Laurent Salomon

Laurent Salomon
University of Burgundy | UB · Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne (ICB)

PhD

About

67
Publications
3,144
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1,138
Citations
Introduction
Electromagnetism/ plasmonics NearFieldOptics
Additional affiliations
January 2003 - present
Queen's University Belfast
January 2001 - present

Publications

Publications (67)
Article
Introduction Principle of the measurement using a local probe Measurement of the electromagnetic field distribution inside nanophotonic components Active optical near-field microscopy Conclusion Acknowledgements Bibliography
Article
Full-text available
With the aim of studying electromagnetic surface wave resonance, we rigorously solve the homogeneous and inhomogeneous problem associated with an optically excited thin metallic film. We then demonstrate unambiguously that the excited eigenmode engendering plasmonic resonance in the so-called Kretschmann–Raether configuration is an unguided mode (i...
Article
Full-text available
The optical response of subwavelength silver nanowires arranged periodically on silica has been analyzed numerically by the differential method improved by the S matrix algorithm. Our results improve the capacity of this rigorous method to give a description of various phenomena occurring in near and far field around the periodic grating. This rend...
Article
Full-text available
Metal-dielectric transitions are important structures that can display a host of optical characteristics including excitation of plasmons. Metal-dielectric discontinuities can furthermore support plasmon excitation without a severe condition on the incident angle of the exciting photons. Using a semi-infinite thin gold film, we study surface plasmo...
Article
We report here the scanning near-field optical microscopy observations of photo-excited cavity optical modes. The investigated cavities consist of two-dimensional hexagonal photonic-crystal cavities etched in a III-V semiconductor slab. Under optical pumping, the spontaneous emission of the quantum wells embedded in the photonic-crystal cavities is...
Article
Full-text available
The fundamentals of the near-field interaction between a subwavelength tip and a photonic-crystal nanocavity are investigated experimentally and theoretically. It is shown experimentally that the cavity resonance is tuned without any degradation by the presence of the tip and that the reported near-field interaction is strongly related to the field...
Article
We report here the direct observation of two-dimensional (2D) Bloch wave interferences in a negative index photonic crystal by using optical near-field microscopy techniques. The photonic crystal is formed by a defectless honeycomb lattice of air holes etched in III-V semiconductor slab. A scanning near-field optical microscope is used to visualize...
Article
Full-text available
Scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) integrates standard optical methods with scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques allowing to collect optical information with resolution well beyond the diffraction limit. We study the influence on image formation of several parameters in scanning near-field microscopy. The numerical calculations hav...
Conference Paper
Summary form only given. The use of surface plasmons (SP) is recognized as being central to the development of nanoscale assemblies of photonic and opto-electronic devices. This is motivated by the spatially confined nature of these electromagnetic waves as well as their resonant behavior. Amongst plasmonic supporting structures, surface plasmonic...
Article
Since more than one decade, a new generation of microscopes was developed. It is about near field microscopes. Among these devices, we are interested in the PSTM (Photon Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy). Images obtained by this instrument do not reflect, with a better resolution, the topography of the studied samples. In order to improve the perform...
Article
The strong electromagnetic coupling between surface plasmon polariton modes on opposite interfaces of a finite thickness periodically nanostructured metal film has been studied. Surface polariton dispersion and associated electromagnetic field distributions have been analyzed. It was shown that at a frequency that corresponds to the crossing of fil...
Article
Numerical simulations of two-dimensional probe–object system emulating a photon scanning tunnelling microscope are presented. R-matrix propagation algorithm incorporated into the differential method was used to achieve an extended capability to rigorously model a realistic system consisting of both a probe and a sample. Influence of the probe tip p...
Article
Full-text available
The Bloch mode spectrum of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on a finite thickness metal film has been analyzed in the regimes of weak and strong coupling between SPP modes on the opposite film interfaces. The SPP mode dispersion and associated field distributions have been studied. The results have been applied to the description of the light tran...
Article
Numerical simulation of a two-dimensional probe–object system for photon scanning tunneling microscope is presented. The R-matrix propagation algorithm incorporated into the Fourier modal method was used to achieve an extended capability for modeling of a realistic system consisting of both a probe and a sample. The type of the mode guided through...
Article
