Laurie R. Weingart

Laurie R. Weingart
Carnegie Mellon University | CMU · Tepper School of Business

PhD in Organizational Behavior

About

101
Publications
66,670
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10,749
Citations
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August 1989 - present
Carnegie Mellon University

Publications

Publications (101)
Article
This paper aims to add to the current knowledge about conflict management by examining the relationships between conflict type, conflict expression intensity and the use of the conflict management approach. Design/methodology/approach The authors test theory-based hypotheses using a field study of new product development teams in an interdisciplin...
Article
Full-text available
Background Healthcare and human services increasingly rely on teams of individuals to deliver services. Implementation of evidence-based practices and other innovations in these settings requires teams to work together to change processes and behaviors. Accordingly, team functioning may be a key determinant of implementation outcomes. This systemat...
Article
Full-text available
Rationale: Psychological safety is the condition by which members of an organization feel safe to voice concerns and take risks. Although psychological safety is an important determinant of team performance, little is known about its role in the intensive care unit (ICU). Objective: To identify the factors associated with psychological safety an...
Article
Mixed-motive negotiations are strategically, socially, and motivationally complex. Theorists argue that multiparty negotiations exacerbate these complexities leading to inefficient outcomes. In contrast, we propose that multiparty negotiators respond to the complexities of their negotiation context by using strategy differently than dyadic negotiat...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of enriched group work design and objective and perceived expertise diversity in interdisciplinary research groups with a focus on two critical group processes: task conflict and idea sharing. Design/methodology/approach Survey data were collected from 148 researchers and their advisors in 2...
Chapter
While technology and market traction are essential to any successful biotechnology organization, the importance of the team cannot be overemphasized. Without an effective team, most companies will not achieve their potential, or will fail. This chapter covers the topic of building and growing diverse, collaborative, interdisciplinary teams that ide...
Article
Often, the senders and receivers of scientific communication have different knowledge bases. While such communication is essential for solving the complex social and technological problems that affect multiple stakeholders, a diversity of knowledge among communicators can create representational gaps (rGaps). rGaps occur when senders make assumptio...
Article
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This study compares negotiation strategy and outcomes in countries illustrating dignity, face, and honor cultures. Hypotheses predict cultural differences in negotiators' aspirations, use of strategy, and outcomes based on the implications of differences in self-worth and social structures in dignity, face, and honor cultures. Data were from a face...
Chapter
The basic principle outlined in this chapter is that intra-team conflict can be managed using collaboration. Intra-team conflict occurs when team members hold discrepant views or have interpersonal incompatibilities. There has been a debate in organizational research regarding whether agreement or disagreement within teams is advantageous for overa...
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Conflicts in the workplace have been characterized by their type (task, process, relationship), but little attention has been paid to how conflicts are expressed. We present a conceptual framework of conflict expression and argue that understanding how conflicts are expressed can help us gain new insights about the effects of conflict. We propose t...
Article
Conflict research has shown that managing relationship conflict via avoidance is beneficial for team performance, but it is unclear whether avoidant conflict management benefits individuals on an affective level. Drawing on theories of gender roles, we proposed that gender is an important factor that influences whether avoidant conflict management...
Article
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We examine the effect of friendship in triads on retaliatory responses to unfair outcomes that originate from a group member. Drawing on Simmel's classic discussion of relationships in social triads versus dyads, we hypothesized that the effect of unfairness on retaliation between friends is stronger when the third party in the triad is a mutual fr...
Article
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Scholars have assumed that the presence of negative emotions during task conflict implies the absence of positive emotions. However, emotions researchers have shown that positive and negative emotions are not 2 ends of a bipolar continuum; rather, they represent 2 separate, orthogonal dimensions. Drawing on affective events theory, we develop and t...
Article
While technology and market traction are essential to any successful biotechnology organization, the importance of the team cannot be overemphasized. Without an effective team, most companies will not achieve their potential, or will fail. The entrepreneurial leadership team needs to have an understanding that building and sustaining an entrepreneu...
Chapter
The conflict literature has been greatly influenced by the work published by Jehn 15 years ago that introduced a task-relationship-process conflict taxonomy of intra-group conflict. However, recent work suggests limitations of this conceptualization and its accompanying measures of conflict. In this chapter, we identify five areas crucial to improv...
Article
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This study investigates cycles of planning, enacting, and reviewing activities over time in teams engaged in creative projects. Drawing on longitudinal case studies of two interactive media development teams, two distinct cycles of planning, enacting, and reviewing activities are identified: experimentation cycles and validation cycles. Experimenta...
