective: To investigate the effects of a brief aerobic exercise intervention on clinical concussion outcomes in healthy, a...