This paper is devoted to study the near-field spectrometry in the infrared spectral range. To understand the behavior of the infrared light diffracted by an object, numerical calculations have been carried out with Fourier Modale (FM) method within R-matrix algorithm. We consider the case of three-dimensional system including a translational symmet...
Article
The R-matrix propagation algorithm is incorporated into the differential method to achieve an extended capability for modelling a photolithography systems. We show throughout this work the ability of the R-matrix algorithm and differential method to analyse gratings of arbitrary depth, profile, and conductivity without encountering numerical instab...
Article
Full-text available
Optical transmission through a continuous (without holes) metal film with a periodic structure of metal or dielectric ridges on one or both interfaces was numerically studied. The dependencies of the transmission on the ridge width and height as well as the ridge arrangements on the opposite interfaces were investigated in weak- and strong-coupling...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Surface plasmon polariton behaviour on periodically nanostructured metal surfaces and thin films is discussed. Such metallic nanostructures act as polaritonic crystals for surface polaritons, in analogy to photonic crystals for light waves. In this paper surface polariton Bloch mode spectrum on the structured surfaces and films is overviewed and ma...
Article
The spectral widths and the quality factors of defect modes localized for different defects structures formed in a 2D photonic crystal composed of a square lattice of circular rods of indium antimonide (InSb) are theoretically investigated. It is first shown that some factors such as the lattice nature, the line defect orientation, the nature and t...
Article
The physical origin of the enhanced optical transmission of periodically structured films related to surface plasmon polaritons is discussed from first principles. The enhancement of transmission through smooth, randomly rough and periodically nanostructured films is considered. Analysis shows that any metal (or dielectric) nanostructured film can...
Article
We have studied polyacene within the Hubbard model to explore the effect of electrons correlations on the bond–bond correlation as well as spin–spin correlation functions. We employ the determinantal quantum Monte-Carlo to resolve the microscopic Hamiltonian of this system which involves a nearest-neighbor electron hopping matrix element t, an on-s...
Article
Using the transfer-matrix-method, we have studied the propagation of electromagnetic waves through two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) dispersive photonic band gap (PBG) structures constructed from copper halides materials, especially from CuCl compounds. A special attention has been paid to the effect of the polariton gap on the PBG pr...
Article
The effect of electron-electron (e-e) interaction on trans-polyacetylene (t-PA) properties is investigated within the framework of an extended Hubbard model in one dimension. For numerical calculation, we use the determinantal version of quantum Monte Carlo approach, which provides a breakthrough to simulate statistical fluctuations in the systems...
Article
Nous présentons une étude expérimentale en champ proche optique d'un cristal photonique 2D inscrit dans une membrane suspendue photoluminescente émettant à 1.5 $\mu$m. Les images obtenues mettent en évidence le guidage de la PL par la membrane, l'effet de bande interdite photonique ainsi que l'inhibition de l'émission de PL à l'intérieur du cristal...
Article
We present results of a quantum Monte Carlo simulation of the one-dimensional half-filled Hubbard model to study different correlation functions in the trans-polyacetylene (t-PA) polymer. Magnetic structure of the model in t-PA is studied for a different range values of the Hubbard repulsion interactions, U and V, where U < 4t, U &AP; 4t and U > 4t...
Article
A one dimensional photonic lattice was studied under the consideration of photonic band gap, filling fraction and the competition of different transmission mechanism of the incoming electromagnetic waves. The lattice was constructed from a material possessing high value of dielectric constant and special attention was paid to the localized state in...
Article
Nonresonant excitation of surface plasmon polaritons at discontinuities of a gold film is numerically studied and experimentally observed with scanning near-field optical microscopy. It is shown that surface polaritons can be effectively launched at the edges of a metal film illuminated at an angle of incidence greater than the resonant angle of su...
Article
Full-text available
We report a study of the optical near field of an active integrated component operating near the 1.55-mum telecommunications wavelength. The device is based on a two-dimensional photonic crystal etched in a suspended InP membrane. Topographic as well as optical information is collected by use of a scanning near-field optical microscope in collectio...
Article
Quantum Monte Carlo simulation on one-dimensional Hubbard model is developed to study the effect of electron–electron interaction on trans-polyacetylene (t-PA) properties. The numerical calculation is based on the evaluation of the trace of the partition function using a special version of the so-called determinantal method. We use the Blakenbecler...
Article