Article
While there has been a large body of negotiation literature in both Behavioral Science (behavioral) and Artificial Intelligence/Game Theory (computational) communities, there has not been an attempt to bridge the two communities to our best knowledge. In this paper, we com-pare and contrast the characteristics of behavioral and computational litera...
Article
This article focuses on the essentials of building effective, collaborative, team-based organizations. The entrepreneurs and innovators who found and build technology-based organizations comprise out target audience, but most specifically we address the biotechnology and biomedical field. Two perspectives are provided in the article: 1) advice base...
Chapter
Purpose – This chapter examines how we study group dynamics in the organizational behavior literature, in terms of the past, present, and future potential. The goal is to aid researchers in considering studying group processes in their own work. Methodology/approach – Examples are given of different approaches used to elucidate how group dynamics c...
Article
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We sought to develop a reliable and valid tool for measuring teamwork among emergency medical technician (EMT) partnerships. We adapted existing scales and developed new items to measure components of teamwork. After recruiting a convenience sample of 39 agencies, we tested a 122-item draft survey tool (EMT-TEAMWORK). We performed a series of explo...
Article
Negotiators' communication can be analyzed at several levels: the frequency with which strategies are used, how negotiators sequence strategies, and how strategies evolve over time. Each level of analysis provides us with different kinds of information about the negotiation process. An important difference between these approaches is that analyses...
Article
We examine the effects of subjectively experienced (as opposed to objectively prescribed) subgroups in a team. We propose two mechanisms that might explain the consequences of subgroup perceptions in teams: Affective integration (the degree to which teammates think they have quality interpersonal relationships) and cognitive integration (CI) (the d...
Article
Researchers long have assumed that negotiators give priority to economic outcomes over relational outcomes such as satisfaction with negotiation process and desire for future interactions with the counterpart. However the relational structure of a negotiation may be more or less attended to depending on the importance of relationships within a cult...
Article
Past research has shown that situations involving conflict arouse greater anxiety and discomfort in women than men, and that women are more likely to avoid conflict. In this research we examine how conflict avoidance affects emotional exhaustion. Specifically we asked, does avoiding conflict reduce emotional exhaustion or does avoiding have additio...
Article
We know that groups are dynamic entities, and yet we rarely study them as such. Previously hamstrung by limited theory, a decade of advances in understanding the fundamental nature of groups and change promised a revolution in group research. Our goal here is to review those theoretical developments and then examine their impact on our empirical un...
Article
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A key component of negotiation dynamics is the search for mutually beneficial agreements, and offer exchange is a key element of that process. Rooted in the tradition of information processing psychology, we develop a theoretical model that conceives of negotiation as the collaborative search of a complex offer space. Negotiators simplify and coord...
Article
When involved in disputes, people's stereotypes about one another and the situation can influence their attributions of motives and effectiveness at resolving the dispute. Stereotypes may be of particular concern when disputing parties have little knowledge about the individual across the table. In this study, we examined how respondents from diffe...
Article
Although interdisciplinary research attracts more and more interest and effort, the benefits of this type of research are not always realized. To understand when expertise diversity will have positive or negative effects on research efforts, we examine how expertise diversity and diversity salience affect task conflict and idea sharing in interdisc...
Chapter
Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to introduce new methods to behavioral research on group negotiation. Design/methodology/approach – We describe three techniques from the field of Machine Learning and discuss their possible application to modeling dynamic processes in group negotiation: Markov Models, Hidden Markov Models, and Inverse Reinf...
Article
Although research on team cognition has focused mostly on sharedness and its benefits, differences in team member cognition (i.e., representational gaps) may not always have negative effects. In this article, we develop theory and test the positive and negative effects of representational gaps (rGaps) among team members in cross-functional product...
Article
Fifteen years ago, Jehn’s (1995; 1997) investigations of conflict types (task, relationship and process conflict) attempted to resolve the paradox of intra-group conflict by examining the distinct effects of each conflict type. Although this work has greatly enhanced the field’s understanding of the role of conflict in groups, the body of subsequen...
Article
The Designing a Business Summit is a cross-disciplinary event held in 2009 that brought together experts in Healthcare, robotics technology and business development. Together attendees developed market opportunities and co-discovered feasible robotic applications for disruptive innovation in the healthcare field. The Summit was a collaborative, han...
Article
The focus on entrepreneurship in business schools has never been stronger; however, preparing students for a career in developing new business innovations and ventures is challenging, and no shared set of "best practices" exist. Our purpose here is to describe efforts at developing a curriculum for entrepreneurship and to consider the role of acade...
Article
Prior research on emotion and team conflict has primarily focused on the experience of negative emotions, especially as they pertain to relationship conflict. We extend prior conceptualizations by considering both the valence of emotion (positive versus negative) and the activation level (passive versus active) across three types of conflict. We re...
Article
It has been shown that concession timing can influence a negotiator's satisfaction with and judgment of the negotiation partner, the quality of the object, and the agreed upon price (Kwon & Weingart, 2004). Study 1 tested whether the concession timing effect holds when a negotiator believes the other party is cooperatively oriented. The results sug...
Article
Failures in cross-functional product development teams are often attributed to a team's inability to capitalize on their diversity. In this study we develop and test a model of representational gaps (Cronin & Weingart, 2007a; Weingart et al., 2005) to determine factors that influence creativity in cross-functional product development teams.
Chapter
IntroductionA Contingency Perspective of Group ConflictConclusions and Avenues for Future ResearchAcknowledgementsReferences
Article
Negotiation is a dynamic process in which negotiators change their strategies in response to each other. We believe mutual adaptation is best conceptualized as an emergent process and is a critical determinant of negotiators’ abilities to identify mutually beneficial solutions. We argue that three factors drive the process of negotiation and influe...
Article
Negotiators' social motives (cooperative vs. individualistic) influence their strategic behaviors. In this study, the authors used multilevel modeling and analyses of strategy sequences to test hypotheses regarding how negotiators' social motives and the composition of the group influence group members' negotiation strategies. Four-person groups ne...
Article
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The authors examined the function of offers in U.S. and Japanese integrative negotiations. They proposed that early 1st offers begin information sharing and generate joint gains in Japan but have an anchoring effect that hinders joint gains in the United States. The data from the negotiation transcripts of 20 U.S. and 20 Japanese dyads supported 2...
Article
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Functional diversity in teams, while potentially beneficial, increases the likelihood that individual team members will perceive the team's task differently, leading to gaps between teammates' interpretations of what is needed for the team to be successful. These representational gaps are likely to create conflict as teammates try to solve what are...
Article
This study tested concurrent influences of personal efficacy, assigned goals, and performance norms on individual performance, mediated by personal goals and task-specific self-efficacy. Seventy-seven undergraduate students performed a verbal task in this laboratory experiment that manipulated assigned goal level (low, high) and information about t...
Article
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Educational and national diversity are proposed to influence work teams' information use differently, with educational diversity mainly enhancing information use and national diversity invoking social categorization, thus hindering information use. As expected, increasing educational diversity positively influenced the range and depth of informatio...
Article
Markov chain analysis provides a way to investigate how the communication processes in dyadic negotiations are affected by features of the negotiating context and how, in turn, differences in communication processes among dyads affect the quality of the final settlement. In Markov models, the communication process is represented as a sequence of tr...
Article
Social motives influence negotiators actions and reactions. In this study we proposed that social motives moderate the relationship between persistence in the use of integrative or distributive negotiation strategy and individual outcomes in 33 four-person mixed-motive negotiations. Cooperative negotiators who persisted in using integrative strateg...
Article
This study examines the effect trust and respect has on the strategies used to negotiate, as well as the outcomes of that negotiation for dyads engaged in a complex bargaining task. Trust is the degree to which people believe in the honesty and benevolence of their opponents, while respect is the degree to which people hold their opponents in high...
Article
We develop and test a theoretical framework for understanding how cognitive and affective processes (cognitive and affective integration) influence the way in which disagreements (task and process) among group members affect their performance (individual and group level performance). We use this framework to explain how and why diversity may be eit...
Article
This paper examined the effects of personality traits on individuals' reactions to broken promises. We studied the effects of Neuroticism and Agreeableness on emotive and cognitive responses to breach and investigated whether these effects varied across different types (economic vs. social) and severity (high vs. low) of breach. We collected data f...
Article
This article examines the effects of the other party's concession behavior on a negotiator's satisfaction and judgments. The timing of the concessions (immediate, gradual, delayed) and the justifications provided by the other party (negotiator skill vs. external constraints) were manipulated using a scenario method (Study 1) and a role-playing expe...
Article
Understanding how dyadic negotiations and group decision processes evolve over time requires specifying the basic elements of process, modeling the configuration of those elements over time, and providing a theoretical explanation for that configuration. We propose a bead metaphor for conceptualizing the basic elements of the group negotiation proc...
Article
The examination of negotiation processes is seen by many researchers as an insurmountable task largely because the required methods are unfamiliar and labor-intensive. In this article, we shed light on a fundamental step in studying negotiation processes, the quantitative coding of data. Relying on videotapes as the primary source of data, we revie...
Article
This research proposes and evaluates hypotheses about patterns of communication in a multi-party, multi-issue negotiation. Data were from 36 four-person groups. We found that the majority of groups initiated negotiations with a distributive phase and ended with an integrative phase—strong support for Morley and Stephenson's (1979) rational model of...