The one-dimensional alternating Peierls–Hubbard model is especially interesting as nontrivial model for conjugated polymer chains, such as polyacetylene. We study this model for chains of 64 sites using the determinantal method based on Hubbard–Stratonovich transformation. We obtain the first electronic energies and their mean fluctuations at half-...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The spectral dependencies and near-field distribution of light transmitted through a metal film with periodic holes are discussed. The hole array results in the excitation of surface polaritons and acts as a polaritonic crystal leading to the enhanced transmission at the wavelengths corresponding to the surface polariton Block waves.
Article
Optical transmission of a two-dimensional array of subwavelength holes in a metal film has been numerically studied using a differential method. Transmission spectra have been calculated showing a significant increase of the transmission in certain spectral ranges corresponding to the excitation of the surface polariton Bloch waves on a metal surfa...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a complete study, theoretical as well as experimental, of an electromagnetic field scattered by subwavelength metallic pads, allocated in a periodic manner on a silica substrate. The simulation of the far field and near field is obtained with the differential method. When the sample is illuminated in total internal reflection, t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The reliability of the network optical fibers is a critical issue for telecommunications.New investigations methods have been developed within a cooperative program supported by France Telecom. They include low coherence interferometry and optical near field microscopy in association with classical analysis tools such as Scanning Electron Microscop...
Article
Usin the transfer matrix method we have studied the optical properties related to the photonic band gap (PBG) concept of the III-nitride family particularly InN and AlN. We have shown that these materials present, for a particular lattice constant and for the same structure, PBGs in all near infrared, optical and ultaviolet regions. In order to giv...
Article
The photon scanning tunneling microscope (PSTM) is based on the frustration of total internal reflection by the apex of an optical fiber placed near the surface of reflection. It has so far been used to obtain topographic information. This article shows that it also allows one to reach local variations of the refractive index of the sample. The PST...
Article
The aim of this representation is to show that by using near field optical microscopes it is possible to obtain results about the optical cladding surface of optical fibers. We used two near field microscopes: a Shear-Force Microscope and the Photon Scanning Tunneling Microscope. We will discuss the effect of the aging and of the process of strippi...
Article
Full-text available
We have investigated, both theoretically and experimentally, the intensity of p-polarized light diffracted by a metallized diffraction grating when surface plasmons are excited and when they are not. Experiments were made on modulated silver surfaces, and light in the near and far fields was detected by a sharpened optical fiber. Good agreement bet...
Article
Using the transfer matrix method we have studied the effect of the temperature on the appearance, the width, and the location of the photonic band gap (PBG) for the air cylinders embedded in a slab of vinyl chloride polymer. For two different lattice parameters we have found that the behaviour of this polymer with respect to the temperature in the...
Article
In the race towards purely optical communications, the necessity of producing integrated components is linked to the requirement for the precise characteriza-tion of optoelectronic components. Near-field detection techniques meet this requirement, AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy), for instance, can provide the topography of a given sample. In conjunct...
Article
In the past, several groups presented images with the PSTM, different kinds of optical fibers being used as a probe. This paper presents a comparison of the intensity collected by single mode and multimode fibers in the near field of a sample lit in total internal reflection (TIR). The sample used is a grating covered with 65 nm of silver and is il...
Article
The photon scanning tunneling microscope (PSTM) is based on the frustration of a total internal reflected beam by the end of an optical fiber. Until now it has been used to obtain topographic information, generally for smooth samples. We report theoretical as well as experimental results on the observation of a step on a quartz substrate with the P...
Chapter
The observation of samples with optical technics reveals the effect of the degree of coherence of the light source. As reported by Goodmann, an edge appears as surrounded by some oscillations if the source is highly coherent [1]. The shape of the image of the edge is linked to the diffraction pattern and depends on the coherence of the source [2]
Article
We use an eigenmode method to compute the near field diffracted by one-dimensional dielectric gratings. We present a set of easily programmable recurrence relations that give the diffracted field from the incident one. The numerical results are compared with the experimental images obtained with the Photon Scanning Tunneling Microscope (PSTM).
Article
Full-text available
We use the differential formalism of the electromagnetic theory of gratings to interpret the images of test sinusoidal or lamellar quartz gratings obtained with a photon scanning tunneling microscope. The period of the grating is 0.5 μm, and the height of the rule is 0.2 μm. It is shown that the images depend strongly on several parameters, such as...
Article
Full-text available