Article
This study provides a meta-analysis of research on the associations between relationship conflict, task conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction. Consistent with past theorizing, results revealed strong and negative correlations between relationship conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction. In contrast to what has be...
Article
Negotiation is a process through which two or more parties who disagree or are in conflict seek to reach agreement. In this article, we argue that the process of resolving such conflicts is an adaptive one, in which the actions taken by negotiators play a critical role. To fully understand how negotiators obtain mutually beneficial solutions, it is...
Article
This study provides a meta-analysis of research on the associations between relationship conflict, task conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction. Consistent with past theorizing, results reveal strong and negative correlations between relationship conflict and team performance, and team member satisfaction. In contrast to what has b...
Article
Individualistically-oriented negotiators do worse than cooperatively-oriented negotiators, even when they are engaging in similar behaviors. This paper proposes and test hypotheses about negotiators' motivations and their behaviors in a repeated measures design. Individualistic negotiators appear to be neither selfish nor strategic: they do not con...
Conference Paper
A model of strategic planning for product development is introduced which captures corporate decision making from the earliest planning stages to final product success, measured by cost-control and revenue generation stemming from a strong emotional response in customers. The model was created based on observation and interviews ranging from top ex...
Conference Paper
An in-depth study identifying perceptual gaps between diverse disciplines within a product development process is presented. The gaps have profound impact on the design process, identifying differing goals and leading to unhealthy conflict in the process.
Article
Increasing competition resulting from the global and technological nature of markets has heightened the need for businesses to rely on cross-functional new product teams to produce innovations in a timely manner; yet functionally diverse teams' inevitable disagreements often appear to prevent this. In a study of 43 such teams, we found that the eff...
Article
What makes negotiators satisfied with their outcomes? In this study, we examined whether interpersonal interdependence, in the context of multi-party multi-issue negotiation, affected negotiators' satisfaction with their individual and group outcomes. We integrated principles from interdependence, social comparison, and social value theories to gen...
Article
Negotiation between two individuals is a common task that typically involves two goals: maximize individual outcomes and obtain an agreement. However, research on the simplest negotiation tasks demonstrates that although naive subjects can be induced to improve their performance, they are often no more likely to achieve fully optimal solutions. The...
Article
A meta-analysis of 28 studies examined support for the Theory of Cooperation and Competition (M. Deutsch, 1973) and Dual Concern Theory (D. G. Pruitt & J. Z. Rubin, 1986). Effects of social motive (prosocial vs. egoistic) and resistance to yielding (high vs. low vs. unknown) on contenting, problem solving, and joint outcomes were examined. Consiste...
Article
Full-text available
The impact of tactical knowledge on integrative and distributive response-in-kind behavior sequences and the ability to shift from distributive to integrative behaviors were examined using data from a prior study. Ninety dyads engaged in a multi-issue joint venture negotiation. Forty-five dyads were provided tactical knowledge and the other 45 were...
Data
Full-text available
The impact of tactical knowledge on negotiator behaviors and joint outcomes was examined. It was hypothesized that the availability of written descriptions of negotiation tactics would provide negotiators with the knowledge necessary to apply in a mixed-motive negotiation and that, as a result, these negotiators would engage in different behaviors...
Article
Full-text available
The impact of tactical knowledge on negotiator behaviors and joint outcomes was examined. It was hypothesized that the availability of written descriptions of negotiation tactics would provide negotiators with the knowledge necessary to apply in a mixed-motive negotiation and that, as a result, these negotiators would engage in different behaviors...
Article
The impact of tactical knowledge on negotiator behaviors and joint outcomes was examined. It was hypothesized that the availability of written descriptions of negotiation tactics would provide negotiators with the knowledge necessary to apply in a mixed-motive negotiation and that, as a result, these negotiators would engage in different behaviors...
Article
The reported research examined the usefulness of placing risk propensity and risk perception in a more central role in models of risky decision making than has been done previously, Specifically, this article reports on two studies that examined a model in which risk propensity and risk perception mediate the effects of problem framing and outcome...
Article
Discusses the social and psychological processes and behavioral responses believed to produce the group goal effect. Actions that managers can take to facilitate the effect are also described. A model of group goals and group performance is presented that focuses on goal commitment (GCM). The determinants of GCM and variation in GCM across group me...
Article
Tested, in 2 studies, the effects of motivational orientation (cooperative vs individualistic) and issue consideration (simultaneous vs sequential) on the negotiation process and outcome quality attained by 4-person groups engaged in a multi-issue negotiation. Study 1 ( n = 84) showed that both a cooperative orientation and simultaneous issue consi...