For the first time, a photon scanning tunneling microscope (PSTM) was applied to measure the effect of the coherence of a light source. It was demonstrated that the resolution of PSTM can be enhanced by means of a source of smaller coherence length. This was because unwanted interference patterns that rendered undesirable structures on the images w...
Article
A new kind of photon scanning tunneling microscope which reduces the asymmetrical effects due to the illumination is described. The evanescent electromagnetic field is produces through a conventional dark field optical microscope condensor with a white incoherent light source. Images of quartz crossed grating are presented and compared to the spati...
Article
A photon scanning tunneling microscope (PSTM) using an incoherent polychromatic light source has been constructed and used to image submicronic structure in a constant intensity mode. The experimental values of the penetration depth of the incident electromagnetic field of the system are in good agreement with the theoretical values obtained with a...
Article
First images obtained in the near infrared spectrum with a photon scanning tunneling microscope are presented. The intensity of the light collected by the fibertip, at lambda = 1.3 lambdam, which is a function of the separation between the tip and the sample surface is in agreement with that predicted by the theory. Images of quartz and silicon oxi...
Article
Full-text available
A photon scanning tunneling microscope is employed to probe the surface-plasmon field in the evanescent region of a silver film for p (parallel to the plane of incidence) and s (perpendicular to the plane of incidence) polarizations of the light beam at several angles of incidence near the critical angle. The interaction between the field and the p...
Chapter
The Photon Scanning Tunneling Microscope (PSTM) is based on the frustration of the total internal reflected beam by the end of an optical fiber. Till today it has been used to obtain topographic information generally for smooth samples. In this paper we report two different kinds of experimental results. First, when the sample is in the form of a s...
Article
The possibilities offered by new microscopies: Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM), Photonic Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (PSTM), Reflection Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (RSM) in topographic and spectroscopic studies of surfaces are reviewed. Problems related to images interpretation are discussed in connection with the presented results.
Article
The photon scanning tunneling microscope (PSTM) is the photon analogue of the electron scanning tunneling microscope (ESTM). It uses the evanescent field due to total internal reflection (TIR) of a light beam in a prism modulated by a sample placed on the base of the prism.Our experimental results shown details which present a lateral size as small...
Article
We present a theory of the frustration of the field by the fiber optic probe of the photon scanning tunneling microscope and compare theoretical and experimental images obtained on lamellar or crossed gratings fabricated on insulating substrates. The calculations take into account the polarization of the light incident on the prism and the directio...
Article
The recently developed photon scanning tunneling microscope (PSTM) belongs to the family of near field microscopes based on the analysis of the field emitted in the vicinity of the sample. Its remarkable property is, in terms of resolution, to get beyond the limit imposed by classical diffraction. The analysis is carried out by means of a sharpened...
Article
The photon-scanning tunneling microscope is the photon analog to the electron-scanning tunneling microscope. It uses the evanescent field due to the total internal reflection of a light beam in a prism, modulated by a sample attached to the prism. The exponential decay of the evanescent field is characterized by the penetration depth dp and depends...
Article
The purpose of this paper is to use a well established electromagnetic theory of gratings to analyze the effects of total internal reflection beam geometry, sample modulation, and tip position upon the signal received by the probe tip of a photon scanning tunneling microscope as it scans a particular sample.
Article
The Photon Scanning Tunneling Microscope (PSTM) is the photon analogue of the electron Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM). It uses the evanescent field due to the total internal reflection of a light beam in a Total Internal Reflection (TIR) prism. The sample, mounted on the base of the prism, modulates the evanescent field. A sharpened optical fi...
Chapter
The Photon Scanning Tunneling Microscope (PSTM) is the photon analogue to the Electron Scanning Tunneling Microscope (ESTM). It uses the evanescent field due to the total internal reflection (TIR) of a light beam in a prism modulated by a sample attached to the prism. The exponential decay of the evanescent field is characterized by the penetration...
Article
We present a new form of optical microscope. An evanescent field is produced in the lower index medium of an ATR system and modulated by a sample deposited on the hypotenuse of the prism. A sharpened fiber optic probes this field and gives information about the topography of the surface.
Article
Full-text available
Using an analytical approach we develop an accurate and efficient way for the computation of the field distribution and its penetration length insight one (1D) and two dimensional (2D) photonic crystals. By taking as an input data and , particularly for the 2D structure, the transmission and reflection coefficients calculated by means of the transf...

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